Brazilian cuisine

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Brazilian cuisine is the set of cooking practices and traditions of Brazil, and is characterized by European, Amerindian, African, and Asian (Lebanese, Chinese and, most recently, Japanese) influences.[1] It varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations, and its continental size as well. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.[2]

Ingredients first used by native peoples in Brazil include cashews, cassava, guaraná, açaí, cumaru, and tucupi. From there, the many waves of immigrants brought some of their typical dishes, replacing missing ingredients with local equivalents. For instance, the European immigrants (primarily from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, and Ukraine), were accustomed to a wheat-based diet, and introduced wine, leafy vegetables, and dairy products into Brazilian cuisine. When potatoes were not available, they discovered how to use the native sweet manioc as a replacement.[3] Enslaved Africans also had a role in developing Brazilian cuisine, especially in the coastal states. The foreign influence extended to later migratory waves, Japanese immigrants brought most of the food items that Brazilians would associate with Asian cuisine today,[4] and introduced large-scale aviaries, well into the 20th century.[5]

The most visible regional cuisines belong to the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. Minas Gerais cuisine have European influence in delicacies and dairy products such as tropeiro beans, pão de queijo and the Minas cheese fresh, and Bahian cuisine due to the presence of African delicacies such as acarajé, abará and vatapá.

Root vegetables such as manioc (locally known as mandioca, aipim or macaxeira, among other names), yams, and fruit like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, guava, orange, passion fruit, pineapple, and hog plum are among the local ingredients used in cooking.

Some typical dishes are feijoada, considered the country's national dish,[6] and regional foods such as beiju [pt], feijão tropeiro, vatapá, moqueca capixaba, polenta (from Italian cuisine) and acarajé (from African cuisine).[7] There is also caruru, which consists of okra, onion, dried shrimp, and toasted nuts (peanuts or cashews), cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached; moqueca baiana, consisting of slow-cooked fish in palm oil and coconut milk, tomatoes, bell peppers, onions, garlic and topped with cilantro.

The national beverage is coffee, while cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from fermented sugar cane must, and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, caipirinha.

Cheese buns (pão-de-queijo), and salgadinhos such as pastéis, coxinhas, risólis and kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine) are common finger food items, while cuscuz de tapioca (milled tapioca) is a popular dessert.

Cuisine by Brazilian region[edit]

Regional cuisines[edit]

Pão de queijo, coffee and a small bottle of cachaça.
Stuffed blue crab shells, known as casquinha de siri.

There is not an exact single "national Brazilian cuisine", but there is an assortment of various regional traditions and typical dishes. This diversity is linked to the origins of the people inhabiting each area.

For instance, the cuisine of Bahia is heavily influenced by a mix of African, Indigenous, and Portuguese cuisines. Chili (including chili sauces) and palm oil are very common. In the northern states, however, due to the abundance of forest and freshwater rivers, fish, fruits and cassava (including flours made of cassava) are staple foods. In the deep south, as in Rio Grande do Sul, the influence shifts more towards gaúcho traditions shared with its neighbors Argentina and Uruguay, with many meat-based products, due to this region's livestock-based economy; the churrasco, a kind of barbecue, is a local tradition.

Southeast Brazil's cuisine[edit]

In Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, feijoada is popular, especially as a Wednesday or Saturday lunch. Also consumed frequently is picadinho (literally, diced meat) and rice and beans.[8][9] In Rio de Janeiro, besides the feijoada, a popular plate is any variation of grilled beef fillet, rice and beans, farofa, fried garlic and fried potatoes (batatas portuguesas), commonly called filé à Osvaldo Aranha. Seafood is very popular in coastal areas, as is roasted chicken (galeto). The strong Portuguese heritage also endowed the city with a taste for bolinhos de bacalhau (fried cod fritters), being one of the most common street foods there.

In São Paulo, a typical dish is virado à paulista, made with rice, virado de feijão (similar to a tutu), sauteed kale, fried plantains or bananas and pork chops. São Paulo is also the home of pastel, a food consisting of thin pastry envelopes wrapped around assorted fillings, then deep-fried in vegetable oil. It is a common belief that they originated when Chinese and Japanese immigrants adapted the recipe of fried spring rolls to sell as snacks at weekly street markets. São Paulo is also known for parmegianna.

In Minas Gerais, the regional dishes include corn, pork, beans, chicken (including the very typical dish frango com quiabo, or chicken with okra), tutu de feijão (puréed beans mixed with cassava flour), and local soft-ripened traditional cheeses.

