Brewster SB2A Buccaneer
|An SB2A-4 near NAS Vero Beach, Florida, 1942–43|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Brewster Aeronautical Corporation|
|First flight||17 June 1941|
|Primary users||United States Navy|
United States Army Air Corps
Royal Air Force
The Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a single-engined mid-wing monoplane scout/bomber aircraft built for the Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Navy between 1942 and 1944. It was also supplied to the United States Army Air Forces and United States Marine Corps.
The SB2A was developed for the US Navy, and also ordered in large quantities by the Dutch, French and British Governments. The Dutch order was later taken over by the US Navy and the French order by Britain. An Australian order was cancelled before any of the type were delivered. The Buccaneer was under-powered and poorly constructed, and all of its operators considered it to be unsuitable for combat. SB2As were used as target tugs by the RAF and US Navy, trainers by the USMC and as "hacks" by the USAAF. Many of the completed aircraft were scrapped without entering service, and the type is considered by historians to have been among the worst of World War II. The Truman Committee stated that the SB2A "turned in a miserable performance."
Design and development
In early 1939 the United States Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics launched a program to develop larger scout/bombers to operate from the Navy's aircraft carriers. In April that year the Brewster Aeronautical Corporation was selected to build a prototype of its Model 340 design to meet this requirement; this aircraft was to be designated the XSB2A-1.
The XSB2A-1's design was heavily based on the earlier Brewster SBA scout-bomber. It shared the single-engined, mid-winged monoplane layout of the earlier aircraft, but was larger and had a more powerful engine. The XSB2A-1 was powered by a single Wright R-2600 engine which drove a three-bladed propeller. It was armed with two forward-firing 0.50 inch calibre machine guns in the fuselage and two 0.30 machine guns in each wing. The type was also initially intended to have an enclosed gun turret. The aircraft could carry up to 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of bombs in an internal bomb bay.
The first XSB2A-1 prototype commenced flying trials on 17 June 1941. The results of this testing and changing requirements led to significant changes to the design. These included the airframe being lengthened by 1 foot and two inches, the turret being replaced by a flexible mount in the rear of the cockpit for a pair of 0.30 machine guns, the addition of armour and self-sealing fuel tanks, and changes to the design of the fins and canopy. The combined effect of these changes resulted in the aircraft's weight increasing by almost 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg), which greatly reduced its speed, weapons load and flying range.
In its final form, the SB2A weighed 9,924 pounds (4,501 kg) empty and had a maximum take-off weight of 14,289 pounds (6,481 kg). It had a maximum speed of 274 miles per hour (441 km/h), a cruising speed of 161 miles per hour (259 km/h) and a maximum range of 1,675 miles (2,696 km). The airframe was not well designed, and could be easily damaged. The SB2A was manned by a crew of two: a pilot and airman who served as both an observer and a gunner.
The French Government placed an order for 250 SB2As. Following the fall of France this order was taken over by the British Government, which subsequently ordered a further 500 during 1940; in British service the type was designated the Brewster Bermuda. The Dutch Government also ordered 162 SB2As before the German conquest of the country in May 1940. The Australian Government ordered 243 Bermudas for the Royal Australian Air Force in mid-1940. In December 1940 the US Navy placed an order for 140 SB2As.
Deliveries of the SB2A were greatly delayed. When the French Government placed its order it expected to begin receiving the type from April 1941, after Brewster completed the production of its Brewster F2A Buffalo fighters. However, Brewster experienced difficulties in completing the Buffalos and commencing work on the SB2A. After the British Government requested substantial modifications to the SB2A in early 1941, Brewster formally advised that it would be unable to start deliveries of the type as had been planned earlier. These delays led to the Australian Government cancelling its order of Bermudas in October 1941 in favour of purchasing 297 Vultee Vengeances. Following the attack on Pearl Harbour, the US Government appropriated 192 of the aircraft which had been ordered by the British in January 1942; these aircraft were to be operated by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF).
Serious problems within Brewster also contributed to delays. The company was badly run, and its workforce was poorly trained and frequently took strike action. After Brewster missed deadlines to deliver aircraft to the US Navy, it was taken over by the Navy in April 1942. Production continued to be slow, however, and many of the completed SB2As suffered from defects.
Deliveries of Brewster Bermudas to the British Royal Air Force commenced in July 1942. The RAF judged that the type was unsuitable for combat, and most of the Bermudas delivered to the service were converted to target tugs. Five of the aircraft were transferred to the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy for assessment – four as dive bombers and one as a target towing tug.
The USAAF received 108 Bermudas, which it designated the A-34. The type was considered unsuitable even for training purposes, and were used only as "hacks". As the aircraft broke down they were either abandoned or used as targets for artillery training. The A-34s were withdrawn from service in 1944.
