Brian John Peter Ferneyhough (//; born 16 January 1943) is a British composer, who has resided in California, United States since 1987. Ferneyhough is typically considered to be the central figure of the New Complexity movement. Ferneyhough has taught composition at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg and the University of California, San Diego; he currently teaches at Stanford University and is a regular lecturer in the summer courses at Darmstädter Ferienkurse.
Ferneyhough was born in Coventry and received formal musical training at the Birmingham School of Music and the Royal Academy of Music from 1966–67, where he studied with Lennox Berkeley. Ferneyhough was awarded the Mendelssohn Scholarship in 1968 and moved to mainland Europe to study with Ton de Leeuw in Amsterdam, and later with Klaus Huber in Basel.
Between 1973 and 1986 he taught composition at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg, Germany., where his students included Toshio Hosokawa, Joël-François Durand, Roger Redgate, Alessandro Melchiorre, Giulio Castagnoli, Kaija Saariaho, Joël Bons (winner of the 2021 Grawemeyer Award), Hans-Ola Ericsson, Rodney Sharman.
The Royan Festival of 1974 saw the premiere of Cassandra's Dream Song, the first of several pieces for solo flute, as well as Missa Brevis, written for 12 singers. In 1975, performances of his work for large ensemble Transit and Time and Motion Study III were given; the former piece being awarded a Koussevitzky prize, the latter performed at the Donaueschingen festival. In many of these events he was paired with fellow British composer, Michael Finnissy, with whom he became friends during his student days. In 1984 he was given the title Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.
Between 1987 and 1999 he was Professor of Music at the University of California, San Diego. His graduate students at UCSD included composers Chaya Czernowin and Mark Applebaum, among many others. In 2000, he became William H. Bonsall Professor in Music at Stanford University. For the 2007–08 academic year, he was Visiting Professor at the Harvard University Department of Music. Between 1978 and 1994 Ferneyhough was a composition lecturer at the Darmstädter Ferienkurse and, since 1990, has directed an annual mastercourse at the Fondation Royaumont in France.
In 2012 he was awarded an honorary DMus from Goldsmiths, University of London. In December 2018 he received an honorary degree from the Royal Birmingham Conservatoire for his contribution to contemporary classical music.
Style and technique
Ferneyhough's initial forays into composition were met with little sympathy in England. His submission of Coloratura to the Society for the Promotion of New Music (SPNM) in 1966 was returned, with a suggestion that the oboe part should be scored for clarinet. Whilst Ferneyhough did find it hard, one source of support came from Hans Swarsenski who saw the same thing happen to Cornelius Cardew; Cardew enjoyed a prestigious continental reputation, but a poor one in his homeland. Swarsenski said of Ferneyhough: 'I've taken on an English composer who is I think is enormously talented. If this doesn't work, this is the last time'. Ferneyhough continued to struggle, but the aforementioned Royan festival marked a breakthrough for Ferneyhough's career.
From here, Ferneyhough became closely associated with the so-called New Complexity school of composition (indeed, he is often referred to as the "Father of New Complexity"), characterized by its extension of the modernist tendency towards formalization (particularly as in integral serialism). Ferneyhough's actual compositional approach, however, rejects serialism and other "generative" methods of composing; he prefers instead to use systems only to create material and formal constraints, while their realisation appears to be more spontaneous.
Ferneyhough has been interested in challenging listeners’ ways of absorbing musical information flow, prompting new kinds of temporal awareness by being presented with musical materials (events, objects, gestures, rhythms, textures) that contain their own sufficient complexity:
The more the internal integrity of a musical event suggests its autonomy, the less the capacity of the "time arrow" to traverse it with impunity; it is "bent" by the contact. By the same token, however, the impact of the time vector "damages" the even-object, thus forcing it to reveal its own generative history, the texturation of its successivity: its perception potential has been redefined by the collision. As the piece progresses we are continually stumbling across further stages in this catastrophic obstacle race. The energy accumulation and expenditure across and between these confrontational moments is perceived as a form of internalized metronome, and in fact it is a version of this procedure which most clearly fields the expressive world of Mnemosyne: the retardation and catastrophic timeline modifiers are employed equally to focus temporal awareness through the lens of material.
His scores make huge technical demands on performers. The compositions have, however, attracted a number of advocates, among them the Arditti Quartet, ELISION Ensemble, the members of the Nieuw Ensemble, Ensemble Contrechamps, Ensemble Exposé, Armand Angster, James Avery, Massimiliano Damerini, Arne DeForce, Mats Scheidegger, Friedrich Gauwerky, Nicolas Hodges, Mark Knoop, Geoffrey Morris, Ian Pace, Carl Rosman, Harry Sparnaay, and EXAUDI Vocal Ensemble.
