Brave (2012 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Mark Andrews|
|Produced by||Katherine Sarafian|
|Screenplay by||Mark Andrews|
|Story by||Brenda Chapman|
|Music by||Patrick Doyle|
|Cinematography||Robert Anderson (camera)|
Danielle Feinberg (lighting)
|Edited by||Nicholas C. Smith|
|Distributed by||Walt Disney Studios|
|Box office||$540.4 million|
Brave is a 2012 American computer-animated fantasy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It was directed by Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman and co-directed by Steve Purcell. The story is by Chapman, with the screenplay by Andrews, Purcell, Chapman and Irene Mecchi. The film was produced by Katherine Sarafian, with John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, and Pete Docter as executive producers. The film's voice cast features Kelly Macdonald, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, Julie Walters, Robbie Coltrane, Kevin McKidd, and Craig Ferguson. Set in the Scottish Highlands, the film tells the story of a princess named Merida who defies an age-old custom, causing chaos in the kingdom by expressing the desire not to be betrothed. When her mother falls victim to a beastly curse, Merida must look within herself and find the key to saving the kingdom. Merida is the first Disney Princess created by Pixar. The film is also dedicated to Steve Jobs, who died before the film's release.
Chapman drew inspiration for the film's story from her relationship with her own daughter. Co-directing with Mark Andrews, Chapman became Pixar's first female director of a feature-length film. To create the most complex visuals possible, Pixar completely rewrote their animation system for the first time in 25 years. Brave is the first film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format.
Brave premiered on June 10, 2012, at the Seattle International Film Festival, and was released in North America on June 22, 2012, to both positive reviews and box office success. The film won the Academy Award, the Golden Globe, and the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Feature Film. Preceding the feature theatrically was a short film entitled La Luna, directed by Enrico Casarosa.
In Medieval Scotland, Princess Merida of the clan Dunbroch is given a bow and arrow by her father, King Fergus, for her sixth birthday to the slight dismay of her mother, Queen Elinor. While venturing into the woods to fetch a stray arrow, Merida encounters a will-o'-the-wisp. Soon afterward, Mor'du, a huge demon bear, attacks the family. Merida flees on horseback with Elinor while Fergus and his men fend off Mor'du, though the fight costs him one of his legs.
Ten years later, Merida, now a free-spirited and fiery young woman who dislikes her duties and is now big sister to identical triplets—Harris, Hubert, and Hamish—discovers that she is to be betrothed to the son of one of her father's allies. Elinor (who is overbearingly strict with Merida when it comes to her duties as a princess) explains that failure to consent to the betrothal could harm Dunbroch, reminding Merida of a legend of a prince whose pride and refusal to follow his father's wishes destroyed his kingdom.
The allied clan chieftains and their first-born sons arrive to compete in the Highland games for Merida's hand in marriage. Merida twists the rules, announcing that as her own clan's firstborn she is eligible to compete for her own hand. She easily bests her suitors in an archery contest, shaming the other clans, and after a heated argument with Elinor, runs away into the forest. Wisps appear, leading her to the hut of an elderly witch. Merida bargains for a spell to change her fate, and the witch gives her an enchanted cake.
When Merida gives Elinor the cake, it transforms her into a bear, unable to speak but still retaining her human consciousness. Merida returns to the witch's cottage with Elinor, only to find it deserted, and discovers a message from the witch: unless Merida is able to "mend the bond torn by pride" before the second sunrise, the spell will become permanent. Merida once again tries to look for an answer, but ends up destroying the witch’s cottage. She then spends the night with her mother and teaches the queen what she knows about wilderness survival, bonding with her as a result. However, Merida soon discovers that Elinor is slowly losing her human consciousness, turning more and more into a real bear. Merida and Elinor are then led by the wisps to ancient ruins, where they encounter Mor'du. Realizing that Mor'du was the prince in the legend her mother told her, Merida vows that she will not let the same thing happen to her mother. She soon comes to a conclusion that the witch meant for her to re-stitch up her mother’s tapestry (which Merida tore through with her sword after her argument with her mother), and decides to sneak back into the castle so they can find the tapestry and reverse the curse.
