Brazilian presidential election, 2010
|Presidential election results map after the second round of voting: Red denotes states won by Dilma, and Blue denotes those won by Serra.|
The Brazilian presidential election was held in 2010 with two rounds of balloting. The first round was held on October 3 along with other elections as part of the 2010 general election. As no presidential candidate polled 50 percent of the vote on October 3, a runoff was held on October 31 between Dilma Rousseff and José Serra: Rousseff won with 56% of the second round vote.
The election determined the successor to President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, of the Workers' Party. According to the Constitution, the president is elected directly for a four-year term, with a limit of two consecutive terms. Lula was thus not eligible to stand again as he has already served two terms after winning the elections in 2002 and being re-elected in 2006. This was the first time since the inaugural presidential election after the military dictatorship that he did not run for president.
- 1 Election overview
- 2 Candidates
- 3 Campaign
- 4 Opinion polling
- 5 Election results
- 6 International reaction
- 7 Analysis
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The candidates of the two major political groups of the country were Lula's former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff, of the ruling centre-left democratic socialist/social democratic Workers' Party (PT), and São Paulo State former governor, José Serra, from the centre-right opposition coalition formed mainly by the Social Democratic Party (PSDB), and the right-wing Democrats (DEM).
Both candidates offered little threat to the economic stability of the country, but differed significantly on issues such as fiscal discipline, foreign policy and state intervention. They were both likely to maintain a primary budget surplus to make public debt payments and reduce the ratio of debt to GDP. Some analysts believe Serra would have contained expenditure more effectively. Rousseff, in the other hand, favors a bigger role for state enterprises in the economy, which could reduce participation by private firms in sectors such as banking, oil and gas. Serra, who authorized the sale of Nossa Caixa bank in 2008, is seen as more open to privatization, as well as cuts in the public sector payroll. While past elections brought economic instability, in 2010 neither candidate was expected to stray far from current economic policies.
Rousseff was expected to continue Lula's foreign policy, boosting ties with developing nations, pushing for reform of multilateral bodies and lobbying for a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council. Serra would likely have cooled ties with Lula's left-wing allies in Latin America, which could affect energy investments in both Bolivia and Venezuela. He could also take a harder line in trade disputes with Argentina and Mercosur. According to Mark Weisbrot, in an op-ed published by The Guardian Unlimited on January 29, 2010, if the centre-right candidate wins the race, it "would really be a huge win for the [U.S.] State Department." He argues that "while U.S. officials under both Bush and Obama have maintained a friendly posture toward Brazil, it is obvious that they deeply resent the changes in Brazilian foreign policy [...] and its independent stances with regard to the Middle East, Iran and elsewhere."
Another main candidate was Marina Silva, Lula's former Minister of Environment. She is the candidate for the Green Party (PV), which she joined on late 2009 after leaving the PT, which she helped establishing in the 1980s. She has obtained international recognition as a defender of the Amazon Rainforest, but is less known in her native Brazil, being unable to obtain more support than the other two major candidates in opinion polls.
Ciro Gomes, former governor of Ceará and Minister for National Integration during Lula's first cabinet, was a possible candidate for the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB). The ruling centre-left group was worried that his bid could take votes from Rousseff, and thus, on April 27, PSB declined to launch his candidacy in order to support her. Gomes, which had appeared on third place in polls from May 2009 to April 2010, was also a presidential candidate in 1998 and 2002, when he had a poor result after making sexist remarks and struggling to control his temper. He was a proponent of restructuring Brazil's debt.
Another pre-candidate was Heloísa Helena from the Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL). She is a former Senator for Alagoas and founded the Socialism and Liberty Party after she was expelled from the Workers' Party in 2003 for criticizing its move to the centre. She was the only candidate which could potentially abandon current market-friendly economic policies. However, she declined to run for president and try to win back her Senate seat. On June 30, 2010, Plínio de Arruda Sampaio was nominated by the PSOL's convention.