His opera, Shadowtime, with a libretto by Charles Bernstein, and based on the life of the German philosopher Walter Benjamin, was premiered in Munich on 25 May 2004, and recorded in 2005 for CD release in 2006. As is usual for Ferneyhough's works, the opera received mixed reviews. In addition, the production was picketed by a group called Militant Esthetix over the treatment of and association with Walter Benjamin, amongst other things.
Works for string quartet
- First String Quartet (1963)
- Sonatas for String Quartet (1967)
- Second String Quartet (1980)
- Adagissimo (1983)
- Third String Quartet (1987)
- Fourth String Quartet (1989–90)
- Fifth String Quartet (2006)
- Dum transisset I–IV for string quartet (2007)
- Exordium for string quartet (2008)
- Sixth String Quartet (2010)
- Silentium (2014)
Selected solo works
- Sieben Sterne for organ (1970)
- Cassandra's Dream Song for flute (1970–71)
- Time and Motion Study I for bass clarinet (1971–77)
- Time and Motion Study II for singing cellist and live electronics (1973–76)
- Lemma-Icon-Epigram for piano (1982)
- Kurze Schatten II for guitar (1989) (essay, analysis, analysis, score sample)
- Trittico per G.S. for double bass (1989)
- Bone Alphabet for percussion (1991) (score sample)
- Unsichtbare Farben for violin (1999) (score sample)
- Sisyphus Redux for alto flute (2009)
- Quirl for solo piano (2011–13), part of Nicolas Hodges' Studies Project
For non-orchestral ensemble
- Prometheus for wind sextet (1967)
- Transit for solo voices and ensemble (1972–75)
- Time and Motion Study III for sixteen solo voices (3S, Mez, 4A, 4T, 2Bar, 2B), percussion and electronics (1974)
- Carceri d'Invenzione I for fl, ob, 2cl, bn, hn, tpt, trb, euphonium, 1perc, pf, 2vn, va, vc, db [1121, 1111.2111] (1982) (analysis, score sample)
(inspired by the "Carceri d'Invenzione" by Giambattista Piranesi)
- Etudes Transcendantales for soprano and chamber ensemble (1982–1985)
- Carceri d'Invenzione II for flute and ensemble (1985)
- Carceri d'Invenzione III for fifteen wind instruments and percussion (1986)
- La Chute d’Icare for solo clarinet and chamber ensemble (1988) (program note)
- Terrain for violin and chamber ensemble (1992)
- Allgebrah for oboe and 9 solo strings (1996) (score sample)
- Incipits for solo viola, obbligato percussion and six instruments (1996)
- The Doctrine of Similarity for chorus (SATB), 3 clarinets, violin, piano and percussion (2000) (score sample)
- Chronos-Aion for large ensemble (2007–8)
- Renvoi/Shards for quarter-tone guitar and vibraphone (2008)
- Liber Scintillarum for 6 instruments (2012)
- La Terre est un Homme for orchestra (1979)
- Plötzlichkeit for large orchestra (2006)
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Ferneyhough has been called "the most controversial composer of his generation". "In the same year , the performance of several of his works at the Royan Festival established Ferneyhough as one of the most brilliant and controversial figures of a new generation of composers". "Brian Ferneyhough may well be one of the most important composers to emerge from the latter half of this century. Simultaneously famous and infamous, he is a controversial figure of world renown, bent on making the most out of music." The Guardian's Tom Service called La Terre est un Homme "one of the most significant achievements in late 20th-century orchestral writing", and also recommended the Carceri d'Invenzione pieces, Lemma-Icon-Epigram, Terrain, and the string quartets.
- Ferneyhough, Brian. Brian Ferneyhough by Brian Ferneyhough. Paris: L'Age d'homme OCLC 21274317 (French)
- Matthias Kriesberg "A Music So Demanding That It Sets You Free" The New York Times (8 December 2002). "Ferneyhough (pronounced FUR-nee-ho)"
- Pronouncing Dictionary of Music and Musicians Archived 5 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine "FUR-nih-ho"
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Fitch, Fabrice. "Brian Ferneyhough: Complete Biography". Edition-Peters.com. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
- Richard Toop, "Ferneyhough, Brian", Grove Music Online (Updated 22 Oct 2008), edited by Deane Root (accessed 9 September 2012)
- Michael Finnissy, "Biography", Official Michael Finnissy website. Retrieved on 17 February 2009.
- "Acadia New Music Festival: Shattering the Silence". Acadia University School of Music. 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.[dead link][failed verification]
- Composer Brian Ferneyhough wins 2007 Siemens Music Prize
- Toop 2002, p. 139
- Richard Toop, "Ferneyhough, Brian", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 21 April 2008).
- Brian Ferneyhough, Collected Writings, eds. Boros and Toop (London: Routledge, 1995): 45.