In Espírito Santo, there is significant Italian and German influence in local dishes, both savory and sweet.[10] The state dish, though, is of Amerindian origin,[11] called moqueca capixaba, which is a tomato and fish stew traditionally prepared in a panela de Goiabeiras (pot made of clay from Goiabeiras district in Vitória). Amerindian and Italian cuisine are the two main pillars of Capixaba cuisine. Seafood dishes, in general, are very popular in Espírito Santo, but unlike other Amerindian dishes, the use of olive oil is almost mandatory. Bobó de camarão, torta capixaba, and polenta are also very popular.

North Brazil's cuisine[edit]

The cuisine of this region, which includes the states of Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins, is heavily influenced by indigenous cuisine. In the state of Pará, there are several typical dishes, including:

Pato no tucupi (duck in tucupi) – one of the most famous dishes from Pará. It is associated to the Círio de Nazaré, a great local Roman Catholic celebration. The dish is made with tucupi (yellow broth extracted from cassava, after the fermentation process of the broth remained after the starch had been taken off, from the raw ground manioc root, pressed by a cloth, with some water; if added maniva, the manioc ground up external part, that is poisonous because of the cyanic acid, and so must be cooked for several days). After cooking, the duck is cut into pieces and boiled in tucupi, where is the sauce for some time. The jambu is boiled in water with salt, drained, and put on the duck. It is served with white rice and manioc flour and corn tortillas.

Center-West Brazil's cuisine[edit]

In Goiás State, the pequi is used in many typical foods, especially the "arroz com pequi" (rice cooked with pequi), and in snacks, mostly as a filling for pastel, in this state is very common the presence of chestnuts, and palm trees. Also, a mixture of chicken and rice known as galinhada is very popular. The states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul received influence from neighboring countries in their cuisine, as well as the Pantanal area and its various rivers and extensive wetlands that cross these two states with a high abundance of fish.

Northeast Brazil's cuisine[edit]

Vatapá

The Northeastern Brazilian cuisine is heavily influenced by African cuisine from the coastal areas of Pernambuco to Bahia, as well as the eating habits of indigenous populations that lived in the region.

The vatapá is a Brazilian dish made from bread, shrimp, coconut milk, finely ground peanuts and palm oil mashed into a creamy paste.

The bobó de camarão is a dish made with cassava and shrimp (camarão).

The acarajé is a dish made from peeled black-eyed peas formed into a ball and then deep-fried in dendê (palm oil). Often sold as street food, it is served split in half and then stuffed with vatapá and caruru.[12] Acarajé is typically available outside of the state of Bahia as well, including the markets of Rio de Janeiro.

In other areas, more to the west or away from the coast, the plates are most reminiscent of the indigenous cuisine, with many vegetables being cultivated in the area since before the arrival of the Portuguese. Examples include baião de dois, made with rice and beans, dried meat, butter, queijo coalho and other ingredients. Jaggery is also heavily identified with the Northeast, as it is carne-de-sol, paçoca de pilão, and bolo de rolo.

Tapioca flatbreads or pancakes are also commonly served for breakfast in some states, with a filling of either coconut, cheese or condensed milk, butter, and certain meats. They can also be filled with dessert toppings as well.

Southern Brazil's cuisine[edit]

In Southern Brazil, due to the long tradition in livestock production and the heavy German immigration, red meat is the basis of the local cuisine.[13]

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, churrasco is the term for a barbecue (similar to the Argentine or Uruguayan asado) which originated in southern Brazil. It contains a variety of meats which may be cooked on a purpose-built "churrasqueira", a barbecue grill, often with supports for spits or skewers. Portable "churrasqueiras" are similar to those used to prepare the Argentine and Uruguayan asado, with a grill support, but many Brazilian "churrasqueiras" do not have grills, only the skewers above the embers. The meat may alternatively be cooked on large metal or wood skewers resting on a support or stuck into the ground and roasted with the embers of charcoal (wood may also be used, especially in the State of Rio Grande do Sul).

Since gaúchos were nomadic and lived off the land, they had no way of preserving food, the gauchos would gather together after butchering a cow, and skewer and cook the large portions of meat immediately over a wood-burning fire (not exactly as gauchos also produced charque). The slow-cooked meat basted in its own juices and resulted in tender, flavorful steaks.[14] This style would carry on to inspire many contemporary churrascaria which emulate the cooking style where waiters bring large cuts of roasted meat to diners' tables and carve portions to order.[15]

The chimarrão is the regional beverage, often associated with the gaúcho image.