There were speculations that PSOL would form a broad coalition with Silva. As the media printed such news, the United Socialist Workers' Party announced that if this coalition was formed, it would launch the candidacy of its president José Maria de Almeida. However, a resolution approved by members of PSOL determined that the coalition would be formed if PV gave up its alliances with the Lula administration, PSDB, DEM, and neoliberal stances. This resolution would make it very hard for the two parties to ally, since PV is led by José Sarney's son Sarney Filho and Silva herself has said that her candidacy could not be perceived as opposing Lula. Another faction of PV, led by Fernando Gabeira, is explicitly in favor of an alliance with PSDB, which left very few people in the party able to accept the proposal. As Rede Brasil Atual reported, "the coalition move[d] more by the desire of Green Party pre-candidate, Marina Silva, and Socialism and Liberty Party President, Heloísa Helena, than by aspirations of both parties".
The election also featured five candidates from smaller parties, bringing the number of presidential candidates to a total of nine. They are Ivan Pinheiro from the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), José Maria de Almeida from the United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU), Rui Costa Pimenta from the Workers' Cause Party (PCO), José Maria Eymael from the Christian Social Democratic Party (PSDC), and Levy Fidélix from the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (PRTB). According to the Supreme Electoral Court's guidelines, they were not able to participate in televised debates, since their parties were not represented in the lower house of the National Congress.
Rousseff became the sixth Latin American woman elected as a head of state, after Nicaragua's Violeta Chamorro in 1990, Panama's Mireya Moscoso in 1999, Chile's Michelle Bachelet in 2006, Argentina's Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in 2007, and Costa Rica's Laura Chinchilla in 2010.
|Candidate||Running mate||Coalition||Political spectrum|
(PT, PMDB, PCdoB, PDT, PRB, PR, PSB, PSC, PTC, PTN)
|Social democracy, Centre-left to Left-wing|
|José Maria de Almeida
|José Maria Eymael
|José Paulo da Silva Neto
|Indio da Costa
(PSDB, DEM, PTB, PPS, PMN, PTdoB)
|Social democracy, centrism|
|Luiz Eduardo Ayres Duarte
||Green politics, centrism|
|Plínio de Arruda Sampaio
|Rui Costa Pimenta
|Edson Dorta Silva
The official campaign began on July 6, 2010. The Supreme Electoral Court has accepted the candidacies of all nine applicant candidates. According to the Supreme Electoral Court's guidelines, once the official campaign began the candidates are allowed to participate on marches, motorcades, and use sound trucks to ask for votes and distributing leaflets. But they are forbidden to distribute shirts, hats, and gifts such as keyrings and pens. Rallies are allowed, but music concerts are prohibited. The candidates are not allowed to advertise on streetlights, bridges, clubs and other places of common use. Billboard ads are also prohibited, as well as attendance in inauguration of public premises.
One of the main public health issues debated so far in the election, raised by Rousseff's campaign, is the addiction to crack cocaine. As a response to her campaign, Serra said he will establish clinics to treat addicts. He also said he will hand over 150 medical specialties clinics in two years. Rousseff said she will expand measures currently implemented by the Lula government. She has also advocated the need for national production and distribution of medicines, through increased public investment. Silva has advocated the focus on disease prevention.
Serra has pledged to invest in the infrastructure of primary public schools, while Rousseff said that eradicating illiteracy is her top priority. She has also proposed the creation of a National Articulated System of Education to redesign the mechanisms employed in managing the sector. Silva said her focus is to invest intensively in all levels of formal education. She has also advocated the expansion of technologies access and the adoption of central lines to be addressed by educators.
Serra has compromised to retain Bolsa Família, claiming it will be expanded through aids to young people that take vocational education courses. Dilma also said that she will expand the program, defending the "institutional strengthening" of the Ministry of Social Development and Action Against Hunger, which means that the ministry will be responsible for integrating all social policies of the government. Silva defends a "third generation of social welfare", which would be achieved through partnerships with the private sector and the structuring of more educational projects.
Serra has committed to expand technical schools in order to create more jobs. He has also said that improving the infrastructure of public services will be a tool for creating new jobs. Rousseff has defended the maintenance of the economic policies of the Lula government, but has also promised to hold a tax reform in order to alleviate the expenses of workers. Silva has proposed the creation of green jobs through tax incentives for environmentally friendly businesses, in order to reduce the emission and consumption of carbon dioxide.
Although it was not included on his government plan, Serra's main proposal for public safety is the creation of a Ministry of Public Safety. On the other hand, Rousseff has promised to expand the current National Public Security and Citizenship Program to the whole country. She has also proposed the creation of a Constitutional Fund for Public Security, which would give aids in the wages of police officers nationwide. Silva defended the creation of a "new institutional structure for public safety", which would combine the police work with investments in preventive policies.
