Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences

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Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences
Awarded forResearch aimed at curing intractable diseases and extending human life.
DateFebruary 20, 2013 (2013-02-20)
Reward(s)$3 million
First awarded2013
Websitebreakthroughprizeinlifesciences.org

The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences is a scientific award, funded by internet entrepreneurs Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan of Facebook; Sergey Brin of Google; entrepreneur and venture capitalist Yuri Milner; and Anne Wojcicki, one of the founders of the genetics company 23andMe. [1]

The award of $3 million, the largest award in the sciences,[2] is given to researchers who have made discoveries that extend human life. The Prize is awarded annually, beginning in 2013, with six awards given in each subsequent year. Winners are expected to give public lectures and form the committee to decide future winners.[1] The ceremony takes place in the San Francisco Bay Area, with the symposiums alternating between University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Francisco, and Stanford University.

Laureates[edit]

2013[edit]

Eleven inaugural laureates were announced in 2013. Each received $3,000,000.[1]

2014[edit]

The 2014 laureates were:[6]

2015[edit]

The 2015 laureates were:[8]

2016[edit]

The 2016 laureates were:[9]

2017[edit]

The 2017 laureates were:[10]

  • Stephen J. Elledge, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for elucidating how eukaryotic cells sense and respond to damage in their DNA and providing insights into the development and treatment of cancer.
  • Harry F. Noller, University of California, Santa Cruz, for discovering the centrality of RNA in forming the active centers of the ribosome, the fundamental machinery of protein synthesis in all cells, thereby connecting modern biology to the origin of life and also explaining how many natural antibiotics disrupt protein synthesis.
  • Roeland Nusse, Stanford University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for pioneering research on the Wnt pathway, one of the crucial intercellular signaling systems in development, cancer and stem cell biology.
  • Yoshinori Ohsumi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, for elucidating autophagy, the recycling system that cells use to generate nutrients from their own inessential or damaged components.
  • Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children’s Hospital and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discoveries of the genetic causes and biochemical mechanisms of spinocerebellar ataxia and Rett syndrome, findings that have provided insight into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases.

2018[edit]

The 2018 laureates were:[10]

  • Joanne Chory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discovering how plants optimize their growth, development, and cellular structure to transform sunlight into chemical energy.
  • Peter Walter, University of California, San Francisco and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins and directs cells to take corrective measures.
  • Kazutoshi Mori, Kyoto University, for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins and directs cells to take corrective measures.
  • Kim Nasmyth, University of Oxford, for elucidating the sophisticated mechanism that mediates the perilous separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division and thereby prevents genetic diseases such as cancer.
  • Don W. Cleveland, University of California, San Diego, for elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of a type of inherited ALS, including the role of glia in neurodegeneration, and for establishing antisense oligonucleotide therapy in animal models of ALS and Huntington disease.

2019[edit]

The 2019 laureates were:[10]

  • C. Frank Bennett, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, for the development of an effective antisense oligonucleotide therapy for children with the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy.
  • Adrian R. Krainer, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, for the development of an effective antisense oligonucleotide therapy for children with the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy.
  • Angelika Amon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, for determining the consequences of aneuploidy, an abnormal chromosome number resulting from chromosome mis-segregation.
  • Xiaowei Zhuang, Harvard University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discovering hidden structures in cells by developing super-resolution imaging – a method that transcends the fundamental spatial resolution limit of light microscopy.
  • Zhijian James Chen, UT Southwestern Medical Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dallas, for elucidating how DNA triggers immune and autoimmune responses from the interior of a cell through the discovery of the DNA-sensing enzyme cGAS.