They return to the castle to find the clans on the verge of war, who are arguing about who shall have Merida’s hand. Merida intends to relent and declare herself ready to choose a suitor as tradition demands, but Elinor, having a change of heart, prompts her instead to insist that the firstborns should be allowed to marry in their own time to whomever they choose, and live their own lives before they feel ready to settle down. This leads to Merida conducting a beautiful speech which moves the hearts of the clans. The clans agree, breaking tradition but renewing and strengthening their alliance.
Merida sneaks into the tapestry room with Elinor. Elinor, however, begins to slip in and out of her humanity and attacks Fergus, but suddenly regains her composure and flees the castle. Mistaking the queen for Mor'du and unable to listen to Merida, Fergus pursues the bear with the other clans, locking Merida in the castle. Merida escapes with the assistance of her brothers, who have also eaten the enchanted cake and have been transformed into bear cubs. Merida repairs the tapestry and rides out after her father. Fergus and the clans capture Elinor, but Merida intervenes and stops her father before Mor'du arrives. Mor'du batters the clan warriors and targets Merida, but Elinor intercedes, holding off Mor'du and causing him to be crushed by a falling menhir. This releases the spirit of the prince, who silently thanks Merida for freeing him. Merida covers her mother in the repaired tapestry, but she remains a bear. As the sun rises for the second time, Merida realizes the mistakes she has made and reconciles with Elinor, unknowingly fulfilling the actual meaning of the witch's message -- to mend the bond between herself and her mother -- thereby successfully reversing the spell's effects on the four who were transformed into bears.
With Mor'du gone, Merida and Elinor work together on a new tapestry. When they are called to the docks to bid farewell to the other clans, they ride their horses together.
- Kelly Macdonald as Merida, a 16 year old girl who has been forced to be betrothed to strengthen the bond of a kingdom.
- Peigi Barker as Young Merida.
- Emma Thompson as Queen Elinor, Dunbroch's queen and Merida's mother, whose respect for protocol and tradition brings her into conflict with her daughter.
- Billy Connolly as King Fergus, Dunbroch's king and Merida's boisterous father.
- Julie Walters as The Witch, a crafty and bumbling old witch who agrees to help Merida. She is also a master woodcarver.
- Robbie Coltrane as Lord Dingwall.
- Kevin McKidd as Lord MacGuffin and Young MacGuffin, whose lines were spoken in Doric.
- Craig Ferguson as Lord Macintosh.
- Steve Purcell as The Raven/Crow, A talking raven who has his own opinions on his mistress' way of thinking as well as her abilities.
- Patrick Doyle as Martin, the guard.
- John Ratzenberger as Gordon, the guard.
- Sally Kinghorn and Eilidh Fraser as Maudie, the castle maid. She is terribly afraid of bears.
- Steven Cree as Young Macintosh.
- Callum O'Neill as Wee Dingwall.
Announced in April 2008 as The Bear and the Bow, Brave is Pixar's first fairy tale. Writer and director Brenda Chapman considers it a fairy tale in the tradition of Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm. She also drew inspiration from her relationship with her daughter. Chapman conceived the project and was announced as the film's director, making her Pixar's first female director, but in October 2010, she was replaced by Mark Andrews after creative disagreements between her and John Lasseter. Chapman found the news of her replacement "devastating," but later stated that her "vision came through in the film" and that she remained "very proud of the movie, and that I ultimately stood up for myself."Chapman then stated in an interview in 2018 that while she was still bittersweet about being taken off the film and believed that there was no reason to do so creatively, she felt that it "opened more doors for me to have that happen".