For the 2010 presidential election, the Supreme Electoral Court has approved three televised debates, in addition to an unprecedented internet debate, which will be held by UOL and Folha de S.Paulo on August 18.
According to the Supreme Electoral Court's guidelines, the candidates whose parties are not represented in the lower chamber of the National Congress are not able to participate in televised debates. Such candidates are challenging this decision in order to be able to participate on the debates.
The first presidential debate took place on August 5, held by Rede Bandeirantes. The second debate was held on August 18, 2010 by internet portal UOL and newspaper Folha de S.Paulo. It was the first presidential debate broadcast exclusively through internet in the history of the country.
According to the electoral law, all free-to-air television and radio networks must carry two 50-minute time slots a day from August 17 until September 30, 2010. The time allocated to each candidate is based on the number of seats held by the parties comprising their coalition in the Chamber of Deputies. The electoral programs are considered a key campaign tool in Brazil, where TV and radio are the main sources of information for most voters. The free air time on radio and TV also includes candidates contesting races for Governors, Legislative Assemblies, and both houses of the Congress. Parties are also allowed to run six 30-second advertisements per day.
Serra's electoral programs on TV were criticized for focusing too much on public health issues, with Financial Times correspondent Jonathan Wheatley saying that "[one] would think he was running for health minister". In the other hand, Rousseff's programs have been noted for their professionalism and production quality, while Marina Silva's programs were criticized for their lack of cohesion. Journalist Ricardo Noblat commented on his blog that her first TV program seemed more like "a BBC documentary on the environment" than an electoral program. Serra was also the target of criticism by Silva on the UOL/Folha debate for the use of a scenic favela in his program, while São Paulo still has many slums. After the airing of Serra's second program, singer Elba Ramalho, which had one of her songs featured in it, released a note stating that she did not recorded the jingle used by the candidate, and that is not her voice featured in the program. Although she publicly supported Serra in 2002, she stated she would maintain her neutrality in this election. In spite of this declaration, Ramalho decided to support Rousseff on the second round.
Serra's first television program was also the target of ridicule by Twitter users over the unintended double entendre of a phrase he said. In the video, which has been posted over 24 times on Google Video, he cites examples of people which benefited from his former public office experiences. However, in order to exemplify it, he used the preposition como, which can be used as both "as" and the first person inflection of the verb "to eat", that has a negative connotation for "to have sex with".
According to a poll conducted by Census Institute on August 20–22, 42.9% of voters claimed they are watching or listening to the electoral programs on either radio or TV. Dilma had the best electoral programs for 56% of them, while Serra's programs were preferred by 34%. Silva's programs were chosen as the best by only 7.5% of them.
Second round alliances
On October 20, after PSOL instructed its members to vote for either PT's Dilma Rousseff or blank/null in the second round, Heloísa Helena decided to leave the presidency of the party. She felt that the party "lacked identity" with the support to Rousseff. The party's presidential candidate declared that he would vote null, while PSOL's congressmen declared their "critical vote" on Rousseff. Party members were oriented "not to give any votes to Serra".
PCB took a similar stance, saying they will "defeat Serra on the ballots and Dilma on the streets". PSTU, in the other hand, advocated the null voting on the second round. PV held a convention, where most of the 92 voting members decided that the party should stay neutral in the second round. Party members were free to support either of the two candidates, but they were forbidden to use flags or other party symbols. If they did so, they could have been punished with disaffiliation.
On October 14, the Progressive Party, a member of the Lulista[clarification needed] coalition bloc in the National Congress which had remained neutral in the first round, decided to support Dilma. Most of its directories and candidates had already supported Rousseff on the first round. The Brazilian Labour Renewal Party also supported Rousseff in the second round. Levy Fidélix posted a photo on his Flickr account where he is accompanied by supporters holding flags of Rousseff's campaign.[dubious ]
According to polls, Rousseff was most likely to have won the race in the first round with over 50% of the valid voting intentions. She had a rapid increase in her popularity since mid-2009,[why?] and thus consolidated her lead against Serra, who had led the polls for over two years. She was given a further boost when incumbent President Lula campaigned on her behalf on her television programmes. Marina Silva was not able to reach more than 10% in the polls, but at the end of the campaign she experienced a rapid boost,[why?] and achieved 14% at the last poll. The other candidates had been unable to reach more than 2%. The number of undecided voters and those who declared an intention to vote blank or null was at about 12% according to the last poll.
