Bretton Woods Conference
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The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
The conference was held in July 1944. Agreements were signed that, after legislative ratification by member governments, established the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- 1 Background
- 2 The agreements
- 3 Encouraging open markets
- 4 Structure of the conference
- 5 The Bank for International Settlements controversy
- 6 Monetary order in a post-war world
- 7 Failed proposals
- 8 Negotiators
- 9 Ratification and Savannah Conference
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Early in the Second World War, John Maynard Keynes of the British Treasury and Harry Dexter White of the United States Treasury Department independently begun to develop ideas about the financial order of the postwar world. (See below on Keynes's proposal for an International Clearing Union.) After negotiation between officials of the United States and United Kingdom, and consultation with some other Allies, a “Joint Statement by Experts on the Establishment of an International Monetary Fund,” was published simultaneously in a number of Allied countries on April 21, 1944. On May 25, 1944, the U.S. government invited the Allied countries to send representatives to an international monetary conference, “for the purpose of formulating definite proposals for an International Monetary Fund and possibly a Bank for Reconstruction and Development.” (The word “International” was only added to the Bank’s title late in the Bretton Woods Conference.) The United States also invited a smaller group of countries to send experts to a preliminary conference in Atlantic City, New Jersey, to develop draft proposals for the Bretton Woods conference. The Atlantic City conference was held from June 15-30, 1944,
The Bretton Woods Conference was held from July 1 to July 22, 1944. The IMF and IBRD were developed as permanent international institutions.
The summary of agreements states:
The nations should consult and agree on international monetary changes which affect each other. They should outlaw practices which are agreed to be harmful to world prosperity, and they should assist each other to overcome short-term exchange difficulties.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was created to speed up reconstruction after the Second World War and to foster economic development, especially through lending to build infrastructure.
The main terms of this agreements were:
- Formation of the IMF and the IBRD, which is today part of the World Bank.
- Adjustably pegged foreign exchange market rate system: Exchange rates were pegged to gold. Governments were only supposed to alter exchange rates to correct a "fundamental disequilibrium."
- Member countries pledged to make their currencies convertible for trade-related and other current account transactions. There were, however, transitional provisions that allowed for indefinite delay in accepting that obligation, and the IMF agreement explicitly allowed member countries to regulate capital flows. The goal of widespread current account convertibility did not become operative until December 1958, when the currencies of the IMF's Western European members and their colonies became convertible.
- As it was possible that exchange rates thus established might not be favourable to a country's balance of payments position, governments had the power to revise them by up to 10% from the initially agreed level ("par value") without objection by the IMF. The IMF could concur in or object to changes beyond that level. The IMF could not force a member to undo a change, but could deny the member access to the resources of the IMF.
- All member countries were required to subscribe to the IMF's capital. Membership in the IBRD was conditioned on being a member of the IMF. Voting in both institutions was apportioned according to formulas giving greater weight to countries contributing more capital ("quotas").
Encouraging open markets
The seminal idea behind the Bretton Woods Conference was the notion of open markets. In his closing remarks at the conference, its president, U.S. Treasury Secreary Henry Morgenthau, stated that the establishment of the IMF and the IBRD marked the end of economic nationalism. This meant countries would maintain their national interest, but trade blocks and economic spheres of influence would no longer be their means. The second idea behind the Bretton Woods Conference was joint management of the Western political-economic order, meaning that the foremost industrial democratic nations must lower barriers to trade and the movement of capital, in addition to their responsibility to govern the system.
Structure of the conference
The highest body of the Bretton Woods Conference was the plenary session, which met only in the first and last days of the conference and existed mainly to confirm decisions reached by the lower bodies.
The conference conducted its major work through three "commissions." Commission I dealt with the IMF and was chaired by Harry Dexter White, Assistant to the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury and the chief American negotiator at the conference. Commission II dealt with the IBRD and was chaired by John Maynard Keynes, economic adviser to the British Chancellor of the Exchequer and the chief British negotiator at the conference. Commission III dealt with "other means of international financial cooperation" and was chaired by Eduardo Suárez, Mexico’s minister of finance and the leader of the Mexican delegation. It was a venue for ideas that did not fall under the other two commissions.
Each commission had a number of committees, and some committees had subcommittees. Every country at the conference was entitled to send delegates to all meetings of the commissions and the "standing committees," but other committees and subcommittees had restricted membership, to allow them to work more efficiently. Except when registering final approval or disapproval of proposals, the work of the conference generally proceeded by negotiation and informal consensus rather than by formal voting. When voting occurred, each country had one vote.
