Palmes was the son of Guy Palmes of Ashwell, Rutland, and his wife Ann Stafford, daughter of Sir Edward Stafford. He was educated at Wadham College, Oxford after matriculating at Trinity College, Oxford in 1615.
Palmes was knighted on 21 April 1642. In the Civil War, he raised a regiment for King Charles I. He later compounded for his estate.
Palmes married Mary Tevery, daughter of Gervase Tevery, of Stapleford, They had 6 sons (4 of whom predeased him) and 4 daughters. Palmes’s marriage linked him to his father’s friend Sir Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Stafford.
- Dugdale's VIsitation of Yorkshire
- Registers of Wadham
- Willis, Browne (1750). Notitia Parliamentaria, Part II: A Series or Lists of the Representatives in the several Parliaments held from the Reformation 1541, to the Restoration 1660 ... London. pp. 229–239.
- "PALMES, Brian (c.1599-1653/4), of Walcot, Northants. and Ashwell, Rutland; later of Stapleford, Notts. and Lindley, Yorks.". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
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