Death of Brian Wells

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Brian Douglas Wells)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Brian Wells
Brian Douglas Wells.jpg
Wells's driver license photo.
Born
Brian Douglas Wells

(1956-11-15)November 15, 1956
DiedAugust 28, 2003(2003-08-28) (aged 46)
Cause of deathCollar bomb explosion
NationalityAmerican
OccupationPizza delivery driver
MotiveBank robbery conspiracy

Brian Douglas Wells (November 15, 1956 – August 28, 2003) was an American pizza delivery man who died during a complex plot involving a bank robbery, scavenger hunt and homemade explosive device near his hometown of Erie, Pennsylvania. Wells, who was surrounded by police, was killed when an explosive collar locked to his neck detonated. It is known as the "collar bomb" or "pizza bomber" case. The incident was shown live on television.

Wells's involvement in the plot is a matter of controversy. Investigators concluded and a federal prosecutors' indictment alleged Wells was a knowing participant in the bank robbery but was told the bomb was fake and did not know his co-conspirators intended him to die. Wells's family said he was not a willing participant in the incident.

The multiple aspects of the crime meant the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) led an investigative task force in conjunction with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) and the Pennsylvania State Police (PSP). It is the only crime of its kind; CNN described it as "one of the most complicated and bizarre crimes in the annals of the FBI".[1] The incident has gained extensive coverage in mass media, including the Netflix series Evil Genius.

A federal grand jury indicted Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong and Kenneth Barnes on charges of bank robbery, conspiracy, and weapons charges. Fellow co-conspirator William "Bill" Rothstein had died and his roommate Floyd Stockton was given immunity from prosecution so he could testify against Diehl-Armstrong. In 2008, U.S. District Judge Sean J. McLaughlin sentenced Barnes to 45 years in federal prison. Two years later, Diehl-Armstrong was sentenced to life in prison.

Biography[edit]

Brian Wells was born in Warren, Pennsylvania, to Harold and Rose Wells. Harold Wells was a veteran of the Korean War. In 1973, when Wells was a 16-year-old sophomore, he dropped out of Erie's East High School and went to work as a mechanic.[2]

Conspirators[edit]

At the house of Kenneth Barnes, he, Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong, and William Rothstein would discuss ways they could make money. Diehl-Armstrong suggested Barnes kill her father, Harold Diehl, so she would receive an inheritance. Barnes told her he was willing to do this for $200,000.[3] The collar bomb-bank robbery plot was hatched to obtain enough money to pay Barnes to kill Diehl-Armstrong's father.[a] In return for a reduced sentence, Barnes later told investigators Diehl-Armstrong was the mastermind of the crime and that she wanted the money to pay Barnes to kill her father, who she believed was wasting her inheritance.[5]

Armstrong, Barnes, and Rothstein seemed to have had issues with compulsive hoarding.[6][7]

Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong (February 26, 1949 – April 4, 2017) had a history of suffering from multiple mental illnesses including bipolar disorder,[6][7] since her early teens, and seems to have been a serial killer.[8] Before her mental health deteriorated in her twenties, Diehl-Armstrong was an "exemplary student" in high school and earned a master's degree from Gannon College.[6][9] In 1984, she shot her boyfriend Robert Thomas six times as he lay on the couch but was acquitted on claims of self-defense.[6][10] Her husband and several other partners also died under suspicious circumstances.[11] Diehl-Armstrong died from breast cancer in prison on April 4, 2017, at the age of 68.[12][6]

Kenneth Barnes (1954 – June 20, 2019) was a retired television repairman, crack dealer, and Diehl-Armstrong's "fishing buddy". He suffered from diabetes and died in prison on June 20, 2019, at the age of 64-65.[13]

