Bretschneider's formula

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A quadrilateral.

In geometry, Bretschneider's formula is the following expression for the area of a general quadrilateral:

Here, a, b, c, d are the sides of the quadrilateral, s is the semiperimeter, and α and γ are any two opposite angles, since as long as

Bretschneider's formula works on both convex and concave quadrilaterals (but not crossed ones), whether it is cyclic or not.

The German mathematician Carl Anton Bretschneider discovered the formula in 1842. The formula was also derived in the same year by the German mathematician Karl Georg Christian von Staudt.


Denote the area of the quadrilateral by K. Then we have


The law of cosines implies that

because both sides equal the square of the length of the diagonal BD. This can be rewritten as

Adding this to the above formula for 4K2 yields

Note that: (a trigonometric identity true for all )

Following the same steps as in Brahmagupta's formula, this can be written as

Introducing the semiperimeter

the above becomes

and Bretschneider's formula follows after taking the square root of both sides:

Emmanuel García has used the generalized half angle formulas to give an alternative proof. [1]

Related formulae[edit]

Bretschneider's formula generalizes Brahmagupta's formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral, which in turn generalizes Heron's formula for the area of a triangle.

The trigonometric adjustment in Bretschneider's formula for non-cyclicality of the quadrilateral can be rewritten non-trigonometrically in terms of the sides and the diagonals e and f to give[2][3]


  1. ^ E. A. José García, Two Identities and their Consequences, MATINF, 6 (2020) 5-11. [1]
  2. ^ Coolidge, J. L. (1939). "A Historically Interesting Formula for the Area of a Quadrilateral". The American Mathematical Monthly. 46 (6): 345–347. doi:10.2307/2302891. JSTOR 2302891.
  3. ^ Hobson, E. W. (1918). A Treatise on Plane Trigonometry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 204–205.

References & further reading[edit]

  • Ayoub, Ayoub B. (2007). "Generalizations of Ptolemy and Brahmagupta Theorems". Mathematics and Computer Education. 41 (1). ISSN 0730-8639.
  • C. A. Bretschneider. Untersuchung der trigonometrischen Relationen des geradlinigen Viereckes. Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, Band 2, 1842, S. 225-261 (online copy, German)
  • F. Strehlke: Zwei neue Sätze vom ebenen und sphärischen Viereck und Umkehrung des Ptolemaischen Lehrsatzes. Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, Band 2, 1842, S. 323-326 (online copy, German)

External links[edit]