Popular dishes[edit]

Coxinha is a popular Brazilian snack.
Canastra cheese.
Cooked crab.
Cooked crab with tomato sauce, as served in a restaurant in Rio de Janeiro.
Frango a passarinho, a chicken dish, as served in the state of Minas Gerais.
Brazilian pizza.

Brazilian cuisine is recognized around the world for its variety and quality. The city of São Paulo was chosen as the 7th main gastronomic destination in the world, for its recognized restaurants and bars. The Brazilian city is only after of Rome, London, Paris, Dubai, Barcelona and Madrid. It is important to note that the city of São Paulo alone has more than 9,000 restaurants and bars.

  • Rice and beans is an extremely popular dish, considered basic at table; a tradition Brazil shares with several Caribbean nations. Brazilian rice and beans usually are cooked utilizing either lard or the nowadays more common edible vegetable fats and oils, in a variation of the Mediterranean sofrito locally called refogado which usually includes garlic in both recipes.
  • In variation to rice and beans, Brazilians usually eat pasta (including spaghetti, lasagne,lamen, and bīfun), pasta salad, various dishes using either potato or manioc, and polenta as substitutions for rice, as well as salads, dumplings or soups of green peas, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, broad beans, butter beans, soybeans, lentils, moyashi (which came to Brazil due to the Chinese and Japanese tradition of eating its sprouts), azuki, and other legumes in substitution for the common beans cultivated in South America since Pre-Columbian times. It is more common to eat substitutions for daily rice and beans in festivities such as Christmas and New Year's Eve (the tradition is lentils), as follow-up of churrasco (mainly potato salad/carrot salad, called maionese, due to the widespread use of both industrial and home-made mayonnaise, which can include egg whites, raw onion, green peas, sweetcorn or even chayote squashes, and pronounced almost exactly as in English and French) and in other special occasions.
  • Either way the basis of Brazilian daily cuisine is the starch (most often a cereal), legume, protein and vegetable combination. There is also a differentiation between vegetables of the verduras group, or greens, and the legumes group (no relation to the botanic concept), or non-green vegetables.
  • Salgadinhos are small savoury snacks (literally salties). Similar to Spanish tapas, these are mostly sold in corner shops and a staple at working class and lower middle-class familiar celebrations. There are many types of pastries:
    • Pão de queijo (literally "cheese bread"), a typical Brazilian snack, is a small, soft roll made of manioc flour, eggs, milk, and minas cheese. It can be bought ready-made at a corner store or frozen and ready to bake in a supermarket and is gluten-free.
    • Coxinha is a chicken croquette shaped like a chicken thigh.
    • Kibe/Quibe: extremely popular, it corresponds to the Lebanese dish kibbeh and was brought to mainstream Brazilian culture by Syrian and Lebanese immigrants. It can be served baked, fried, or raw.
    • Esfiha: another Middle Eastern dish, despite being a more recent addition to Brazilian cuisine they are nowadays easily found everywhere, specially in Northeastern, Southern and Southeastern regions. They are pies/cakes with fillings like beef, mutton, cheese curd, or seasoned vegetables.
    • Pastéis are pastries with a wide variety of fillings. Similar to Spanish fried Empanadas but of Asian origin (and brought to Brazil by the Chinese diaspora and Japanese diaspora). Different shapes are used to tell apart the different flavours, the two most common shapes being half-moon (cheese) and square (meat). Size, flavour, and shape may vary greatly.
    • Empadas are snacks that resemble pot pies in a small scale. Filled with a mix of palm hearts, peas, flour and chicken or shrimp.
  • Misto-quente is grilled ham and cheese sandwich.
  • Cuscuz branco is a dessert consisting of milled tapioca cooked with coconut milk and sugar and is the couscous equivalent of rice pudding.
  • Açaí, cupuaçu, carambola, and many other tropical fruits are shipped from the Amazon Rainforest and consumed in smoothies or as fresh fruit. Other aspects of Amazonian cuisine are also gaining a following.
  • Cachorro-quente is the Brazilian version of hot dogs, usually garnished with tomato sauce, corn, peas and potato chips.
  • Cheese: the dairy-producing state of Minas Gerais is known for such cheeses as Queijo Minas, a soft, mild-flavored fresh white cheese usually sold packaged in water; requeijão, a mildly salty, silky-textured, spreadable cheese sold in glass jars and eaten on bread; and Catupiry, a soft processed cheese sold in a distinctive round wooden box.
  • Pinhão is the pine nut of the Araucaria angustifolia, a common tree in the highlands of southern Brazil. The nuts are boiled and eaten as a snack in the winter months. It is typically eaten during the festas juninas.
  • Risoto (risotto) is an Italian originated rice dish cooked with chicken, shrimp, and seafood in general or other protein staples sometimes served with vegetables, another very popular dish in Southern Brazil due to massive waves of Italian immigration.
  • Mortadella sandwich
  • Sugarcane juice, mixed with fruit juices such as pineapple or lemon.
  • Angu is a popular side dish (or a substitution for the rice fulfilling the "starch element" of use common in Southern and Southeastern Brazil). It is similar to the Italian polenta.
  • Arroz com pequi is a traditional dish from the Brazilian Cerrado, and the symbol of Center-Western Brazil's cuisine. It is basically made with rice seasoned on pequi, also known as a souari nut, and often chicken.
  • Barreado[16][17] is a typical dish of Parana State, Brazil. It is a slow-cooked meat stew prepared in a clay pot whose lid is sealed with a sort of clay made from wheat or cassava flour, hence the name (which means, literally, "muddied"). Traditionally, Barreado was made of buffalo meat, but nowadays it is usually made of beef, bacon, tomatoes, onion, cumin and other spices, placed in successive layers in a large clay urn, covered and then "barreada" (sealed) with a paste of ash and farinha (manioc flour), and then slowly cooked in a wood-fired oven for 12 to 18 hours. Nowadays pressure cookers and gas or electric ovens are more commonly used.[18]