William Ansel Rothstein (January 17, 1944 – July 30, 2004) was born to Matthias Rothstein and B. Virginia Bryner. His father ran the Rola Bottling Company from 1945 to 1978. Rothstein dated Diehl-Armstrong in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He was implicated in a 1977 murder after he gave a handgun to a friend who used it to murder a romantic rival; he later attempted to destroy the weapon but was granted immunity from prosecution in exchange for his testimony.[14] Rothstein was 6 feet 2 inches (1.88 m) tall and regularly wore overalls. He was a handyman and part-time shop teacher, and was also was part of a group called the "fractured intellectuals"; intelligent people who were not well-adjusted.[15] He spoke French and Hebrew fluently. Rothstein was admitted to the Millcreek Community Hospital on July 23, 2004, having previously been diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showing diffuse, large-cell type myeloproliferative lymphoma, and died on July 30 that year at the age of 60.[16][5]

Floyd Arthur "Jay" Stockton Jr. (born 1947) is a convicted rapist of a disabled teenager who lived as a fugitive at Rothstein's house. He was granted immunity for his testimony against Diehl-Armstrong but was never called to testify in court due to illness.[1]

Conspirators' connection to Wells[edit]

Immediately after his death, investigators searched Wells's house and found a list of people he knew including two prostitutes unknown to other members of his family. One of the prostitutes he frequented, Jessica Hoopsick, knew Kenneth Barnes, who dealt crack and whose house was used by prostitutes.[17][18]

Wells as conspirator[edit]

According to law enforcement reports, Wells participated in the planning for the bank robbery the day before and was aware of the complex plot although he believed the bomb would be fake and would serve as an alibi if he was caught.[19][20] According to an FBI affidavit, two witnesses had confirmed Wells talked about the robbery about a month before it occurred.[1] Wells was seen leaving Rothstein's house the day before the incident and investigators believe he participated in a rehearsal. It was believed Wells was killed to reduce the number of witnesses.[18]

Family and friends of Wells dispute his involvement in the bank robbery and his own death; according to them, Wells was accosted at gunpoint and forced to wear the bomb.[2][21]

The crime[edit]

Collar bomb[edit]

Triple-banded metal collar that was locked around Wells's neck

The bomb used in the killing consisted of a hinged collar that worked like a large handcuff to go around the neck, four keyholes that went under the chin, and a rectangular section that contained two pipe bombs, two kitchen timers, and one electronic timer hung down from it over the chest. The device had several decoys to throw off such as unconnected wires, a toy cell phone, and stickers bearing deceptive warnings.[22]

Pizza delivery[edit]

Wells had worked as a pizza delivery worker at the Mama Mia's Pizzeria in Erie for ten years before his death.[23][24] Just after 1:30 p. m. on August 28, 2003, the pizzeria received a call from the payphone of a nearby gas station. The owner could not understand the customer and passed the phone to Wells, who received a call to deliver two pizzas to 8631 Peach Street, an address a few miles from the pizzeria. The address was the location of the transmitting tower of WSEE-TV at the end of a dirt road.[25]

According to law enforcement, upon arriving at the television tower, Wells found the plot had changed and learned the bomb was real. Wells's family disputes this account of the events at the television tower; according them, Wells was accosted at gunpoint by strangers and forced to participate.[26] The details of events at the tower that led to the bomb being attached to Wells's neck have never been firmly established but evidence suggests there was a struggle and that Barnes, Diehl-Armstrong, Rothstein, and Stockton were all present at that time.[27]

Cane-like shotgun carried by Wells during the bank robbery

In interviews by law enforcement, Stockton claimed to be the one to put the bomb on his neck. When Wells discovered that the bomb was real, Barnes said a pistol was fired in order to force Wells's compliance, and witnesses confirmed hearing a gunshot.[28] After the bomb was placed, Wells was given a sophisticated home-made shotgun, which had the appearance of an unusually shaped cane.[29][30]

Wells was instructed to claim three black men had forced the bomb on him and were holding him as a hostage.[31]

Scavenger hunt[edit]

