Brasilia Presidential Act

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Brasilia Presidential Act
Signed26 October 1998
LocationBrasilia
SignatoriesEcuador and Peru (Also Argentina, Brazil, Chile, United States of America as witnesses)
LanguageSpanish

The Brasilia Presidential Act is an international treaty signed by the then President of Ecuador, Jamil Mahuad and President of Peru, Alberto Fujimori which effectively put an end to the Western Hemisphere's longest running territorial dispute.

After the war of the 41, both countries (with the mediation of the USA, Argentina, Chile and Brazil) signed in Rio de Janeiro the treaty that settled the boundary line between Peru and Ecuador. During the process of placing the respective milestones, the countries disagreed due to a geographical error in the Cordillera del Cóndor. They decided to go to the arbitration of the Brazilian Braz Dias de Aguiar, with which the works continued.

However, due to the limited knowledge of the region, ambiguous terms such as divortium aquarum or nascent river X were used, discrepancies reappeared and in 1948, when only 78 kilometers were missing by demarcation, Ecuador suspended the placement of the landmarks and 1960, declares the Protocol unenforceable and void.

During the 20th Century Peru and Ecuador had fought several armed conflicts (1858, 1941, 1981) as part of the Ecuadorian–Peruvian territorial dispute. The last of these conflicts was the Cenepa War in 1995.[1]

After the end of the conflict, negotiations began, whose representatives were Fernando de Trazegnies Granda for Peru and Édgar Terán for Ecuador. After a year and a half of intense talks, and after a pronouncement of international experts on the border line, the two countries, with the approval of their respective Congresses, agree to submit their differences to the decision of the guarantors of the Rio Protocol. in January 1942. They ratified the validity of the mentioned document, the arbitration award of Dias de Aguiar and other complementary documents.

The peace agreement was followed by the formal demarcation of the border on 13 May 1999 and the end of the multi-national MOMEP (Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru) troop deployment on 17 June 1999.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, General Conflict Information, Conflict name: Ecuador - Peru, In depth, Background to the 1995 fighting and Ecuador and Peru engage in armed conflict, viwed on 2013-07-15, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=126&regionSelect=5-Southern_Americas# Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, General Conflict Information, Conflict name: Ecuador - Peru, In depth, Background to the 1995 fighting and Ecuador and Peru engage in armed conflict, viwed on 2013-07-15, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=126&regionSelect=5-Southern_Americas# Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]