Also noteworthy are:

Drinks[edit]

Brazilian Cachaça.
Caipirinha, a national drink.

Brazil is a country-continent, its territorial extension causes different cultures and traditions to sprout at the same time, but at opposite points. And when it comes to drinking, history repeats itself. Some Brazilian drinks, alcoholic or not, are known only in their states of origin.

Cachaça is Brazil's native liquor, distilled from sugar cane and it is the main ingredient in the national drink, the Caipirinha. Other drinks include mate tea, chimarrão and tereré (both made up of yerba maté), coffee, fruit juice, beer (mainly Pilsen variety), rum, guaraná and batidas. Guaraná is a caffeinated soft drink made from guaraná seeds and batida is a type of fruit punch.[1]

Typical and popular desserts[edit]

Brazil has a tradition of manufacturing jams and jellies from fresh tropical fruits, as Brazil is recognized worldwide as a country with great characteristics in food production, being one of the largest food exporters in the world. Brazilians inherited the taste and cultivation of sugar from the Portuguese who immigrated to Brazil. In the kitchens of the sugar farms, the wives of the farmers taught the subordinates how to properly mix the ingredients. This led to a growth in its commercialization in the Brazilian market, Portuguese recipes spread throughout the Brazilian colony and became part of the colonial food menu.

The Portuguese tradition of producing sweets with eggs and sugar joined the immense variety of Brazilian tropical fruits, which provided an immense menu of delicacies. Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada).

Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, ice pops and ice cream.[27]

Typical cakes (bolos)[edit]

  • Nega maluca (chocolate cake with chocolate cover and chocolate sprinkles)
  • Pão de mel (honey cake, somewhat resembling gingerbread, usually covered with melted chocolate)
  • Bolo de rolo (roll cake, a thin mass wrapped with melted guava)
  • Bolo de cenoura (carrot cake with chocolate cover made with butter and cocoa)
  • Bolo prestígio (cake covered with a version of brigadeiro, which replaces cocoa powder for grated coconut)
  • Bolo de fubá (corn flour cake)
  • Bolo de milho (Brazilian-style corn cake)
  • Bolo de maracujá (passion fruit cake)
  • Bolo de mandioca (cassava cake)
  • Bolo de queijo (literally "cheese cake")
  • Bolo de laranja (orange cake)
  • Bolo de banana (banana cake with cinnamon drizzle)

Other popular and traditional desserts[edit]

