The Brazilian Baptist Convention or Convenção Batista Brasileira is the oldest Baptist group in Brazil. The first Baptist missionary in Brazil appears to have been Thomas Jefferson Bowen, who served there for the Southern Baptist Convention from 1859 to 1861. A group of Southerners from the United States of America founded a colony in São Paulo, and formed a Baptist church in 1871. The first Brazilian church was organized in 1882, and twenty-five years later the Brazilian Baptist Convention was formed in 1907 in Salvador.
In 2005, the Brazilian Baptist Convention had 1,100,000 members in 6,000 congregations.