Bromodeoxyuridine

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Bromodeoxyuridine
Bromodeoxyuridine.svg
Identifiers
59-14-3 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL222280 N
ChemSpider 5294121 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
MeSH Bromodeoxyuridine
PubChem 6918942
UNII G34N38R2N1 YesY
Properties
C9H11BrN2O5
Molar mass 307.10 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, BUdR, BrdUrd) is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analog of thymidine. BrdU is commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues.[1] 5-Bromodeoxycytidine is deaminated to form BrdU.[2]

BrdU can be incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of replicating cells (during the S phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated), substituting for thymidine during DNA replication. Antibodies specific for BrdU can then be used to detect the incorporated chemical (see immunohistochemistry), thus indicating cells that were actively replicating their DNA. Binding of the antibody requires denaturation of the DNA, usually by exposing the cells to acid or heat.[3]

BrdU can be passed to daughter cells upon replication.[4] BrdU has been demonstrated to be detectable over two years post-infusion.[5]

Because BrdU can replace thymidine during DNA replication, it can cause mutations, and its use is therefore potentially a health hazard.[3] However, because it is neither radioactive nor myelotoxic at labeling concentrations, it is widely preferred for in vivo studies of cancer cell proliferation.[6][7] However, at radiosensitizing concentrations, BrdU becomes myelosuppressive thus limiting its use for radiosensitizing.[2]

BrdU differs from thymidine in that BrdU substitutes a bromine atom for thymidine's CH3 group. The Br substitution can be used in X-Ray diffraction experiments in crystals containing either DNA or RNA. The Br atom acts as an anomalous scatterer and its larger size will affect the crystal's x-ray diffraction enough to detect isomorphous differences as well.[8][9]

Bromodeoxyuridine releases gene silencing[clarification needed] caused by DNA methylation.[10]

BrdU can also be also used to identify microorganisms that respond to specific carbon substrates in aquatic[11] and soil [12] environments. A carbon substrate added to incubations of environmental samples will cause the growth of microorganisms that can utilize that substrate. These microorganisms will then incorporate BrdU into their DNA as they grow. Community DNA can then be isolated and BrdU-labeled DNA purified using an immunocapture technique.[13] Subsequent sequencing of the labeled DNA can then be used to identify the microbial taxa that participated in the degradation of the added carbon source.

However, it is not certain whether all microbes present in an environmental sample can incorporate BrdU into their biomass during de novo DNA synthesis. Therefore, a group of microorganisms may respond to a C source but go undetected using this technique. Additionally, this technique is biased towards identifying microorganisms with A and T rich genomes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lehner, Bernadette; Sandner, Beatrice; Marschallinger, Julia; Lehner, Christine; Furtner, Tanja; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Rivera, Francisco J.; Brockhoff, Gero; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Aigner, Ludwig (2011). "The dark side of BrdU in neural stem cell biology: Detrimental effects on cell cycle, differentiation and survival". Cell and Tissue Research 345 (3): 313–28. doi:10.1007/s00441-011-1213-7. PMID 21837406. 
  2. ^ a b Russo, Angelo; 1 Luca Gianni, Timothy J. Kinsella, Raymond W. Klecker, Jr, Jeanne Jenkins, Jan Rowland, Eli Glatstein, James B. Mitchell, Jerry Collins, and Charles Myers (April 1984). "Pharmacological Evaluation of Intravenous Delivery of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine to Patients with Brain Tumors". Cancer Research 44 (4): 1702–1705. PMID 6704976. 
  3. ^ a b Konishi, Teruaki; Takeyasu, Akihiro; Natsume, Toshiyuki; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hieda, Kotaro (2011). "Visualization of Heavy Ion Tracks by Labeling 3'-OH Termini of Induced DNA Strand Breaks". Journal of Radiation Research 52 (4): 433–40. doi:10.1269/jrr.10097. PMID 21785232. 
  4. ^ Kee, N; S Sivalingam; R Boonstra; J.M Wojtowicz (March 2002). "The utility of Ki-67 and BrdU as proliferative markers of adult neurogenesis". Journal of Neuroscience Methods 115 (1): 97–105. doi:10.1016/S0165-0270(02)00007-9. PMID 11897369. 
  5. ^ Eriksson, Peter; Ekaterina Perfilieva; Thomas Björk-Eriksson; Ann-Marie Alborn; Claes Nordborg; Daniel A. Peterson; Fred H. Gage (1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus". Nature Medicine. 1313-1317 4 (11): 1313–1317. doi:10.1038/3305. PMID 9809557. 
  6. ^ Fujimaki, MD, Takamitsu; Masao Matsutani, MD, Osamu Nakamura, MD, Akio Asai, MD, Nobuaki Funada, MD, Morio Koike, MD, Hiromu Segawa, MD, Kouichi Aritake, MD, Takanori Fukushima, MD, Shuntaro Houjo, MD, Akira Tamura, MD, Keiji Sano, MD (29 June 2006). "Correlation Between Bromodeoxyuridine- Labeling Indices and Patient Prognosis in Cerebral Astrocytic Tumors of Adults". Cancer 67 (6): 1629–1634. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19910315)67:6<1629::AID-CNCR2820670626>3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 2001552. 
  7. ^ Hoshino, Takao; Tadashi Nagashima; Judith Murovic; Ellen M. Levin; Victor A. Levin; Stephen M. Rupp (1985). "Cell Kinetic Studies of In Situ Human Brain Tumors With Bromodeoxyuridine". Cytometry 6 (6): 627–632. doi:10.1002/cyto.990060619. PMID 2998714. 
  8. ^ Peterson, M. R.; Harrop, S. J.; McSweeney, S. M.; Leonard, G. A.; Thompson, A. W.; Hunter, W. N.; Helliwell, J. R. (1996). "MAD Phasing Strategies Explored with a Brominated Oligonucleotide Crystal at 1.65Å Resolution". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 3 (Pt 1): 24–34. doi:10.1107/S0909049595013288. PMID 16702655. 
  9. ^ Beck, Tobias; Gruene, Tim; Sheldrick, George M. (2010). "The magic triangle goes MAD: Experimental phasing with a bromine derivative". Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 66 (4): 374–80. doi:10.1107/S0907444909051609. PMC 2852301. PMID 20382990. 
  10. ^ Weiss, R. A. (12 August 2013). "On the concept and elucidation of endogenous retroviruses". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. pp. 20120494–20120494. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0494. PMC 3758183. PMID 23938748. 
  11. ^ Tada, Yuya; Hans-Peter Grossart (29 August 2013). "Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method". The ISME Journal 8. pp. 441–454. doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.148. 
  12. ^ Borneman, James (August 1999). "Culture-Independent Identification of Microorganisms That Respond to Specified Stimuli". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (8). pp. 3398–3400. 
  13. ^ Urbach, Ena; Kevin L. Vergin; Stephen J. Giovannoni (March 1999). "Immunochemical Detection and Isolation of DNA from Metabolically Active Bacteria". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (3). pp. 1207–1213. 

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