Deliveries to the US Navy took place during 1943 and 1944. The service received 80 SB2A-2s and 60 SB2A-3s; the latter variant was fitted with folding wings and an arrester hook to enable them to operate from aircraft carriers. The US Navy also regarded the SB2A as unsuitable for combat and training purposes, and mainly used its aircraft as target tugs and for ground maintenance training.
The aircraft originally ordered by the Dutch were assigned by the US Navy to the United States Marine Corps. Designated the SB2A-4, the Marines used some of these aircraft to establish their first night fighter squadron VMF(N)-531.
Due to the poor performance of the SB2A, many of the completed aircraft were scrapped by the RAF and US Navy without having been flown operationally. The US Navy cancelled its remaining order of the type in 1943. A total of 771 SB2As were eventually completed.
Historians regard the SB2A as a failure. David Donald has labelled it "one of the worst aircraft of World War II". Similarly, the Pima Air & Space Museum's website states that the type was "perhaps the least successful Allied aircraft of World War II". The National Naval Aviation Museum's website also notes that "overweight, underpowered, and lacking maneuverability, the Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a classic failure".
- XSB2A-1 Buccaneer
- Prototype, one built (Bu1632, 01005).
- Initial production, revised armament – non-folding wings. 80 built (Bu00803/00882).
- Fitted with folding wings and arrestor hook for carrier operations. 60 built (Bu00883/00942).
- Aircraft built for Netherlands and requisitioned for the US Navy. 162 built (Bu29214/29375).
- A-34 Bermuda
- Designation for Lend Lease production for United Kingdom
- Bermuda Mk.1
- Model 340-14 production for United Kingdom. Powered gun mounting replaced by flexible gun mounting. Only 468 of 750 ordered were delivered.
- RAF s/n FF860 – National Museum of Naval Aviation at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. It is displayed as a US Navy SB2A Buccaneer.
- s/n unknown – in storage at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona.
Data from American Warplanes of World War II
- Crew: two: pilot and observer/gunner
- Length: 39 ft 2 in (11.94 m)
- Wingspan: 47 ft 0 in (14.33 m)
- Height: 15 ft 5 in (4.70 m)
- Wing area: 379 ft² (35.2 m²)
- Empty weight: 9,924 lb (4,501 kg)
- Loaded weight: 12,239 lb (5,552 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 14,289 lb (6,481 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-2600-8 radial engine, 1,700 hp (1,268 kW)
- Maximum speed: 274 mph (238 kn, 441 km/h)
- Range: 1,675 mi (1,455 nmi, 2,696 km)
- Service ceiling: 24,900 ft (7,590 m)
- Bombs: 1,000 lb (450 kg)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brewster SB2A Buccaneer.|
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- List of military aircraft of the United States (naval)
- United Press, "Truman Senate Committee’s Findings Evaluate Planes", The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Monday 12 July 1943, Volume 49, page 4.
- Johnson 2011, p. 53.
- Donald 2000, p. 37.
- Bailey 2013, p. 147.
- "Bermuda". Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Smith 1986, p. 54.
- Butler & Hagedorn 2004, p. 161.
- Smith 2008, p. 266.
- Drucker, Graham. "Brewster Bermuda (Brewster SB2A Buccaneer)". www.fleetairarmachive.net. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Norton 2008, p. 188.
- Johnson 2011, p. 54.
- March 1998, p. 38.
- Factsheet: Brewster A-34 Archived January 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved 24 July 2008
- "A-34 Bermuda." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
- Bailey, Gavin J. (2013). Arsenal of Democracy: Aircraft Supply and the Evolution of the Anglo-American Alliance, 1938-1942. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748649735.
- Butler, Phil; Hagedorn, Dan (2004). Air Arsenal North America : Aircraft for the Allies 1938-1945 : Purchases and Lend-Lease. Hinckley, United Kingdom: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1857801636.
- Donald, David, ed. (2000). American Warplanes of World War II. Hoo, United Kingdom: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-392-9.
- Gretzyngier, Robert (2014). Polish Aces of World War 2. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1472800583.
- Johnson, E.R. (2011). United States Naval Aviation, 1919–1941: Aircraft, Airships and Ships Between the Wars. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 078648585X.
- March, editor Daniel J. (1998). British warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace. ISBN 1-874023-92-1.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Norton, Bill (2008). U.S. Experimental & Prototype Aircraft Projects: Fighters 1939-1945. Forest Lake, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 1580071090.
- Smith, Peter C. (1986). Vengeance! The Vultee Vengeance Dive Bomber. Shrewsbury, United Kingdom: Airlife. ISBN 0-906393-65-5.
- Smith, Peter (2008). Dive Bomber! Aircraft, Technology, and Tactics in World War II. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0811748421.
- Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam, Second edition 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
- Andrade, John M. . U.S Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Leicester : Midland Counties Publications, First edition 1979. ISBN 0 904597 22 9.