|Presidential candidate||Running mate||1st Round
|Dilma Rousseff (PT)||Michel Temer (PMDB)||47,651,434||46.91%||55,752,529||56.05%|
|José Serra (PSDB)||Indio da Costa (DEM)||33,132,283||32.61%||43,711,388||43.95%|
|Marina Silva (PV)||Guilherme Leal (PV)||19,636,359||19.33%||—|
|Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (PSOL)||Hamilton Assis (PSOL)||886,816||0.87%||—|
|José Maria Eymael (PSDC)||José Paulo da Silva Neto (PSDC)||89,350||0.09%||—|
|José Maria de Almeida (PSTU)||Cláudia Durans (PSTU)||84,609||0.08%||—|
|Levy Fidélix (PRTB)||Luiz Eduardo Ayres Duarte (PRTB)||57,960||0.06%||—|
|Ivan Pinheiro (PCB)||Edmilson Costa (PCB)||39,136||0.04%||—|
|Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO)||Edson Dorta Silva (PCO)||12,206||0.01%||—|
|→ Blank votes||3,479,340||3.13%||2,452,597||2.30%|
|→ Null votes||6,124,254||5.51%||4,689,428||4.40%|
|States/districts won by Dilma Rousseff|
|States/districts won by José Serra|
|States/districts won by Marina Silva|
|State||Electorate||Abstention||%||Dilma||%||Serra||%||Marina||%||Others||%||Blank votes||%||Null votes||%|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||1,700,912||308,448||18,13%||518,877||39,86%||551,296||42,35%||219,812||16,88%||11,864||0,90%||26,786||1,92%||63,829||4,58%|
|Rio de Janeiro||11,584,083||2,011,597||17,37%||3,739,632||43,76%||1,925,166||22,53%||2,693,130||31,52%||187,147||2,19%||368,193||3,85%||659,218||6,89%|
|Rio Grande do Norte||2,245,135||367,434||16,37%||846,416||51,76%||460,107||28,14%||313,360||19,16%||15,280||0,93%||75,552||4,02%||166,966||8,89%|
|Rio Grande do Sul||8,107,550||1,204,648||14,86%||3,007,263||46,95%||2,600,389||40,59%||725,580||11,33%||72,529||1,13%||266,304||3,86%||230,837||3,34%|
|States/districts won by Dilma Rousseff|
|States/districts won by José Serra|
|State||Electorate||Abstention||%||Dilma||%||Serra||%||Blank votes||%||Null votes||%|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||1,700,979||410,546||24.14%||555,283||44.87%||682,305||55.13%||19,080||1.48%||33,765||2.62%|
|Rio de Janeiro||11,584,435||2,436,258||21.03%||4,934,077||60.48%||3,223,891||39.52%||313,497||3.43%||676,712||7.40%|
|Rio Grande do Norte||2,245,194||483,909||21.55%||979,772||59.54%||665,726||40.46%||40,639||2.31%||75,128||4.27%|
|Rio Grande do Sul||8,107,785||1,436,185||17.71%||3,117,761||49.06%||3,237,207||50.94%||148,409||2.22%||168,223||2.52%|
Municipalities won by Rousseff with less than 65% of the votes|
Municipalities won by Rousseff with over 65% of the votes
Municipalities won by Serra with less than 65% of the votes
Municipalities won by Serra with over 65% of the votes
|Countries/territories won by Dilma Rousseff|
|Countries/territories won by José Serra|
|Countries/territories won by Marina Silva|
|Country||Dilma Rousseff||José Serra||Marina Silva||Other
|Republic of Congo||6||6||4||0|||
|United Arab Emirates||13||19||4||0|||
|Countries/territories won by Dilma Rousseff|
|Countries/territories won by José Serra|
|Country||Dilma Rousseff||%||José Serra||%||Source|
|Republic of Congo||5||45.45%||6||54.55%|||
|United Arab Emirates||16||45.71%||19||54.29%|||
|European Union||President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso congratulated Rousseff for her victory in the presidential elections, and highlighted the historical significance of a woman to assume these functions for the first time in Brazil. "Allow me to highlight and congratulate you with the historical significance of the first election of a woman as President of the Federative Republic of Brazil," read the message sent by José Manuel Barroso to the new President of Brazil. The European leader recalled that "Brazil is a strategic partner of prime importance for the EU, sharing values and common strategic objectives" and advocated the continuation of Brazil's role in world affairs, a country "stronger, able to contribute to the resolution of global problems, to the stability and prosperity of Latin America and the intensification of bilateral relations with the European Union". According to Barroso, "The European Commission is confident that it will continue to work with Your Excellency and your Government in deepening the strategic partnership between the EU and Brazil, established in July 2007, and that it will further strengthen in the coming years".|
|Argentina||The Foreign Ministry issued a statement wishing success to Rousseff. "This victory affirms the continuity of policies that have been developed, both in Mercosur and Unasur, for the well-being of our peoples and the entire Latin American community."The statement also stressed the importance of the Brazilian election in consolidating democracy on the continent.|