- Andrew Clements, "Friday Review: Opera of the Phantom: Brian Ferneyhough Is the Last Composer You'd Expect to Produce a Stage Work, but the Life—and death, and afterlife—of the Philosopher Walter Benjamin Inspired Him to Write an Opera Like No Other", The Guardian (8 July 2005):11.
- Richard Whitehouse, "Shadowtime", Classical Source (accessed 19 June 2011).
- Gavin Dixon, "Ferneyhough – Chamber works", Musicweb-International.com (accessed 18 June 2011).
- Defend Benjamin Campaign
- "Brian Ferneyhough, Solo Works Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine". The Ensemble Sospeso New York website (accessed 31 May 2011).
- "Brian Ferneyhough, composer Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Monday Evening Concerts website (accessed 31 May 2011).
- Ross Alan Feller, "Multicursal Labyrinths in the Work of Brian Ferneyhough" (DMA dissertation, Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, 1994): 1.
- Service, Tom (10 September 2012). "A guide to Brian Ferneyhough's music". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Boros, James, and Richard Toop (eds.). The Collected Writings of Brian Ferneyhough. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995. Review by Ian Pace
- Bortz, Graziela. Rhythm in the music of Brian Ferneyhough, Michael Finnissy, and Arthur Kampela : a guide for performers. Ph.D. Thesis, City University of New York, 2003.
- Duncan, Stuart. "Re-complexifying the Function(s) of Notation in the Music of Brian Ferneyhough and the 'New Complexity'". Perspectives of New Music 48, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 136–72.
- Feller, Ross. "Multicursal Labyrinths in the Work of Brian Ferneyhough". U.M.I., Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994.
- Pace, Ian. [Review:] "Brian Femeyhough, Collected Writings, edited by James Boros and Richard Toop. Harwood Academic Publishers; Ferneyhough: String Quartet No. 4; Kurze Schatten II; Trittico per G. S.; Terrain, Arditti String Quartet with Brenda Mitchell (sop); Magnus Andersson (gtr); Stefano Scodanibbio (db); Irvine Arditti (vln) with ASKO Ensemble c. Jonathan Nott. Disques Montaigne MO 7 82029. Ferneyhough: Prometheus; La Chute D'Icare; On Stellar Magnitudes; Superscriptio; Carceri d'Invezione III. Luisa Castellani (voice); Felix Renggli (fl); Ernesto Molinari (cl); Ensemble Contrechamps c. Giorgio Bernasconi, Zsolt Nagy, Emilio Pomarico. ACCORD 205772". Tempo new series, no. 203 (January 1998): 45–48, 50–52.
- Rosser, Peter. "Brian Ferneyhough and the 'Avant-Garde Experience': Benjaminian Tropes in Funérailles". Perspectives of New Music 48, no. 2 (Summer 2010):114–51.
- Schick, Steven. "Developing an Interpretive Context: Learning Brian Ferneyhough's Bone Alphabet" (Subscription Access). Perspectives of New Music 32, no. 1 (Winter, 1994): 132–53.
- Tadday, Ulrich (ed.). "Brian Ferneyhough". Munich: Edition Text+Kritik in Richard Boorberg Verlag, 2008. (German)
- Toop, Richard. "Brian Ferneyhough's Lemma-Icon-Epigram". Perspectives of New Music 28, no. 2 (Summer, 1990): 52–100.
- Toop, Richard. "'Prima le Parole…' (On the Sketches for Ferneyhough's Carceri d'invenzione I–III)". Perspectives of New Music 32, no. 1 (Winter, 1994): 154–75.
- Whittall, Arnold. "Connections and Constellations". The Musical Times 144, no. 1883 (Summer): 23–32.
- Williams, Alastair. "Adorno and the Semantics of Modernism". Perspectives of New Music 37, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 1–22.
- Tadday, Ulrich. Musik-Konzepte. Neue Folge. Heft 140. Brian Ferneyhough. München: Edition Text + Kritik, 2008. ISBN 978-3-88377-918-8 (German)
- Info at Brian Ferneyhough's publisher, Edition Peters – includes biography, works and selected discography
- Info at Stanford University Department of Music
- Living Composers Project
- Interview (SOSPESO)
- Open questions for Brian Ferneyhough (also applicable to other composers of our day) – turned into an interview, since Ferneyhough replied (Stanford IP address...)
- NewMusicBox cover: Brian Ferneyhough in conversation with Molly Sheridan, 22 July 2005 (video excerpts from NewMusicBox)
- An Interview with Brian Ferneyhough by Felipe Ribeiro, James Correa, Catarina Domenici (Search Journal for New Music and Culture; Summer 2009)
- The Experience of Complexity by Larson Powell (Search Journal for New Music and Culture; Summer 2010)
- Electric Chair Music / Time & Motion Study II; (film by Colin Still, cello: Neil Heyde, electronics: Paul Archbold)