Brave is the first Pixar film starring a female protagonist. In that respect, Brave was followed by Inside Out, Finding Dory, and Incredibles 2, all of whom featured female protagonists. In 2010, Reese Witherspoon, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, and Julie Walters joined the cast, with Witherspoon set to voice Merida. According to Andrews, Witherspoon was on the project for "quite some time. She was getting her Scottish accent down, she was working very hard and it was sounding great but as we were continuing with the movie she had other movies lining up, so unfortunately we were unable to continue with her and had to get a replacement." Instead, in 2011 it was revealed that Merida was to be voiced by Scottish actress Kelly Macdonald. In 2017, during a press junket for Illumination's Sing, Witherspoon mentioned that she had to leave the film due to failure to master a Scottish accent.
The score for Brave was composed by Patrick Doyle and performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. The orchestra was conducted by James Shearman. To bring some of Scotland's native flavor to the music, Doyle used traditional Celtic instruments such as bagpipes, a solo fiddle, Celtic harps, flutes and the bodhrán, with an electronically treated dulcimer and cimbalom to give it a more contemporary feel. "I employed many classic Scottish dance rhythms such as reels, jigs, and strathspeys, which not only serve the action but keep it authentic," said Doyle. As part of his research, he spent time in the Hebrides studying "unaccompanied Gaelic psalm singing."
Doyle also composed several songs for the film. The lullaby duet between characters Princess Merida and Queen Elinor entitled "A Mhaighdean Uasal Bhan (Noble Maiden Fair)" appears on three occasions in different variations within the fabric of the score, and uniquely includes Gaelic vocals by Emma Thompson and Peigi Barker, the first Disney film with music featuring the language. The drinking song "Song of Mor'du" (lyrics by Doyle and Steve Purcell) sung by Billy Connolly, Scott Davies, Patrick Doyle, Gordon Neville, Alex Norton and Carey Wilson, features a rich variety of words, sung authentically in Scots, which is distinct from Scottish Gaelic. (Scots being a Germanic language, while Scottish Gaelic is Celtic.)
In addition to Doyle's music, the film features three other original songs; "Learn Me Right" written by Mumford & Sons and performed with Birdy, "Touch the Sky" (music by Alex Mandel, lyrics by Mark Andrews & Mandel) and "Into the Open Air" (music and lyrics by Alex Mandel). Both "Touch the Sky" and "Into the Open Air" were performed by Julie Fowlis, as Merida's off-screen musical thoughts. These two tracks were produced by composer and arranger Jim Sutherland, who is also featured as a performer.
Along with introducing Doyle to a number of specialist Celtic musicians who feature in the score, Sutherland was responsible for discovering the young Gaelic singer Peigi Barker; the voice of Young Merida.
Pixar created three original tartan patterns for the film for three of the four clans – DunBroch, Dingwall, and MacGuffin. (Clan Macintosh wears a red tartan similar to the nonfictional Clan Mackintosh.)
The Walt Disney Company registered the Clan DunBroch tartan with the official Scottish Register of Tartans upon release of the film. The tartan consists of ocean blue for the North Sea, subdued scarlet for bloodshed during the clan wars, deep green for the Scottish Highlands, navy blue for the eventual unity of the four clans, and gray for the Scottish people. In selecting the color scheme, Pixar took historical considerations, stating that "[t]here was a concerted effort to use hues that were indicative of the less saturated dyeing techniques [used] during the ancient period in which the fantasy film is set."
The registration was celebrated at the film's British premiere in Edinburgh, where Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond presented a certificate to director Mark Andrews. However, Member of the Scottish Parliament Alex Johnstone criticized the registration (as well as other fiction-based entries such as one for Peter Rabbit) as "shallow and irreverent." Mr. Johnstone contended that the 2008 legislation that created The Scottish Register of Tartans was intended to prevent such entries and protect Scotland's heritage.
The film was initially set for release on June 15, 2012, but the date was later changed to June 22, 2012. On April 3, 2012, Pixar screened the film's first 30 minutes, which received a positive reaction. The film premiered on the last day of the Seattle International Film Festival on June 10, 2012. It had its Australian premiere on June 11, 2012, at the Sydney Film Festival, its domestic premiere on June 18, 2012, at Hollywood's Dolby Theatre as part of the Los Angeles Film Festival, its European premiere at the Taormina Film Festival in Sicily on June 23, 2012, and its British premiere at the Edinburgh International Film Festival on June 30, 2012, with Kelly Macdonald, Robbie Coltrane, Craig Ferguson, Brian Cox, Kevin McKidd, Ewen Bremner, Kate Dickie, Julie Fowlis, Patrick Doyle, Daniela Nardini and Alex Salmond in attendance.
