Brassica (//) is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Crops from this genus are sometimes called cole crops—derived from the Latin caulis, denoting the stem or stalk of a plant.
The genus Brassica is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops and also includes a number of weeds, both of wild taxa and escapees from cultivation. Brassica species and varieties commonly used for food include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, choy sum, rutabaga, turnip and some seeds used in the production of canola oil and the condiment mustard. Over 30 wild species and hybrids are in cultivation, plus numerous cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin. Most are seasonal plants (annuals or biennials), but some are small shrubs. Brassica plants have been the subject of much scientific interest for their agricultural importance. Six particular species (B. carinata, B. juncea, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. nigra, and B. rapa) evolved by the combining of chromosomes from three earlier species, as described by the Triangle of U theory.
A dislike for cabbage or broccoli can result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is either bitter or tasteless to people depending on their taste buds.
The flowers, seeds, stalks, and tender leaves of many species of Brassica can be eaten raw or cooked. Almost all parts of some species have been developed for food, including the root (swede, turnip), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage, collard greens, kale), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornament.
Brassica vegetables provide high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, and soluble fiber, and contain glucosinolates which are under preliminary research for their potential biological properties when consumed. Epidemiological studies suggest that brassica vegetables are protective against cancers of the lungs and alimentary tract. Cruciferous vegetables are the dietary source of glucosinolates, a large group of sulfur-containing glucosides. These compounds remain intact unless brought into contact with the enzyme myrosinase by pests, food processing, or chewing. Myrosinase releases glucose and breakdown products, including isothiocyanates. These highly reactive compounds are potent inducers of Phase II enzymes in vitro. Isothiocyanates also inhibit mitosis and stimulate apoptosis in human tumor cells, in vitro and in vivo.
Boiling substantially reduces the levels of broccoli glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels.
There is some disagreement among botanists on the classification and status of Brassica species and subspecies. The following is an abbreviated list, with an emphasis on economically important species.
- Brassica balearica: Mallorca cabbage
- Brassica carinata: Abyssinian mustard or Abyssinian cabbage, used to produce biodiesel
- Brassica elongata: elongated mustard
- Brassica fruticulosa: Mediterranean cabbage
- Brassica hilarionis: St. Hilarion cabbage
- Brassica juncea: Indian mustard, brown and leaf mustards, Sarepta mustard
- Brassica napus: rapeseed, canola, rutabaga
- Brassica narinosa: broadbeaked mustard
- Brassica nigra: black mustard
- Brassica oleracea: kale, cabbage, collard greens, broccoli, cauliflower, kai-lan, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi
- Brassica perviridis: tender green, mustard spinach
- Brassica rapa (syn. B. campestris): Chinese cabbage, turnip, rapini, komatsuna
- Brassica rupestris: brown mustard
- Brassica spinescens:
- Brassica tournefortii: Asian mustard
Species formerly placed in Brassica
- B. alba or B. hirta (white or yellow mustard)—see Sinapis alba
- B. geniculata (hoary mustard)—see Hirschfeldia incana
- B. kaber (wild mustard or charlock)—see Sinapis arvensis
Genome sequencing and genetics
Bayer CropScience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China; Keygene N.V.; the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus) and its constituent genomes present in B. rapa and B. oleracea in 2009. The B. rapa genome was sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project in 2011. This also represents the A genome component of the amphidiploid crop species B. napus and B. juncea.
- "caulis". Wordnik. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Overfield, Theresa (1995). "Phenylthiocarbamide". Biological Variations in Health and Illness: Race, Age, and Sex Differences. CRC Press. pp. 102–3. ISBN 978-0-8493-4577-7.
- Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More than 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 120–122. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6.
- Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Verkerk, Ruud; Widianarko, Budi; Dekker, Matthijs (25 November 2014). "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 55 (6): 823–838. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.688076. PMID 24915330. S2CID 25728864.
- Johnson, Ian. T. (January 2002). "Glucosinolates: Bioavailability and Importance to Health". International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 72 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1024/0300-9818.104.22.168. PMID 11887749.
- "Bayer CropScience first to sequence the entire genome of rapeseed/canola" (Press release). Bayer CropScience. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; et al. (2011). "The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa". Nature Genetics. 43 (10): 1035–9. doi:10.1038/ng.919. PMID 21873998. S2CID 205358099.
- Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 76
- Media related to Brassica at Wikimedia Commons