2020[edit]

The 2020 laureates were:[11]

  • Jeffrey M. Friedman, Rockefeller University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for the discovery of a new endocrine system through which adipose tissue signals the brain to regulate food intake.
  • F. Ulrich Hartl, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Munich, for discovering functions of molecular chaperones in mediating protein folding and preventing protein aggregation.
  • Arthur L. Horwich, Yale School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discovering functions of molecular chaperones in mediating protein folding and preventing protein aggregation.
  • David Julius, University of California, San Francisco, for discovering molecules, cells, and mechanisms underlying pain sensation.
  • Virginia M.-Y. Lee, University of Pennsylvania, for discovering TDP43 protein aggregates in frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and revealing that different forms of alpha-synuclein, in different cell types, underlie Parkinson’s disease and Multiple System Atrophy.

2021[edit]

The 2021 laureates were:[12]

  • David Baker, University of Washington and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for developing technology that allowed the design of proteins never seen before in nature, including novel proteins that have the potential for therapeutic intervention in human diseases.
  • Catherine Dulac, Harvard University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for deconstructing the complex behavior of parenting to the level of cell-types and their wiring, and demonstrating that the neural circuits governing both male and female-specific parenting behaviors are present in both sexes.
  • Yuk Ming Dennis Lo, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, for discovering that fetal DNA is present in maternal blood and can be used for the prenatal testing of trisomy 21 and other genetic disorders.
  • Richard J. Youle, National Institutes of Health, for elucidating a quality control pathway that clears damaged mitochondria and thereby protects against Parkinson’s Disease.

2022[edit]

The 2022 laureates are:[13]

  • Jeffery W. Kelly, Scripps Research Institute, for elucidating the molecular basis of neurodegenerative and cardiac transthyretin diseases, and for developing tafamidis, a drug that slows their progression.
  • Katalin Karikó, BioNTech and University of Pennsylvania, for engineering modified RNA technology which enabled rapid development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Drew Weissman, University of Pennsylvania, for engineering modified RNA technology which enabled rapid development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Shankar Balasubramanian, University of Cambridge, for the development of a robust and affordable method to determine DNA sequences on a massive scale, which has transformed the practice of science and medicine.
  • David Klenerman, University of Cambridge, for the development of a robust and affordable method to determine DNA sequences on a massive scale, which has transformed the practice of science and medicine.
  • Pascal Mayer [fr], Alphanosos, for the development of a robust and affordable method to determine DNA sequences on a massive scale, which has transformed the practice of science and medicine.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rory Carroll (20 February 2013). "Breakthrough Prize announced by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  2. ^ The Economist. "Take it, Alfred" https://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2013/02/science-prizes
  3. ^ "Cantley, Lewis C." cornell.edu.
  4. ^ "Cori Bargmann, Titia de Lange win inaugural Breakthrough Prizes worth $3 million". rockefeller.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-02-24.
  5. ^ "Charles L. Sawyers, MD". HHMI.org.
  6. ^ "Breakthrough Prize 2014". breakthroughprize.org. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
  7. ^ Leach, Dana R.; Krummel, Matthew F.; Allison, James P. (22 March 1996). "Enhancement of Antitumor Immunity by CTLA-4 Blockade". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 271 (5256): 1734–1736. doi:10.1126/science.271.5256.1734. ISSN 0036-8075.
  8. ^ "Breakthrough Prize 2015". breakthroughprize.org. Archived from the original on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2014-11-24.
  9. ^ "Breakthrough Prize – Breakthrough Prize Awarded $22 Million In Science Prizes". breakthroughprize.org. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "Breakthrough Prize – Life Sciences Breakthrough Prize – Laureates". breakthroughprize.org. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Breakthrough Prize – Winners Of The 2020 Breakthrough Prize In Life Sciences, Fundamental Physics And Mathematics Announced". breakthroughprize.org. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Breakthrough Prize – Winners Of The 2021 Breakthrough Prizes In Life Sciences, Fundamental Physics And Mathematics Announced". breakthroughprize.org. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  13. ^ "Breakthrough Prize – Winners Of The 2022 Breakthrough Prizes In Life Sciences, Fundamental Physics And Mathematics Announced". breakthroughprize.org. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  14. ^ Overbye, Dennis (13 December 2013). "$3 Million Prizes Will Go to Mathematicians, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2021. (subscription required)

External links[edit]