In the United States and Canada, Brave is the first feature-length film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format. Almost half of the 14 theaters set up to show the film in Atmos are in California (Burbank, Century City, Fremont, Hollywood, San Francisco, and Sherman Oaks), with the others located in seven other states (Lake Buena Vista, Florida; Kansas City, Missouri; Paramus, New Jersey; Las Vegas, Nevada; Chicago; West Plano, Texas; Vancouver, Washington) and Toronto, Ontario. It was released in other theaters with Dolby Surround 7.1. In total, it was released in 4,164 theaters, a record-high for Pixar. The previous record was held by Cars 2 (4,115 theaters). 2,790 of the theaters included 3D shows.
Brave was released on Blu-ray, Blu-ray 3D, DVD, and digital download on November 13, 2012. It includes La Luna and a new short film, The Legend of Mor'du, which explores the history of Mor'du, from The Witch's perspective. The DVD contains audio commentary by director Mark Andrews, co-director/screenwriter Steve Purcell, story supervisor Brian Larsen, and editor Nick Smith. Brave was released on 4K Blu-ray on September 10, 2019.
Brave earned $237.3 million in North America, and $303.2 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $540.4 million. It was the 13th highest-grossing film of 2012, the eighth highest-grossing Pixar film, and the third highest-grossing animated film that year behind Ice Age: Continental Drift ($875.3 million) and Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted ($746.9 million).
In North America, pre-release tracking suggested the film would open between $55 million to $65 million in North America, which is slightly below average for a Pixar film, as trackers initially suggested that as a "princess story", the film might not appeal as much to male audiences.
It opened on June 22, 2012, with $24.6 million and finished its opening weekend with $66.3 million (the same amount as Cars 2, Pixar's previous film), at the upper end of the numbers analysts predicted. This was the seventh largest opening weekend in June, and the sixth largest for a Pixar film. Despite pre-release tracking indications, the audience was estimated to be 43% male and 57% female. In North America, it is the ninth highest-grossing Pixar film, the highest-grossing 2012 animated film, and the eighth highest-grossing film of 2012.
Outside North America, the film earned $14 million from 10 markets on its opening weekend, finishing in third place behind Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted and Snow White and the Huntsman. Overall, its largest openings occurred in France and the Maghreb region ($6.5 million), Mexico ($5.53 million), and Russia and the CIS ($5.37 million). In total earnings, its highest-grossing countries were the U.K., Ireland and Malta ($34.9 million), France and the Maghreb region ($26.8 million), and Mexico ($21.6 million).
Brave received a 78% approval rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on reviews from 247 critics, with an average rating of 6.95/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Brave offers young audiences and fairy tale fans a rousing, funny fantasy adventure with a distaff twist and surprising depth." On Metacritic the film has a weighted average score of 69 out of 100 based on 37 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". American audiences polled by CinemaScore in the opening weekend gave the film an average grade of "A" on a scale from A+ to F.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, in his final review on an animated film, gave the film 3 out of 4 stars. He wrote, "The good news is that the kids will probably love it, and the bad news is that parents will be disappointed if they're hoping for another Pixar groundbreaker. Unlike such brightly original films as Toy Story, Finding Nemo, WALL-E, and Up, this one finds Pixar poaching on traditional territory of Disney." He said that the film did have an uplifting message about improving communication between mothers and daughters, "although transforming your mother into a bear is a rather extreme first step". Peter Debruge of Variety gave a positive review of the film, writing that the film "offers a tougher, more self-reliant heroine for an era in which princes aren't so charming, set in a sumptuously detailed Scottish environment, where her spirit blazes bright as her fiery red hair". Debruge said that "adding a female director, Brenda Chapman, to its creative boys' club, the studio Pixar has fashioned a resonant tribute to mother-daughter relationships that packs a level of poignancy on par with such beloved male-bonding classics as Finding Nemo".