Wells's corpse was found with nine pages of lengthy, hand-written instructions addressed to "Bomb Hostage" telling him to rob the bank. The instructions also included a scavenger hunt listing a series of strictly timed tasks of collecting keys that would delay detonation and eventually defuse the bomb. It also warned Wells would be under constant surveillance and that any attempts to contact authorities would result in the bomb's detonation. "ACT NOW, THINK LATER OR YOU WILL DIE!" was scrawled at the bottom of the instructions.[5]

Robbery[edit]

Wells was instructed to "quietly" enter the PNC Bank at Summit Towne Center on Peach Street and give the teller an affixed note demanding $250,000, and to use his shotgun to threaten anyone who did not cooperate or attempted to flee. Upon entering the bank around 2:30 p.m., Wells slid the note to a teller.[32] The note stated the bomb would explode in fifteen minutes and that the full amount must be handed over within that time. The teller was unable to access the vault that quickly and gave Wells a bag containing $8,702, with which he exited the bank.[32][33]

At 2:38, a witness called 9-1-1 from the bank and reported a male leaving the bank with "a bomb or something wrapped around his neck". This is the first-known emergency call for the incident.[34] According to witnesses at the bank and surveillance footage, after entering the bank, Wells waited in line. When he reached the counter, he began sucking a lollipop. He appeared confident as he left the bank, swinging his cane gun and the bag of money "like Charlie Chaplin" according to one witness.[35]

Arrest and death[edit]

A map showing key locations of the case

Around fifteen minutes after Wells left the bank, he had completed the first task of the scavenger hunt. He was proceeding with the second task when police saw him standing outside his automobile and promptly arrested him, handcuffed him and left him sitting on the ground in the parking lot. Wells said three unnamed black people had placed a bomb around his neck, provided him with the shotgun, and told him they would kill him unless he committed the robbery and complete several other tasks.[5]

The responding police officers did not attempt to disarm the device, instead focusing on clearing the immediate area of pedestrians and ensuring Wells could not detonate the device.[34] The bomb squad was first called at 3:04 p.m., at least thirty minutes after the first 9-1-1 call from the bank and about ten minutes after Wells was arrested. At 3:18, three minutes before the bomb squad arrived, the bomb detonated and blasted a fist-sized hole in Wells's chest, killing him in minutes.[5][36] Traffic congestion in the area delayed the bomb squad's arrival but personnel from the ATF still considered their response appropriately quick.[34]

Aftermath[edit]

WJET-TV, an Erie-based ABC affiliate, broadcast the event live on the air but did not show the moment of the detonation live due to a technical problem.[37] The station provided the footage to FBI investigators, ABC's head office, and sister station in Buffalo, New York. The footage was subsequently leaked to a shock jock on DC101, a radio station in Washington, D.C. who posted it on his website in September 2003. Although he subsequently removed the video at WJET-TV's request, by then it had been posted to numerous video-sharing websites.[38]

Though the note claimed Wells would gain extra time by each key found, police later traveled the note's route and could not complete it in the allotted time, implying Wells would not have had enough time to get the bomb defused.[18] The collar of the bomb was still intact and Wells's body was decapitated so it could be retained.[21]

Death of Robert Pinetti[edit]

The case also involved two further deaths linked to the conspirators. On August 31, 2003, Wells's coworker at the pizza store and its only other delivery driver, Robert Thomas Pinetti, was found dead in his home after suffering a drug overdose.[39]

Murder of James Roden[edit]

On September 20, 2003, Rothstein, who lived near the television tower, called police to inform them the body of a man, James Roden, was hidden in a freezer in a garage at his house. After he telephoned police, Rothstein wrote a suicide note indicating his planned death had nothing to do with Wells.[11] Investigators do not believe Roden ever attempted suicide.[40]

Roden had been living with Diehl-Armstrong for 10 years. In custody, Rothstein claimed Diehl-Armstrong had murdered her then-boyfriend Roden with a 12-gauge shotgun during a dispute over money. Rothstein said she subsequently paid him $2,000 to help hide the body and clean the crime scene at her house.[14]