|Bolivia||President Evo Morales issued a statement calling Rousseff's victory as a "triumph of democracy." According to Morales, Rousseff with the support for Lula, has re-imposed democracy in a "united Latin America that invests in change."|
|Bulgaria||President Georgi Parvanov called the elected president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, inviting her to visit Bulgaria, the country of origin of her father. Parvanov said in his congratulatory message, that the campaign and the elections in Brazil were accompanied with "a huge interest in Bulgaria". "The victory of Rousseff filled the Bulgarian people with pride" he said. She eventually visited Bulgaria in October 2011.|
|Colombia||Vice President Angelino Garzon stated that Colombia will maintain "a level of understanding" with Brazil following the election of the country's new president. "With the new Brazilian government, Colombia will maintain the excellent relations we have been having with President [Luiz Inácio] Lula [da Silva]," Garzon said. He added that Colombia intends to strengthen its relationship with the neighboring country and maintain cooperation between them.|
|Costa Rica||The Foreign Ministry expressed "their warm appreciation" to the government and people of Brazil for the second round of the presidential elections held the previous day which resulted in the election of Dilma Rousseff. "Costa Rica offers its warmest appreciation to the Brazilian people that once again demonstrated their proven talent for democratic freedom."|
|El Salvador||An unnamed Salvadoran government agency issued a congratulatory message to Dilma Rousseff and published a photo of the president of El Salvador, Mauricio Funes, with a flag of the Worker's Party of Brazil. "Brazil is now the world leader of a new democratic order, popular, progressive and humanist." Funes is married to Brazilian Vanda Pignato. "On my behalf, and the first lady of the republic, my dear wife Wanda, and my son Gabriel, who is also a Brazilian citizen, as well as on behalf of the people and government of El Salvador, I extend our congratulations and shows affection of the elected president of Brazil", said Funes.|
|France||President Nicolas Sarkozy expressed his "very warm congratulations" to Dilma Rousseff in a statement issued shortly after the announcement of official results. For Sarkozy, the election reflects the "recognition of the Brazilian people for the considerable work done by President Lula to make Brazil a modern and fairer country." "France and Brazil share the same values and a common vision of the world," said the French president. In addition, Sarkozy reiterated that the two countries "are convinced that it is urgent to combat climate change" and "believe in a renewed multilateralism to organize the multipolar world, taking into account the realities of the twenty-first century." He said Dilma Rousseff "can continue to count on the friendship and unfailing support of France."|
|Guatemala||The president's office congratulated Dilma Rousseff for her victory in Brazil's presidential elections. "The government of President Alvaro Colom and the people of Guatemala congratulate the brotherly people of Brazil for the democratic party held this Sunday in their country."|
|Guyana||President Bharrat Jagdeo sent a congratulatory message to Dilma Rousseff, expressing his "best wishes in preparing to assume the leadership of the country that has become one of the most progressive and influential of our hemisphere." He noted that both countries enjoy "excellent relations" and expressed confidence that Rousseff's policies for Brazil will allow the "continuation of political stability and a great economic and social progress."|
|Iran||President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sent a message of congratulations to Dilma, stating that he is "sure that in your term in office, Brazil will move faster in the path of progress and development...and Iran-Brazil ties have considerably expanded in the recent years and I am sure that this trend will continue in your term in office." He also said Brazil has "eye-catching progress which I am certain will continue and consolidate under your leadership," while adding that relations between Iran and Brazil had borne "valuable results on bilateral, regional and international."|
|Mexico||President Felipe Calderón contacted Rousseff by telephone and expressed his willingness to "continue the strengthening of bilateral relations," and conveyed his approval "for his exemplary civic and democratic exercise" of the election.|