Conversely, Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter gave it a negative review, stating that the film "diminishes into a rather wee thing as it chugs along, with climactic drama that is both too conveniently wrapped up and hinges on magical elements that are somewhat confusing to boot". Leonard Maltin on IndieWire said, "I'll give it points for originality, but that story twist is so bizarre that it knocked me for a loop. The movie tries to make up for this detour with a heart-tugging, emotional finale, but the buildup to that moment has been undermined, so it doesn’t have the impact it should."
Some reviewers saw the Merida character as a novel break from the traditional line of Disney princesses. There were some dissonance and criticism among viewers and organized feminists when her character was scheduled to be "crowned" a Disney princess, only for artists to render her thinner, with less frizzy hair, and rounder eyes, more like the other princesses from previous Disney movies. This inspired girl-empowerment website A Mighty Girl to file a petition that Disney not alter their character. One of the 262,196 signatories was Brenda Chapman, the director of the film, who felt that Disney had "betrayed the essence of what we were trying to do with Merida — give young girls and women a better, stronger role model", and that the makeover was "a blatantly sexist marketing move based on money". The online petition was considered a success, as shortly after it appeared Disney removed the redesigned image from their official website, in favor of Merida's original film appearance. Disney later clarified the situation, assuring that Merida would remain in her original form.
|Academy Awards||Best Animated Feature||Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman||Won|
|Alliance of Women Film Journalists||Best Animated Feature|
|Best Animated Female||Kelly Macdonald (Merida)|
|American Cinema Editors||Best Edited Animated Feature Film||Nicholas C. Smith, A.C.E.|
|Annie Awards||Best Animated Feature||Nominated|
|Animated Effects Feature Production||Bill Watral, Chris Chapman, Dave Hale, Keith Klohn, Michael K. O'Brien|
|Character Animation Feature Production||Dan Nguyen|
|Music in an Animated Feature Production||Patrick Doyle, Mark Andrews, Alex Mandel|
|Production Design in an Animated Feature Production||Steve Pilcher||Won|
|Voice Acting in an Animated Feature Production||Kelly Macdonald as Merida||Nominated|
|Writing in an Animated Feature Production||Brenda Chapman, Irene Mecchi, Mark Andrews and Steve Purcell|
|Editorial in an Animated Feature Production||Nicholas C. Smith, ACE, Robert Graham Jones, ACE, David Suther||Won|
|BAFTA Awards||Best Animated Film|
|Chicago Film Critics Association||Best Animated Feature||Nominated|
|Cinema Audio Society||Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Motion Pictures Animated||Won|
|Critics' Choice Awards||Best Animated Feature||Nominated|
|Best Song||Mumford & Sons and Birdy (for "Learn Me Right")|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Animated Feature Film||Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman||Won|
|Grammy Awards||Best Song Written for Visual Media||Mumford & Sons and Birdy (for "Learn Me Right")||Nominated|
|Houston Film Critics Society||Best Animated Film|
|Best Original Song||"Learn Me Right"|
|"Touch the Sky"|
|International Film Music Critics Association Awards||Best Original Score for an Animated Feature||Patrick Doyle|
|Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Animated Movie|
|Online Film Critics Society||Best Animated Feature|
|Phoenix Film Critics Society||Best Animated Film|
|Producers Guild of America||Animated Theatrical Motion Picture||Katherine Sarafian|
|San Diego Film Critics Society||Best Animated Film|
|Satellite Awards||Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media|
|Original Song||"Learn Me Right" – Mumford & Sons and Birdy|
|Saturn Awards||Best Animated Film||Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman|
|St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association||Best Animated Film|
|Toronto Film Critics Association||Best Animated Feature|
|Visual Effects Society||Outstanding Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Mark Andrews, Brenda Chapman, Steve May, Katherine Sarafian, Bill Wise||Won|
|Outstanding Animated Character in an Animated Feature Motion Picture – Merida||Kelly Macdonald, Travis Hathaway, Olivier Soares, Peter Sumanaseni, Brian Tindall|
|Outstanding Created Environment in an Animated Feature Motion Picture – The Forest||Tim Best, Steve Pilcher, Inigo Quilez, Andy Whittock|
|Outstanding FX and Simulation Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Chris Chapman, Dave Hale, Michael K. O'Brien, Bill Watral|
|Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association||Best Animated Feature||Nominated|
|Women Film Critics Circle||Best Animated Females||Won|
A video game based on the film was published by Disney Interactive Studios on June 19, 2012, for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Wii, PC, and Nintendo DS. A mobile video game, Temple Run: Brave (a Brave variation of Temple Run), was released on June 14, 2012, for iOS and Android, and on June 7, 2013, for Windows Phone.