In January 2005, Diehl-Armstrong pleaded guilty but mentally ill to the murder of Roden and was sentenced to between seven and twenty years in prison. She is believed to have killed Roden to prevent him from informing authorities about the robbery plot.[41]

Diehl-Armstrong and Barnes charged[edit]

In April 2005, Diehl-Armstrong told a state trooper she had information about the Wells case and after meeting with FBI agents, said she would tell them everything she knew if she was transferred from the Muncy Correctional Institution to a minimum-security prison in Cambridge Springs. During a series of interviews, Diehl-Armstrong admitted to providing the kitchen timers used for the bomb, stated Rothstein masterminded the plot and that Wells had been directly involved in the plan.[42]

In late 2005, Barnes, who was in jail on unrelated drug charges, was turned in by his brother-in-law after revealing details of the crime to him. On September 3, 2008, Barnes pleaded guilty to conspiring to rob a bank and to aiding and abetting.[28][43] On December 3 that year, he was sentenced to 45 years in prison by a federal judge in Erie for his role in the crime.[44]

In July 2006, U.S. Attorney Mary Beth Buchanan announced Diehl-Armstrong and Barnes had been charged with the crime, with Diehl-Armstrong as the mastermind. The deceased Rothstein and Wells were named as un-indicted co-conspirators.[19] Buchanan stated Wells had been involved in the plot from the beginning but that his co-conspirators fitted him with a real bomb that would have exploded even if it was removed.[20][45]

Diehl-Armstrong trial[edit]

On July 29, 2008, U.S. District Court Judge Sean J. McLaughlin made an initial finding that Diehl-Armstrong was mentally incompetent to stand trial due to a number of mental disorders, indicating this ruling would be reviewed after she had received a period of treatment in a mental hospital.[46] Diehl-Armstrong was then transferred for treatment to a federal mental-health facility in Texas.[47]

On February 24, 2009, Judge McLaughlin scheduled a hearing for March 11, 2010, to determine whether Diehl-Armstrong was now competent to stand trial.[48] On September 9, the judge determined she was now competent. In October 2010, Diehl-Armstrong took the stand to testify on her own behalf as part of her defense.[49] She asked for a change of venue, arguing extensive media coverage of the case prevented her from receiving a fair trial in Erie. Judge McLaughlin denied this request, noting while the allegations were unusual, "the [news] coverage as a whole has been about as factual and objective as it could be under the circumstances".[50]

On November 1, 2010, Diehl-Armstrong was convicted of armed bank robbery, conspiracy to commit armed bank robbery, and of using a destructive device in a crime.[51] On February 28, 2011, she was sentenced to life in prison, to be served consecutively with the prison term imposed in 2005 for killing Roden.[52] In November 2012, the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit affirmed her conviction.[53] In January 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court denied her petition for certiorari, declining to hear her case.[53][54] In December 2015, Diehl-Armstrong lost a second appeal of her conviction.[55]

Hoopsick confession[edit]

In 2018, Jessica Hoopsick admitted to her involvement in the plot. Melissa Chan of Time wrote; "Hoopsick says a conspirator approached her to find a 'gopher' who could be scared into robbing a bank".[56] In the 2018 documentary Evil Genius, Hoopsick identifies the conspirator as Barnes and alleges she recommended Wells, whom she described as "a pushover".[57] Admitting to setting up Wells in exchange for money and drugs,[56] Hoopsick expressed regret for her role and said Wells had no advance knowledge of the robbery.[56][58] ATF agent Jason Wick stated Hoopsick was uncooperative in 2003 and that authorities "always believed that [she] knew more" about the case; however, Wick also expressed concern Hoopsick might not be a credible witness.[56]

Media attention[edit]

As the case continued to develop, the investigation garnered national media coverage in America. Less than two years since the September 11 attacks, many at first believed the incident to be terrorism-related.[59] Fox's America's Most Wanted featured the story three times and publicized newly released evidence in hopes officials could obtain new clues in the case.[60]