The United States, the host nation, supplied all the members of the conference secretariat.
The main goal of the conference was to achieve an agreement on the IMF. Enough consensus existed that the conference was also able to achieve an agreement on the IBRD. Doing so required extending the conference from its original closing date of July 19, 1944 to July 22.
Because the United States was the world's largest economy at the time, and the main prospective source of funds for the IMF and IBRD, the U.S. delegation had the largest influence on the proposals agreed to at Bretton Woods..
The Bank for International Settlements controversy
The BIS, formed in 1930, was originally primarily intended to facilitate settling financial obligations arising from the peace treaties that concluded the First World War. During the Second World War, it helped the Germans loot assets from occupied countries. Moreover, now that that IMF was to be established, the BIS seemed to be superfluous. Commission III of the Bretton Woods Conference therefore considered Norway's proposal for "liquidation of the Bank for International Settlements at the earliest possible moment." The proposal passed Commission III without objection and was adopted as part of the Final Act of the conference.
Momentum for dissolving the BIS faded after U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died in April 1945. Under his successor, Harry S. Truman, the top U.S. officials most critical of the BIS left office, and by 1948 the liquidation had been put aside.
Monetary order in a post-war world
The need for post-war Western economic order was resolved with the agreements made on monetary order and open system of trade at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. These allowed for the synthesis of Britain's desire for full employment and economic stability and the United States' desire for free trade. The Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates lasted into the early 1970s.
International Trade Organization
The Conference also recommended that participating governments reach agreement to reduce obstacles to international trade. The recommendation was later embodied in the proposed International Trade Organization (ITO) to establish rules and regulations for international trade. The ITO would have complemented the IMF and IBRD. The ITO charter was agreed on at the U.N. Conference on Trade and Employment (held in Havana, Cuba, in March 1948), but the charter was not ratified by the U.S. Senate. As a result, the ITO never came into existence. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was adopted in its place. However, in 1995, the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations established the World Trade Organization (WTO) as the replacement body for GATT. The GATT principles and agreements were adopted by the WTO, which was charged with administering and extending them.
International Clearing Union
John Maynard Keynes first proposed the ICU in 1941, as a way to regulate the balance of trade. His concern was that countries with a trade deficit would be unable to climb out of it, paying ever more interest to service their ever greater debt, and therefore stifling global growth. The ICU would effectively be a bank with its own currency (the "bancor"), exchangeable with national currencies at a fixed rate. It would be the unit for accounting between nations, so their trade deficits or surpluses could be measured by it.
On top of that, each country would have an overdraft facility in its "bancor" account with the ICU. Keynes proposed having a maximum overdraft of half the average trade size over five years. If a country went over that, it would be charged interest, obliging a country to reduce its currency value and prevent capital exports. But countries with trade surpluses would also be charged interest at 10% if their surplus was more than half the size of their permitted overdraft, obliging them to increase their currency values and export more capital. If, at the year's end, their credit exceeded the maximum (half the size of the overdraft in surplus), the surplus would be confiscated.
Lionel Robbins reported that "it would be difficult to exaggerate the electrifying effect on thought throughout the whole relevant apparatus of government ... nothing so imaginative and so ambitious had ever been discussed". However, Harry Dexter White, representing the United States, which was the world's biggest creditor, said "We have been perfectly adamant on that point. We have taken the position of absolutely no."
Instead, White proposed an International Stabilisation Fund (now the IMF), which would place the burden of maintaining the balance of trade on the deficit nations, and imposing no limit on the surplus that rich countries could accumulate. White also proposed creation of the IBRD (now part of the World Bank) which would provide capital for economic reconstruction after the war.
- Australia was represented by Leslie Melville
- Belgium was represented by Camille Gutt
- Bolivia was represented by René Ballivián Calderón
- Brazil was represented by Minister of Finance Artur de Sousa Costa
- Canada was represented by Minister of Finance James Lorimer Ilsley
- Chile was represented by Luis Álamos Barros
- China was represented by Dr. H.H. Kung
- Colombia was represented by Minister of Finance Carlos Lleras Restrepo
- Costa Rica was represented by Francisco de Paula Gutiérrez Ross
- Cuba was represented by Minister of Finance Eduardo I. Montoulieu
- Czechoslovakia was represented by Minister of Finance Ladislav Feierabend
- The Dominican Republic was represented by Anselmo Copello
- Ecuador was represented by Esteban F. Carbo
- Egypt was represented by Sany Lackany Bey
- El Salvador was represented by Agustín Alfaro Morán
- Ethiopia was represented by Ephrem Tewelde Medhen
- France was represented by Pierre Mendès France
- Greece was represented by Kyriakos Varvaressos
- Guatemala was represented by Manuel Noriega Morales
- Haiti was represented by André Liautaud
- Honduras was represented by Julián R. Cáceres
- Iceland was represented by Magnús Sigurðsson
- India was represented by Sir Jeremy Raisman
- Iran was represented by Abol Hassan Ebtehaj
- Iraq was represented by Ibrahim Kamal
- Liberia was represented by William E. Dennis, Sr.