|Morocco||King Mohammed VI sent a congratulatory message to Rousseff. In this message, the Monarch expressed to Rousseff his best wishes for good health, happiness and success in her high office and in her endeavours to lead the Brazilian people towards further progress and prosperity. "The democratic choice expressed by the people of Brazil is a tribute to your lofty human qualities and vast political experience. It attests to the Brazilian people's trust in your ability to lead your country towards further social and economic accomplishments and enhance its standing at regional and international levels," the King said.|
|Nicaragua||President Daniel Ortega sent an enthusiastic greeting to Dilma Rousseff, for her victory in the presidential elections, "What a joy and blessing the triumph of a woman as president of immense Brazil, that integrates cultures and proposals; Brazil that has grown amongst the world, with a worthy policy demanding recognition and participation of the [nations of the] South, against the rich arrogant powers of the North," reads the message.|
|Paraguay||President Fernando Lugo spoke by telephone with the president-elect of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, to congratulate her electoral victory, said the Paraguayan Minister of Justice and Labour, Humberto Blasco. Miguel Lopez Perito, Chief of Staff, said that Rousseff's election "represents a favorable position" to Paraguay.|
|Peru||President Alan Garcia expressed his most sincere congratulations and best wishes on behalf of the people and Government of Peru. He expressed interest and commitment of his Government to further strengthen and deepen the strategic ties between Peru and Brazil, said the report issued by the Presidency.|
|Portugal||President Anibal Cavaco Silva signed an official statement that says he is confident that the mandate of Dilma Rousseff "[will] provide a renewed opportunity to deepen our relationship and our strategic cooperation. You can, Your Excellency, have my strong personal commitment accordingly." Silva invited the President-elect to visit Portugal soon. "I ask you to accept my hope for the personal happiness of Your Excellency and the continued prosperity and progress of the brotherly people of Brazil" concluded the president. Prime Minister Jose Socrates has also congratulated the president-elect.|
|Russia||President Dmitry Medvedev congratulated the new president of Brazil, Rousseff, for her "convincing" victory: "Accept my sincere congratulations on the occasion of her convincing victory in presidential elections," said Medvedev in a message addressed to Dilma Rousseff. The Russian president praised the "important achievements in the development of friendly relations and cooperation between Russia and Brazil" and was "ready" to continue with this association, according to the Kremlin statement. "I wish you success in this high office and wish happiness and prosperity to the Brazilian people" he added.|
|Spain||Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero sent a telegram of congratulations to Dilma Rousseff that highlights that he will continue to work to maintain good relations between the two countries.|
|United States||President Barack Obama spoke by telephone with the president-elect of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, to congratulate her and wish good luck on her government. Obama invited Dilma Rousseff to visit the United States and expressed interest in continuing the strategic projects with the Brazilian government, like those established in the energy area. The State Department also separately congratulated Rousseff on her win. "The exemplary electoral process again illustrates Brazil's long-standing respect for democratic governance, civil rights and individual liberties, values that we share in common," State Department spokesman Philip Crowley said in a statement. "We look forward to working with president-elect Dilma Rousseff to deepen our partnership and advance common goals for the benefit of our two peoples and the Americas."|
|Uruguay||President José Mujica spoke by telephone with President-elect Dilma Rousseff and expressed his satisfaction with her electoral success.|
|Venezuela||President Hugo Chávez congratulated Dilma at the end of his TV show "Alô Presidente," saying: "Sister, friend, welcome to the club. I send you a kiss, a hug. Viva Lula!"|
One of the important outcomes of the election was seen as the role of new media. Al Jazeera English also analysed the difference between the Brazil and Myanamar elections where the former was a "defeat for big media" and the latter saw a media clampdown in the run-up to the election.
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- (Portuguese) Mendonça, Ricardo. "Boca de Urna: Dilma e o crack". Época. May 12, 2010.