Due to its novelty and complexity, the story remains a fascination for many people. The January 2011 issue of Wired magazine covered the story.[61] In 2012, investigator Jerry Clark and journalist Ed Palattella published Pizza Bomber: The Untold Story of America's Most Shocking Bank Robbery (ISBN 0425250555), a true-crime book detailing the events.[62] In May 2018, Netflix released Evil Genius: The True Story of America's Most Diabolical Bank Heist, a documentary series about the case.[63]

Multiple podcasts have covered the case. Georgia Hardstark of My Favorite Murder featured the story in a July 2017 episode. In August 2017, Dave Warneke reported on the story for the Australian podcast Do Go On.[64] Swindled, a podcast dealing with white-collar crime, covered the Wells story in February 2018.[65] In April 2018, Casefile True Crime released an episode about the incident.[36]

The Wells incident has been the inspiration for a number of works of fiction. A short-lived 2006 NBC television series Heist dramatized the incident in a pilot featuring Zac Efron as a teenage pizza delivery worker who is forced to commit a robbery with a bomb on his chest. As in the real-life incident, the bomb is detonated and kills the victim but the detonation mechanism is a wireless transmitter.[citation needed] It is believed[by whom?] the 2007 Colombian film PVC-1 was inspired by the case.[failed verification][66][67]

The 2011 American comedy film 30 Minutes or Less depicts a pizza delivery man being forced to wear a bomb vest and rob a bank. The film's similarity to the Wells case was criticized by Wells's family but Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group said the filmmakers were not aware of the Wells case.[68]

