Breast enlargement supplement
Breast enlargement supplements are frequently portrayed as being a natural means to increase breast size, and with the suggestion that they are free from risk.:1330 The popularity of breast enlargement supplements stems from their heavy promotion:1330 toward women.:1345 Though there has been historical folklore about using herbs for breast enlargement, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of any breast enlargement supplement. At times, testimonials by companies have been faked.:1345 In the United States, both the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration have taken action against the manufacturers of these products for fraudulent practices. The Mayo Clinic advises that there may be serious drug interactions with their use.
Types and ingredients
Products typically contain a variety of ingredients of plant or fungal origin. The compounds claimed to be pharmacologically active are typically estrogen mimics (called xenoestrogens; specifically known as phytoestrogens in plants and mycoestrogens in fungi).
- Black cohosh:1330
- Dong quai:1331
- Pueraria mirifica
Efficacy and safety
There is inadequate scientific study whether herbal breast enlargement can be safely achieved. It is unlikely that any of the common ingredients would be efficacious.:1347 No randomized, blinded and fully controlled tests has been performed to test any breast enhancement product.:1332 Most supplement ingredients do not have significant adverse effects, but some ingredients are potentially dangerous for consumption or use.:1348
Some naturally occurring compounds produced by plants and fungi can carry serious health risks. One potential risk is an increased chance of breast cancer. Some of the ingredients included in supplements are carcinogenic, including don quai.:1331 By altering the body's hormonal levels, certain ingredients, including zearalenone, may reduce fertility.
One ingredient, kava, may cause liver damage.:1347 Black cohosh has been shown to have no estrogenic effect in vivo or in vitro.:1330 Hops contains estrogen-like compounds, called prenylflavonoids, the most potent of which is 8-prenylnaringenin. Hops' effect on fertility lacks research.:4914 Prenylflavonoids from hops have anticancer properties. Zearalenone and its derivatives are a class of xenoestrogens associated with many herbal bust enhancement products. There have been some claims that zearalenone can increase the size of breasts in humans, but there are no tests of efficacy or safety.:1345 Zearalenone, produced by a toxic fungus, is a mycoestrogen that stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells, increases the chance of estrogen dependent breast cancer, and may reduce fertility. Other supplements are unlikely to have been spoiled with the mould.:1348
Indirect assay tests of the product Erdic (also known as Bust out) on the uterus of rodents, by measuring the amount of estrogen present, showed no difference from the control.:1345 Preliminary findings in 2001, in mice, suggested that hops-based products would be ineffective. Another test, of a hops ingredient on mice showed weak effects for high dosages.:1346 Diosgenin, which is present in fenugreek and wild yam, affected maturation, but that wasn't enough evidence for this indication.:1347
- Chalfoun, Charbel; McDaniel, Candice; Motarjem, Pejman; Evans, Gregory R. D.; Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation DATA Committee (2004). "Breast-Enhancing Pills: Myth and Reality". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 114 (5): 1330–3. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000141495.14284.8B. PMID 15457059.
- Fugh-Berman, A (2003). "'Bust enhancing' herbal products". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 101 (6): 1345–9. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00362-4. PMID 12798545.
- Breast-Enlarging Herbs: A Bust?, Psychology Today, 2010
- 2003 Annual Review of Antitrust Law Developments. American Bar Association, ABA Section of Antitrust Law. p. 179.
- "Developer of Purported Breast Enhancement Product Settles FTC Charges". 22 January 2003. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- "Warning Letters - Dixie Health Inc 8/30/13". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- "Marketers of Purported "Breast Enhancement" System Settle FTC Charges". 26 December 2002. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- Pruthi M.D., Sandhya (16 August 2012). "Natural breast enhancement: Does it work?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Pazaiti, A.; Kontos, M.; Fentiman, I. S. (2012). "ZEN and the art of breast health maintenance". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 66 (1): 28–36. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02805.x. PMID 22145580.
- Milligan, S. R.; Kalita, JC; Pocock, V; Van De Kauter, V; Stevens, JF; Deinzer, ML; Rong, H; De Keukeleire, D (2000). "The Endocrine Activities of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Related Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Flavonoids". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 85 (12): 4912–5. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.12.7168. PMID 11134162.
- Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E (2004). "Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: To your good health!". Phytochemistry. 65 (10): 1317–30. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.04.025. PMID 15231405.
- Coldham, N.G; Sauer, M.J (2001). "Identification, quantitation and biological activity of phytoestrogens in a dietary supplement for breast enhancement". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 39 (12): 1211–24. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00081-3. PMID 11696395.