Elections in Brazil

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Brazil
Foreign relations

Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Schedule[edit]

Election[edit]

Position 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president None
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
None
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None

Inauguration[edit]

Position 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None
President and
vice president
1 January None 1 January None
National Congress 1 February None 1 February None
States, cities and municipalities 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None

Electoral systems[edit]

Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the "open list."[1]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[2] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[3]

In municipal governments, the city council is elected using an open list proportional representation system. Seats are allocated using a version of the D'Hondt method where only parties (or coalitions) who receive at least V/n votes (where V is the total number of votes cast and n is the total number of seats to be filled) may win seats in the legislature. [4] [5]


Brazilian voting machines[edit]

2014 general election[edit]

Presidential election[edit]

Candidate Running mate Coalition First round Second round
Valid Votes  % Valid Votes  %
Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (PMDB) With the strength of the people 43,267,668 41.59 54,501,119 51.64
Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) Change, Brazil 34,897,211 33.55 51,041,155 48.36
Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) United for Brazil 22,176,619 21.32
Luciana Genro (PSOL) Jorge Paz (PSOL) 1,612,186 1.55
Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Leonardo Gadelha (PSC) 780,513 0.75
Eduardo Jorge (PV) Célia Sacramento (PV) 630,099 0.61
Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Alves de Oliveira (PRTB) 446,878 0.43
Zé Maria (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) 91,209 0.09
José Maria Eymael (PSDC) Roberto Lopes (PSDC) 61,250 0.06
Mauro Iasi (PCB) Sofia Manzano (PCB) 47,845 0.05
Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Ricardo Machado (PCO) 12,324 0.01
Valid votes 104,023,543 90.36 105,542,274 93.66
Null votes 6,678,580 5.80 5,219,787 4.63
Blank votes 4,420,488 3.84 1,921,819 1.71
Total votes 115,122,611 100.00 112,683,879 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 142,822,046 80.61 142,822,046 78.90
Voting age population/turnout 150,803,268 76.34 150,803,268 74.72
Source: Tribunal Superior Eleitoral.

Parliamentary election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 5 October 2014 National Congress election results
Coalition Parties Chamber Senate
Seats % of seats +/– Elected seats Total seats % of seats +/–
Govern
Coalition "With the Strength of the People"
  PT 68 13.26 -20 2 12 14.81 -2
  PMDB 66 12.87 −13 5 18 22.22 -2
  PP 38 7.41 -5 1 5 6,17 ±0
  PSD 36 7.02 New 2 3 3.7 New
  PR 34 6.63 -7 1 4 4.94 ±0
  PRB 21 4.09 +13 0 1 1.23 ±0
  PDT 19 3.7 -9 4 8 9.88 +4
  PROS 11 2.14 New 0 1 1.23 New
  PCdoB 10 1.95 −5 0 1 1.23 -1
Total 303 59.07 +5 15 53 65.43 +3
Opposition
Coalition "Change Brazil"
  PSDB 54 10.53 +1 4 10 12.35 −1
  DEM 21 4.09 −21 3 5 6.17 −1
  PTB 25 4.88 +4 2 3 2.47 −3
  SD 15 2.76 New 0 1 1.23 New
  PTdoB 2 0.39 -1 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PTN 4 0.78 +4 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PEN 2 0.39 New 0 0 0.0 New
  PMN 3 0.58 -1 0 0 0.0 -1
  PTC 2 0.39 +1 0 0 0.0 ±0
Total 128 25.47 +3 9 19 23.46 –5
Opposition
Coalition "United for Brazil"
  PSB 34 6.63 ±0 3 7 8.64 +4
  PPS 10 1.95 -2 0 0 0.0 -1
  PHS 5 0.97 +3 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PSL 1 0.2 ±0 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PRP 3 0.58 +1 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PPL 0 0.0 New 0 0 0.0 New
Total 53 10.33 +2 3 7 8.64 +3
Out of coalition   PSC 13 2.53 -5 0 0 0.0 −1
  PV 8 1.56 -7 0 1 1.23 +1
  PSOL 5 0.97 +2 0 1 1.23 -1
  PSDC 2 0.39 +2 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PRTB 1 0.2 -1 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PSTU 0 0.0 ±0 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PCB 0 0.0 ±0 0 0 0.0 ±0
  PCO 0 0.0 ±0 0 0 0.0 ±0
Total 513 100.0 ±0 27 81 100.0 ±0

Past elections and referendums[edit]

Election results 1982–2014[edit]

Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2014

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014
Workers' Party 03.5 06.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 08.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 07.6 04.2
Liberal Party / Republic Party - 02.8 04.3 03.5 02.5 04.3 04.4 07.6 05.8
Brazilian Socialist Party - 00.9 01.9 02.2 03.4 05.3 06.2 07.1 06.5
Progressive Party - - - 06.9 11.3 07.8 07.1 06.6 06.4
Democratic Labour Party 05.8 06.5 10.0 07.2 05.7 05.1 05.2 05.0 03.6
Brazilian Labour Party 04.5 04.5 05.6 05.2 05.7 04.6 04.7 04.2 04.0
Green Party - - - 00.1 00.4 01.3 03.6 03.8 02.1
Social Christian Party - - 00.8 00.5 00.7 00.6 01.9 03.2 02.5
Communist Party of Brazil - 00.8 00.9 01.2 01.3 02.2 02.1 02.8 02.0
Popular Socialist Party - 00.9 01.0 00.6 01.3 03.1 03.9 02.6 02.0
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 00.3 01.7 04.5
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 01.2 01.2 01.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 00.6 00.6 00.5 00.3 00.9 01.1 00.5
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 07.8 08.9 09.4 - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 08.3 00.4 00.1 00.1 00.9 00.6 00.7
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party - 01.2 03.0 - 00.1 00.2 00.4 00.2 00.5
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 00.7 00.9 02.1 01.0 - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 06.2
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 02.0
Solidarity - - - - - - - - 02.7
National Labor Party - - - - 00.1 00.1 00.2 00.2 00.4
National Ecologic Party - - - - - - - - 00.7
Labour Party of Brazil - - 00.2 - 00.3 00.2 00.3 00.7 00.8
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 00.3 00.5 00.8 00.9
Progressive Republican Party - - 00.2 00.5 00.4 00.3 00.3 00.3 00.7
Social Liberal Party - - - - 00.3 00.5 00.2 00.5 00.8
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 00.1 00.1 00.3 00.2 00.3 00.5
Others 00.0 02.8 03.7 00.7 01.7 01.5 00.4 00.0 00.7

Source: [1] Source: [2]

Referendums[edit]

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  2. ^ "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  3. ^ Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  4. ^ "Como funciona o sistema proporcional?". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2017-09-01. 
  5. ^ Romao, Mauricio (2010-05-05). "PARLAMENTARES "ELEITOS POR MÉDIA"". Retrieved 2017-09-01. 

External links[edit]