- Luxembourg was represented by Hugues Le Gallais
- Mexico was represented by Eduardo Suárez
- The Netherlands was represented by Johan Willem Beyen
- New Zealand was represented by Walter Nash
- Nicaragua was represented by Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa
- Norway was represented by Wilhelm Keilhau
- Panama was represented by Augusto Guillermo Arango
- Paraguay was represented by Celso R. Velázquez
- Peru was represented by Pedro Gerardo Beltrán Espantoso
- The Commonwealth of the Philippines was represented by Andrés Soriano
- Poland was represented by Ludwik Grosfeld
- South Africa was represented by S. Frank N. Gie
- The USSR was represented by Mikhail Stepanovich Stepanov
- The UK was represented by John Maynard Keynes
- The USA was represented by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
- Uruguay was represented by Mario La Gamma Acevedo
- Venezuela was represented by Rodolfo Rojas
- Yugoslavia was represented by Vladimir Rybar
Ratification and Savannah Conference
The Articles of Agreement for the IMF and IBRD signed at Bretton Woods came into force on December 27, 1945 after ratification by countries with 80 percent of the capital subscriptions ("quotas").
The institutions were formally organized at an inaugural meeting in Savannah, Georgia on March 8-18, 1946. Notably absent from Savannah was the Soviet Union, which had signed the Bretton Woods agreement but decided not to ratify it. The Soviet Union never joined the IMF and IBRD, though its successor the Russian Federation did in 1992. Australia and New Zealand were likewise absent from formal participation at Savannah (Australia sent observers), though they joined the IMF and IBRD later.
- Bretton Woods system
- Bretton Woods Committee
- Atlantic Charter
- Exchange rates
- Fixed exchange rate
- Gold standard
- International Clearing Union (Proposed by Keynes at Conference)
- International monetary systems including:
- The Bretton Woods Era: 1945–1971
- The post Bretton Woods system: 1971 – present
- The "Revived Bretton Woods system" identified in 2003
- Calls for a "New Bretton Woods"
- International Trade Organization (Proposed at Conference but not ratified by U.S. Senate; later revived in the WTO).
- List of World War II conferences
- Marshall Plan
- Nixon Shock
- Franklin D. Roosevelt
- World War II
- Markwell 2006.
- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v2.pdf, pp. 1629-1636.
- "Invitation of the United States of America to the Conference,"https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf, pp. 3-5.
- IMF Articles of Agreement, Article IV, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf, pp. 945-948.
- IMF Articles of Agreement, Articles VI, VIII, and XIV, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf, pp. 951-952, 954-957, 965-966.
- IMF Articles of Agreement, Article IV, Sections 5-6, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf, pp. 946-947.
- United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Final Act (London et al., 1944), Article IV.
- Kurt Schuler and Andrew Rosenberg, The Bretton Woods Transcripts, p. 566 (New York: Center for Financial Stability, 2013), ISBN 978-1-941801-01-7.
- "Brief history of the BIS"
- Bretton Woods Final Act, Section VII, "International Economic Problems,"https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf, p. 941.
- A full list of conference attendees is in Kurt Schuler and Mark Bernkopf, "Who Was at Bretton Woods?," Center for Financial Stability Paper in Financial History, July 1, 2014, http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Who_Was_at_Bretton_Woods.pdf.
- IMF, "IMF Chronology," https://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/chron/chron.asp
- Markwell, Donald (2006). John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-198-29236-4.
- Mikesell, R. F. (1994). The Bretton Woods Debates: A Memoir. Essays in International Finance 192. Princeton: International Finance Section, Dept. of Economics, Princeton University. ISBN 978-0-881-65099-0.
- Steil, Benn (2013). The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14909-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bretton Woods Conference.|
- Proceedings and Documents of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1-22, 1944
- Documents relating to the Bretton Woods meetings, legislation, and analysis of the results.
- Transcripts and other resources for the conference hosted at the Center for Financial Stability