Scottish publication The Scotsman asked director Mark Andrews about the possibility of a sequel. Andrews said:
I don't know if there will be another one. We never make a film at Pixar to have a sequel. It is always nice when you do and we kind of have a philosophy that if we find the right story then we will. Surely the marketing and success of Brave says that you can have one and they will come.
- Merida appears as a recurring character in the fifth season of Once Upon a Time (2015–16).
- Merida makes a special appearance in a 2015 episode of Sofia the First titled "The Secret Library".
- Merida appeared as a guest appearance in the 2018 Walt Disney Animation Studios (WDAS) film Ralph Breaks the Internet along with the rest of the members of the Disney Princess line voiced by her original voice actress Kelly Macdonald.
- Merida is a playable character in Disney Infinity 2.0 and Disney Infinity 3.0. In addition, a Toy Box Game based on the movie is available. Many items from the movie are also available to be placed in the toy box. With a power disc, Merida's horse Angus can be summoned.
- Merida appears as a playable character in the mobile game Disney Heroes: Battle Mode.
- "Brave (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Brave (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "'Brave' director Brenda Chapman breaks silence: Getting taken off film 'heartbreaking... devastating... distressing'". August 15, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- Stein, Joel (March 5, 2012). "Pixar's Girl Story". Time. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Cavna, Michael (June 22, 2012). "Pixar's Brave: Director Mark Andrews on the duality of teens, the singularity of his mission — and what a man in a kilt brings to Pixar". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Williams, Steve (May 28, 2012). "Why Pixar's 'Brave' Is Different From Any Films They've Created Before". Team Locals. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Boardman, Madeline (February 24, 2013). "Best Animated Film: 'Brave' Wins At 2013 Academy Awards". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- "OSCARS: 85th Academy Award Nominations – Only 9 Best Pictures; 'Lincoln' Leads With 12 Nods, 'Life Of Pi' 11, 'Les Misérables' And 'Silver Linings Playbook' 8, 'Argo' 7, 'Skyfall' And 'Amour' And 'Zero Dark Thirty' And 'Django Unchained' 5". Deadline. January 10, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Globe, Golden (December 13, 2012). "Golden Globes 2013: full list of nominations". guardian.co.uk. London. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Bahr, Lindsey (February 10, 2013). "BAFTA winners announced, 'Argo' picks up Best Film and Director awards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- Rizvi, Samad (August 19, 2011). "D23 2011: La Luna Will Play Before Brave, New Toy Story Toon Title Announced". The Pixar Times. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Kushigemachi, Todd (May 29, 2012). "Sydney fest ramps up for June 6 bow". Variety. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Lesnick, Silas; Murphy, Matt (August 20, 2011). "D23 Expo: Previewing Pixar's Brave". ComingSoon. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- Connelly, Brendon (April 4, 2012). "Yes, The Pizza Planet Truck Is In Brave, And That's Not All". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- O'Neill, Callum. "Acting". The Scottish Voice. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
- Nichols, Michelle (April 8, 2008). "Disney previews 10 new animated movies, most 3-D". Reuters. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- "Brave (2012)". Christian Answers. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Imondi, Bethany (June 21, 2012). "Pixar's Princess Takes on a New Role". The Hoya. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "The Daily Rotation Brave Review". The Daily Rotation. June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Vespe, Eric (April 9, 2008). "Quint discusses the Pixar half of the Disney Animation Presentation! UP! WALL-E! TOY STORY 3! NEWT! THE BEAR & THE BOW!". Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved April 9, 2008.