  • Fig, papaya, mango, orange, citron, pear, peach, pumpkin, sweet potato (among others) sweets and preserves, often eaten with solid fresh cheese or doce de leite.
  • Quindim (egg custard with coconut)[1]
  • Brigadeiro (a Brazilian chocolate candy)
  • Biscoitos de maizena (cornstarch cookies)
  • Beijinho (coconut "truffles" with clove)
  • Cajuzinho (peanut and cashew "truffles")
  • Cocada (coconut sweet)
  • Olho-de-sogra
  • Pudim de pão (literally "bread pudding", a pie made with bread "from yesterday" immersed in milk instead of flour (plus the other typical pie ingredients like eggs, sugar etc.) with dried orange slices and clove)
  • Manjar branco (coconut pudding with caramel cover and dried plums)
  • Doce de leite
  • Arroz-doce (rice pudding)
  • Canjica (similar to rice pudding, but made with white corn)
  • Romeu e Julieta: goiabada (guava sweet) with white cheese (most often Minas cheese or requeijão)
  • Torta de limão (literally ’lime pie’, a shortcrust pastry with creamy lime-flavored filling)
  • Pé-de-moleque (made with peanuts and sugar caramel)
  • Paçoca (similar to Spanish polvorones, but made with peanuts instead of almonds and without addition of fats)
  • Pudim de leite (condensed milk-based crème caramel, of French origin)
  • Brigadeirão (a pudim de leite with chocolate or a chocolate cake)
  • Rapadura
  • Doce de banana (different types of banana sweets, solid or creamy)
  • Maria-mole
  • Pamonha (a traditional Brazilian food made from fresh corn and milk wrapped in corn husks and boiled). It can be savoury or sweet.
  • Papo-de-anjo
  • "Açaí na tigela" (usually consists of an açaí (Brazilian fruit) mixture with bananas and cereal or strawberries and cereal (usually granola or muslix))
  • Avocado cream (avocado, lime and confectionery sugar; blended and chilled)[1]

Daily meals[edit]

A Brazilian breakfast buffet in Gramado.
Brazilian regional food in Recife.
  • Breakfast,¹ the café-da-manhã (literally, "morning coffee"): Every region has its own typical breakfast. It usually consists of a light meal, and it is not uncommon to have only a fruit or slice of bread and a cup of coffee. Traditional items include tropical fruits, typical cakes, crackers, bread, butter, cold cuts, cheese, requeijão, honey, jam, doce de leite, coffee (usually sweetened and with milk), juice, chocolate milk, or tea.
  • Elevenses or brunch,² the lanche-da-manhã (literally, "morning snack"): Usually had between 9 and 11 am, consists of similar items as people have for breakfast.
  • Midday dinner or lunch,¹ the almoço: This is usually the biggest meal and the most common times range from 11 am to 2 pm. Traditionally, people will go back to their houses to have lunch with their families, although nowadays that is not possible for most people, in which case it is common to have lunch in groups at restaurants or cafeterias. Rice is a staple of the Brazilian diet, albeit it is not uncommon to eat pasta instead. It is usually eaten together with beans and accompanied by salad, protein (most commonly red meat or chicken) and a side dish, such as polenta, potatoes, corn, etc...
  • Tea,² the lanche-da-tarde or café-da-tarde (literally "afternoon snack" or "afternoon coffee"): It is a meal had between lunch and dinner, and basically everything people eat in the breakfast, they also eat in the afternoon snack. Nevertheless, fruits are less common.
  • Night dinner or supper,¹ the jantar: For most Brazilians, jantar is a light affair, while others dine at night. Sandwiches, soups, salads, pasta, hamburgers or hot-dogs, pizza or repeating midday dinner foods are the most common dishes.
  • Late supper,² the ceia: Brazilians eat soups, salads, pasta and what would be eaten at the elevenses if their jantar was a light one early at the evening and it is late at night or dawn. It is associated with Christmas and New Year's Eve.

¹ Main meals, that are served nearly everywhere, and are eaten in nearly all households above poverty line.
² Secondary meals. People usually have a meal at the tea time, while elevenses and late suppers depend in peculiarities on one's daily routine or certain diets.

Restaurant styles[edit]

A simple and usually inexpensive option, which is also advisable for vegetarians, is comida a quilo or comida por quilo restaurants (literally "food by kilo value"), a buffet where food is paid for by weight. Another common style is the all-you-can-eat restaurant where customers pay a prix fixe. In both types (known collectively as "self-services"), customers usually assemble the dishes of their choice from a large buffet.

Rodízio is a common style of service, in which a prix fixe is paid, and servers circulate with food. This is common in churrascarias, pizzerias and sushi (Japanese cuisine) restaurants, resulting in an all-you-can-eat meat barbecue and pizzas of varied flavours, usually one slice being served at the time.