- (Portuguese) "Veja as principais propostas dos presidenciáveis Dilma, Marina e Serra para cinco áreas". R7. July 7, 2010.
- (Portuguese) EFE. "Final da Libertadores teve audiência maior que debate dos presidenciáveis". European Pressphoto Agency. August 6, 2010.
- "Brazil candidates begin daily election broadcasts". BBC. August 18, 2010.
- Dáu, Priscila. "Começa amanhã horário eleitoral gratuito no rádio e na televisão". Correio. September 16, 2010.
- Wheatley, Jonathan. "Brazil's election: who's your choice?". Financial Times. August 18, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Noblat, Ricardo. "Deu a louca no programa de Marina". O Globo. August 19, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Agência Estado. "Marina critica "favela artificial" em propaganda do PSDB". ClicRBS. August 18, 2010.
- (Portuguese) "Elba Ramalho esclarece que não gravou jingle para Serra". Terra. August 18, 2010.
- Dilma in Rio – 2010 Presidential Election
- (Portuguese) "“Serra comedor” se espalha nas redes sociais". Terra Eleições. August 18, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Campanerut, Camila. "Pesquisa CNT/Sensus: Dilma tem 46% das intenções de voto; Serra, 28,1%". BOL. August 24, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Pasini, Mariana. "PSOL indica 'voto crítico' em Dilma ou voto nulo no 2º turno". G1. October 15, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Agência Brasil. "Heloísa Helena deixa presidência do PSol por causa do apoio à Dilma". Correio Braziliense. October 20, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Brazilian Communist Party. "Derrotar Serra nas urnas e depois Dilma nas ruas". Brasil de Fato. October 19, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Neto, Eduardo Almeida. "Como lutar contra a direita nas eleições? Votando nulo". Unified Workers' Socialist Party. October 5, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Rodrigo Rodrigues. "PV e Marina anunciam neutralidade no segundo turno". Último Segundo. October 17, 2010.
- (Portuguese) Mestieri, Gabriel. "PP formaliza apoio a Dilma no 2º turno". R7. October 14, 2010.
- (Portuguese) "Confira o calendário eleitoral 2010". Terra.
- Official results by electoral zone. Supreme Electoral Court official website.
- "Embaixadas: Dilma vence em Paris e Roma; Serra em Londres". Terra (in Portuguese). October 3, 2010.
- Flint, Guila (October 3, 2010). "Dilma ganha eleições em Ramallah, Serra é vitorioso em Tel Aviv". BBC Brasil (in Portuguese).
- Trevisan, Cláudia (October 3, 2010). "Serra vence eleição na Nova Zelândia". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese).
- Calgaro, Fenanda (October 3, 2010). "Serra vence eleição em Londres em disputa acirrada com Dilma". UOL.
- (Portuguese) Eleições 2010 – Apuração. Agência Brasil.
- Durão Barroso felicita vitória de Dilma Rousseff e quer continuação de parceria estratégica Jornal de Notícias. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Portuguese).
- Líderes internacionais parabenizam Dilma pela vitória G1.com.br. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Portuguese).
- Presidente da Bulgária convida Dilma a visitar o país onde o pai dela nasceu G1.com.br. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Portuguese).
- Dilma Rousseff visita a cidade natal do pai, na Bulgária Jornal Nacional. Retrieved on 2012-05-24. (Portuguese).
- Colombia will maintain "excellent relations" with new Brazilian leader Colombia Reports. Retrieved on 2010-11-01.
- Guayana felicita a Dilma Rousseff, la primera presidenta de Brasil EFE. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Spanish).
- Ahmadinejad congratulates Brazilian president-elect Rousseff Iran Times. Retrieved on 2010-11-01.
- Los líderes iberoamericanos felicitan a Rousseff EuropaPress. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Spanish).
- Felicitó Daniel Ortega a presidenta electa de Brasil Prensa Latina. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Spanish).
- Obama e outros presidentes parabenizam Dilma pela vitória G1.com.br. Retrieved on 2010-11-01. (Portuguese).
- "'Bem-vinda ao clube', diz Hugo Chávez para Dilma". Folha.com. 31 October 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Picking Lula's Replacement: Brazil's Presidential Race Heads to Runoff – video report by Democracy Now!