- Chapman, Brenda (August 14, 2012). "Stand Up for Yourself, and Mentor Others". New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Powers, Lindsay (October 14, 2010). "Pixar announces first female director". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Sperling, Nicole (May 25, 2011). "When the glass ceiling crashed on Brenda Chapman". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- Radulovic, Petrana (December 17, 2018). "Prince of Egypt director Brenda Chapman: 'We wanted to do something that reached more adults'". Polygon. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- Pixar's 'Brave' Pays Ghostly Tribute to Steve Jobs. May 25, 2012.
- Pixar Reveals First Logo for BRAVE
- Reynolds, Simon (April 4, 2012). "'Brave' preview: Mark Andrews on Pixar's Scotland-set fantasy tale". Digital Spy. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Young, John (March 28, 2011). "Pixar's 'Brave': First Look art -- EXCLUSIVE PHOTOS". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Gordon, Naomi (January 12, 2017). "Reese Witherspoon admits she had to quit a movie because her Scottish accent was so bad". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "Sounds Of The Highlands; Disney-Pixar's "Brave" Transports Moviegoers to Ancient Scotland with Oscar-Nominated Composer Patrick Doyle, Plus Performers Julie Fowlis and Birdy (with Mumford & Sons)" (Press release). Walt Disney Records. May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- Cornwell, Tim (July 1, 2011). "Scotland's Pixar tale hits the right note". The Scotsman. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- "Amazon.com: Brave: Various Artists, Patrick Doyle, James Shearman: Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Scotland, National Records of. "Tartan Details - The Scottish Register of Tartans". Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "Scottish Register of Tartans criticized after approving Disney designs". Deadline.. January 3, 2013.
- MacDuck #2 at The Scottish Register of Tartans.
- Lang, Brent (March 16, 2011). "Disney Changes Release Date for 'The Brave'". TheWrap.com. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Bastoli, Mike (April 4, 2012). "Brave Preview Draws Cheers". Big Screen Animation. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Brave". Seattle International Film Festival. June 10, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Bunbury, Stephanie (June 8, 2012). "'Brave': A Fairytale Beginning". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Patten, Dominic (May 18, 2012). "'Brave' Premiere To Open Dolby Theatre But Will Dolby Mix Be Ready?". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- "Robbie Coltrane and Kelly MacDonald among stars to attend Edinburgh premiere of Brave". The Scotsman. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Scotland in focus as Brave premieres in Edinburgh". The Herald Scotland. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Disney/Pixar's Brave set for UK premiere at Edinburgh International Film Festival". Scottish Daily Record. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Giardina, Carolyn (April 24, 2012). "CinemaCon 2012: Pixar's 'Brave' to Test Dolby's New Atmos Format". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Lawler, Richard (June 16, 2012). "Dolby confirms 14 theaters for inaugural screening of Pixar's 'Brave' with Atmos audio". Engadget. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
- "Pixar Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo.
- Subers, Ray (June 21, 2012). "Forecast: Pixar Aims for 13th-Straight First Place Debut with 'Brave'". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "'Brave' 3D Blu-ray Bonus Features to Include New 'Mor'du' Short, Alternate Opening, Bloopers and Much More". Stitch Kingdom. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Koch, Dave (August 27, 2012). "The Legend of Mor'du Short Announced For Brave Blu-ray". Big Cartoon News. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Brave 4K Blu-ray, retrieved August 1, 2019
- "2012 Yearly Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Pixar". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- McClintock, Pamela (June 21, 2012). "Box Office Preview: 'Brave' to Slay 'Abraham Lincoln' With About $60 Million". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Kaufman, Amy (June 22, 2012). "'Brave' expected to easily defeat 'Abraham Lincoln' at box office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "Brave (2012) – Daily Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo.