A collection of news articles that reported developments in the Wells story was analyzed in a scientific study of information novelty.[69]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The inheritance Diehl-Armstrong reportedly coveted was ultimately denied to her. Her father's estate had once been valued about $1.8 million, but gifts to friends had lowered the value to less than $120,000 at his death in January 2014, at the age of 95.[4] In an interview, Harold Diehl reported he had cut off financial support for his daughter decades earlier due to her criminal behavior and failure to hold a steady job. His last will and testament left $2,000 to Diehl-Armstrong, but the estate's obligation to pay outstanding medical bills before inheritances meant she received nothing.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Drew Griffin and David Fitzpatrick (August 8, 2011) New details revealed in 'pizza collar bomb' heist Archived 2018-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, CNN.com, accessed 13 May 2018
  2. ^ a b Dao, James (September 5, 2003). "A Childlike Pizza Deliveryman at the Center of a Puzzling Crime". Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  3. ^ "Collar-Bomb Case – Charges in Bizarre '03 Bank Heist". Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) website. 2007-07-11. Archived from the original on 2019-05-10. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  4. ^ a b "Woman in pizza bomber case to get nothing from father". TribLIVE.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-30. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  5. ^ a b c d e "The Incredible True Story of the Collar Bomb Heist". Archived from the original on 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Erie's Diehl-Armstrong recalled as unique and deadly criminal". goerie.com. Erie Times-News. 4 April 2017. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  7. ^ a b Clark, Jerry; Palattella, Ed (2017). Mania and Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong: Inside the Mind of a Female Serial Killer. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 1–11. ISBN 9781442260085.
  8. ^ Mania and Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong: Inside the Mind of a Female Serial Killer by Jerry Clark, Ed Palattella
  9. ^ Laythe, Joseph W. (2011). Engendered Death: Pennsylvania Women who Kill. Lexington Books. pp. 161–162. ISBN 9781611460926.
  10. ^ Palattella, Ed. "Erie's Diehl-Armstrong recalled as unique and deadly criminal". GoErie.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-26. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  11. ^ a b Rivera, Geraldo (2015-03-25). "Pizza Man Bombing Remains Odd Mystery". Fox News. Archived from the original on 2018-12-18. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  12. ^ Cleary, Tom (May 28, 2018). "Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong Cause of Death: How Did She Die?". Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  13. ^ ED, PALATTELLA. "Erie pizza bomber co-plotter Ken Barnes dies in prison". Erie Times-News – via The Bradford Era.
  14. ^ a b Jim Fischer (2008). Pizza Bombing[permanent dead link], accessed 13 May 2018
  15. ^ Clark & Palattella 2012, p. 114.
  16. ^ "Unraveling The Mysteries Of The Pizza Bomber". www.wbur.org. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  17. ^ "Part 3: The Suspects". Evil Genius: the True Story of America's Most Diabolical Bank Heist. Season 1. Episode 3. 11 May 2018. 30 minutes in. NetFlix. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  18. ^ a b c John Caniglia (2007-07-11). "Erie Bomb Victim was the Dupe in a Greedy Plan". The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
  19. ^ a b "Pizza Deliveryman Who Robbed Bank Had Neck Measured for Bomb Collar". Fox News. Associated Press. 2007-07-19. Archived from the original on 2019-06-20. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  20. ^ a b "Erie bomb victim was the dupe in a greedy plan". Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  21. ^ a b "Bizarre story of pizza-delivery man blown up by collar-bomb still an enigma eight years later". July 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  22. ^ Schapiro, Rich (December 27, 2010). "The Incredible True Story of the Collar Bomb Heist". Archived from the original on November 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020 – via www.wired.com.
  23. ^ Rebecca Hawkes (2018-05-11). "Who was the Pizza Bomber? The gruesome story behind Netflix's new crime sensation". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  24. ^ Sean D. Hamill (2007-07-11). "Indictments Said to Be Near in '03 Robbery Bomb Death". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  25. ^ "Bank Robber May Not Be Perpetrator". WSEE News. August 29, 2005. Archived from the original on August 29, 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  26. ^ "CNN.com – Transcripts". transcripts.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2019-02-12.
  27. ^ Martin, Jim (2008-12-03). "Barnes gets 45 years". Goerie.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-10. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  28. ^ a b "Collar Bomb Bank Robber Gets 45 Years". Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  29. ^ Mandak, Joe (2010-10-13). "Pa. collar-bomb trial jury selection begins". Associated Press News. Archived from the original on 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  30. ^ "Collar Bomb Probe Gets Weirder". Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
  31. ^ Caniglia, John (2007-07-12). "Double-crossed: Erie pizza bomber Brian Wells was both victim and conspirator". The Plain Dealer. p. 3. Archived from the original on 2007-08-22. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  32. ^ a b "Jury Convicts Woman in Collar Bomb Robbery". Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  33. ^ Nephin, Dan (2007-07-11). "Indictment: Bomb victim in on bank plot". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