The regular restaurant where there is a specific price for each meal is called "restaurante à la carte."

Vegetarian[edit]

Although many traditional dishes are prepared with meat or fish, it is not difficult to live on vegetarian food as well, at least in the mid-sized and larger cities of Brazil. There is a rich supply of all kinds of fruits and vegetables, and on city streets one can find cheese buns (pão de queijo); in some cities even the version made of soy.

In the 2000s, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre have gained several vegetarian and vegan restaurants.[28] However outside big metropolises, vegetarianism is not very common in the country. Not every restaurant will provide vegetarian dishes and some seemingly vegetarian meals may turn out to include unwanted ingredients, for instance, using lard for cooking beans. Commonly "meat" is understood to mean "red meat", so some people might assume a vegetarian eats fish and chicken. Comida por quilo and all-you-can eat restaurants prepare a wide range of fresh dishes. Diners can more easily find food in such restaurants that satisfies dietary restrictions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Brittin, Helen (2011). The Food and Culture Around the World Handbook. Boston: Prentice Hall. pp. 20–21.
  2. ^ "Way of Life". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
  3. ^ Burns, E. Bradford (1993). A History of Brazil. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0231079559.
  4. ^ "Centenário da imigração japonesa - NOTÍCIAS - Imigrantes japoneses ajudaram a 'revolucionar' agricultura brasileira". g1.globo.com.
  5. ^ "Centenário da imigração japonesa - NOTÍCIAS - Imigrantes transformaram cidade paulista em grande produtora de ovos". g1.globo.com.
  6. ^ Roger, "Feijoada: The Brazilian national dish Archived 2009-11-29 at the Wayback Machine" braziltravelguide.com.
  7. ^ Cascudo, Luis da Câmara. História da Alimentação no Brasil. São Paulo/Belo Horizonte: Editora USP/Itatiaia, 1983.
  8. ^ "A feijoada não é invenção brasileira" (in Portuguese). Superinteressante. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  9. ^ "O Carapuceiro (jornal)" (in Portuguese). Fundaj. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Governo ES - Culinária Capixaba". www.es.gov.br. Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  11. ^ Foodandroad (2021-06-24). "How To Make Moqueca Capixaba - Brazilian Fish Stew Recipe". Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  12. ^ Blazes, Marian. "Brazilian Black-Eyed Pea and Shrimp Fritters – Acarajé". About.com. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  13. ^ Somwaru, A.; Valdes, C. (2004). Brazil's Beef Production and Its Efficiency : A Comparative Study of Scale Economies – 1–19.
  14. ^ Churrasco
  15. ^ Sumayao, Marco. "What Is a Churrascaria?". WiseGeek. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
  16. ^ pt:Barreado
  17. ^ Barreado
  18. ^ "Barreado: The Famous Typical Dish of Paraná State!". November 24, 2009.
  19. ^ Castella, K. (2012). A World of Cake. Storey Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60342-446-2.
  20. ^ Dos Ventos, M. (2008). Na Gira Do Exu - Invoking the Spirits of Brazilian Quimbanda. Nzo Quimbanda Exu Ventania. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-9556903-1-0. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  21. ^ Blocker, J.S.; Fahey, D.M.; Tyrrell, I.R. (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  22. ^ Sommers, M. (2011). Moon Brazil. Moon Handbooks Series (in Italian). Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 1077. ISBN 978-1-59880-891-9. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  23. ^ a b c Dictionaries, Oxford (2012). Oxford Essential Portuguese Dictionary (in Spanish). OUP Oxford. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-19-964097-3. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  24. ^ Robinson, A.G. (2014). Recife and Northeast Brazil Footprint Focus Guide: Includes Olinda, Fortaleza, Penedo, Pipa, Souza, Fernando de Noronha. Footprint Focus Guides (in Esperanto). Footprint Handbooks. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-909268-87-6. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  25. ^ Braga, Tatiana (11 January 2013). "Aprenda a receita do ES de milkshake de limonada suíça". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  26. ^ Guides, I. (2014). Insight Guides: Brazil. Insight Guides (in Italian). APA. p. 634. ISBN 978-1-78005-718-7. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  27. ^ Freyre, Gilberto. Açúcar. Uma Sociologia do Doce, com Receitas de Bolos e Doces do Nordeste do Brasil. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 1997.
  28. ^ "Vegetarian Restaurants in Brazil". Retrieved 2011-05-30.

External links[edit]

Media related to Cuisine of Brazil at Wikimedia Commons