- "Top June Opening Weekends at the Box Office". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Pixar Movies Opening Weekends". Box Office Mojo.
- Cunningham, Todd (June 24, 2012). "'Brave' and Princess Merida Beat Up the Boys at Box Office: $66.7M". The Wrap. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "Animation 2012". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "2012 Yearly Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Segers, Frank (June 24, 2012). "Foreign Box Office: 'Madagascar 3' Tops Weak Weekend". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Brave (2012) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo.
- "Brave (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- "Brave Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
- Roger Ebert (June 20, 2012). "Brave". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Debruge, Peter (June 10, 2012). "Brave". Variety. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- McCarthy, Todd (June 10, 2012). "Brave: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Maltin, Leonard (June 2012). "Brave—movie review". IndieWire. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "Say No to the Merida Makeover and Keep Our Hero Brave!". A Mighty Girl. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- June, Daniel (May 10, 2013). ""Brave's" Merida Gets a Makeover, Upsetting Feminists and Others". JD Journal. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Melissa, Silverstein (May 13, 2013). "Brave Director Brenda Chapman Responds to Merida Coronation". Women and Hollywood. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- Liberatore, Paul (May 11, 2013). "'Brave' creator blasts Disney for 'blatant sexism' in princess makeover". Marin Independent Journal. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "CinemaBlend.com". Disney Pulls Merida's Makeover After Outcry. May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- Exclusive: Disney bravely responds to Merida makeover outrage, says 2D new look was for "limited" use only Retrieved May 24, 2013
- Bahr, Lindsey (May 15, 2013). "'Brave': Merida remains the girl you know and love - EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "Annie Award Nominations Unveiled". Deadline. December 3, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Beck, Jerry (February 2, 2013). "Annie Award Winners". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Hammond, Pete (December 11, 2012). "'Lincoln', 'Les Miserables', 'Silver Linings' Top List Of Nominees For 18th Annual Critics Choice Movie Awards". Deadline. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- "70th Golden Globe Awards Nominations". Deadline. December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Golden Globe Awards 2013 Winners List". MTV News. January 13, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- Goodacre, Kate (December 6, 2012). "Grammy Awards 2013: The major nominees". Digital Spy. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Stone, Abbey (March 23, 2013). "Kid's Choice Awards Winners: Kristen Stewart Beats Jennifer Lawrence and More". Hollywood.com. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
- Kilday, Gregg (December 3, 2012). "Satellite Awards Nominates 10 Films for Best Motion Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Truitt, Brian (February 20, 2013). "'The Hobbit' leads Saturn Awards with nine nomination". USA Today.
- "VES Awards: 'Life Of Pi' Wins 4 Including Feature, 'Brave', 'Game Of Thrones' Other Big Winners". Deadline. February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- "CRITICAL WOMEN ON FILM: Women Film Critics Circle Awards 2012". Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Rizvi, Samad (April 24, 2012). "Exclusive: A Chat With The 'Brave' Video Game Producer". The Pixar Times. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Cork, Jeff (March 19, 2012). "Disney Pixar Announces Brave: The Video Game". Game Informer.
- Tong, Sophia (June 4, 2012). "Temple Run: Brave announced, coming to iOS and Android devices". Games Radar. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Buckingham, Alan (June 7, 2013). "Temple Run braves Windows Phone 8". BetaNews. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Ferguson, Brian (April 10, 2013). "Sequel to Disney-Pixar's Brave on the cards". The Scotsman. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- Prudom, Laura (July 11, 2015). "'Once Upon a Time' Previews Merida from 'Brave,' Dark Swan for Season 5". Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Wagmeister, Elizabeth (September 1, 2015). "'Brave' Princess Merida to Appear on Disney Junior's 'Sofia the First'". Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Breznican, Anthony (July 14, 2017). "Wreck-It Ralph sequel will unite the Disney princesses — and Star Wars!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- Lerew, Jenny (2012). The Art of Brave (1st ed.). Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1452101422.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Brave (2012 film)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brave (2012 film).|