  34. ^ a b c "Officials say chaos delayed call to bomb squad after robbery". old.post-gazette.com. Archived from the original on 2019-05-03. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  35. ^ "Pizza Bomber Excerpt". February 9, 2016. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Case 81: Brian Wells – Casefile: True Crime Podcast". Casefile: True Crime Podcast. 2018-04-14. Archived from the original on 2018-04-15. Retrieved 2018-04-15.
  37. ^ STUCK, LEANNE (28 August 2015). "12th Anniversary of Erie Pizza Bomber Case". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  38. ^ Thomas, Lillian (Sep 27, 2003). "News media may withhold gruesome images, but Internet sets them free". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
  39. ^ "Co-worker of man killed in Erie bank robbery blast dies at home". old.post-gazette.com. Archived from the original on 2018-10-31. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  40. ^ "Evil Genius: the True Story of America's Most Diabolical Bank Heist". Netflix. Archived from the original on 2018-11-24. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  41. ^ USA vs. Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong Archived 2017-02-18 at the Wayback Machine No. 11-1601, United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, September 25, 2012
  42. ^ "Pizza collar-bomb case solved, official says". Archived from the original on 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  43. ^ "Pennsylvania 'Pizza Bomber' Co-Defendant Pleads Guilty in Bizarre Bank Heist Plot". Fox News. 2008-09-02. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
  44. ^ "Collar Bomb Bank Robber Gets 45 Years". CBS/AP. December 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  45. ^ "Indictment: Bomb victim in on bank plot - USATODAY.com". usatoday30.usatoday.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-26. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
  46. ^ "Diehl Armstrong: Mentally Incompetent". W.I.C.U 12. 2008-07-29. Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
  47. ^ "Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong Could Make Court Appearance". YourErie.com.[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ "Diehl-Armstrong Hearing Scheduled". YourErie.com.[permanent dead link]
  49. ^ Defense humanizes collar bomb suspect for jury[permanent dead link] By JOE MANDAK – Associated Press Published – Oct 28 2010 12:14PM PST
  50. ^ U.S. v. Diehl-Armstrong, Case No. 1:07-cr-26-SJM-1. 739 F.Supp.2d 786 Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine (2010), accessed 29 July 2017
  51. ^ "Diehl-Armstrong faces life sentence". GoErie.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-26. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  52. ^ "'Pizza Bomb' Update: Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong sentenced to life for bizarre Pa. collar-bomb killing". CBS/AP. March 2, 2011. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  53. ^ a b "Pizza-bomber robbery appeal rejected". CNN. January 15, 2013. Archived from the original on January 10, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  54. ^ Diehl-Armstrong v. U.S, no. 12-7609, (docket Archived 2019-10-12 at the Wayback Machine). Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  55. ^ "Diehl-Armstrong comes up short in 2nd appeal". goerie.com. Erie Times-News. 29 December 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  56. ^ a b c d Melissa Chan (May 12, 2018) Netflix's Evil Genius Ends With a Stunning Confession. Here's What Could Happen Next in the Collar Bomb Case Archived 2018-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Time.com, accessed 13 May 2018
  57. ^ "Part 4: The Confessions". Evil Genius: the True Story of America's Most Diabolical Bank Heist. Season 1. Episode 4. 11 May 2018. 37 minutes in. NetFlix. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  58. ^ "Part 4: The Confessions". Evil Genius: the True Story of America's Most Diabolical Bank Heist. Season 1. Episode 4. 11 May 2018. 39 minutes in. NetFlix. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  59. ^ Johnson, Kevin (2003-09-17). "Was pizza deliverer a robber or a victim?". Usatoday.Com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
  60. ^ "The Erie Collar Bomber". America's Most Wanted. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  61. ^ Schapiro, Richard (December 27, 2010). "The Incredible True Story of the Collar Bomb Heist". Wired. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
  62. ^ Clark, Jerry; Palattella, Ed (2012). Pizza bomber: the untold story of America's most shocking bank robbery (Berkley premium ed.). New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 9780425250556.
  63. ^ Greene, Steve (2018-04-30). "Evil Genius Trailer: Netflix and Duplass Brothers' Pizza Bomber Series". IndieWire. Penske Business Media. Archived from the original on 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
  64. ^ "94 – The Collar Bomb Heist – Do Go On – Omny.fm". Omny.fm. Archived from the original on 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  65. ^ "Brian Wells Archives—Swindled | a podcast about white-collar crime and corporate greed". Swindled | a podcast about white-collar crime and corporate greed. Archived from the original on 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  66. ^ "Colombia packs heavy for Cannes | Variety". 2016-01-22. Archived from the original on 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  67. ^ "Cinta colombiana sobre el 'collar bomba', premiada en Festival de Cine de Tesalónica (Grecia) - Archivo Digital de Noticias de Colombia y el Mundo desde 1.990 - eltiempo.com". 2016-03-05. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  68. ^ Peckham, Matt. "'30 Minutes or Less' Comedy Upsets Family of Real-Life 'Pizza Bomber'". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  69. ^ "Newsjunkie: Providing Personalized Newsfeeds via Analysis of Information Novelty" (PDF). Microsoft Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-09-24. Retrieved 2006-09-05. [PDF] (see Figure 5 in Section 5.2 of the paper)

External links[edit]