Bridging (networking)

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A high-level overview of network bridging, using the ISO/OSI layers and terminology

A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments. This function is called network bridging.[1] Bridging is distinct from routing. Routing allows multiple networks to communicate independently and yet remain separate, whereas bridging connects two separate networks as if they were a single network.[2] In the OSI model, bridging is performed in the data link layer (layer 2).[3] If one or more segments of the bridged network are wireless, the device is known as a wireless bridge.

The main types of network bridging technologies are simple bridging, multiport bridging, and learning or transparent bridging.[4][5]

Transparent bridging[edit]

Transparent bridging uses a table called the forwarding information base to control the forwarding of frames between network segments. The table starts empty and entries are added as the bridge receives frames. If a destination address entry is not found in the table, the frame is flooded to all other ports of the bridge, flooding the frame to all segments except the one from which it was received. By means of these flooded frames, a host on the destination network will respond and a forwarding database entry will be created. Both source and destination addresses are used in this process: source addresses are recorded in entries in the table, while destination addresses are looked up in the table and matched to the proper segment to send the frame to. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) originally developed the technology in the 1980s.[6]

In the context of a two-port bridge, one can think of the forwarding information base as a filtering database. A bridge reads a frame's destination address and decides to either forward or filter. If the bridge determines that the destination host is on another segment on the network, it forwards the frame to that segment. If the destination address belongs to the same segment as the source address, the bridge filters the frame, preventing it from reaching the other network where it is not needed.

Transparent bridging can also operate over devices with more than two ports. As an example, consider a bridge connected to three hosts, A, B, and C. The bridge has three ports. A is connected to bridge port 1, B is connected to bridge port 2, C is connected to bridge port 3. A sends a frame addressed to B to the bridge. The bridge examines the source address of the frame and creates an address and port number entry for A in its forwarding table. The bridge examines the destination address of the frame and does not find it in its forwarding table so it floods it to all other ports: 2 and 3. The frame is received by hosts B and C. Host C examines the destination address and ignores the frame. Host B recognizes a destination address match and generates a response to A. On the return path, the bridge adds an address and port number entry for B to its forwarding table. The bridge already has A's address in its forwarding table so it forwards the response only to port 1. Host C or any other hosts on port 3 are not burdened with the response. Two-way communication is now possible between A and B without any further flooding in network.

Simple bridging[edit]

A simple bridge connects two network segments, typically by operating transparently and deciding on a frame-by-frame basis whether or not to forward from one network to the other. A store and forward technique is typically used so, as part of forwarding, the frame integrity is verified on the source network and CSMA/CD delays are accommodated on the destination network. In contrast to repeaters which simply extend the maximum span of a segment, bridges only forward frames that are required to cross the bridge. Additionally, bridges reduce collisions by creating a separate collision domain on either side of the bridge.

Multiport bridging[edit]

A multiport bridge connects multiple networks and operates transparently to decide on a frame-by-frame basis whether to forward traffic. Additionally a multiport bridge must decide where to forward traffic. Like the simple bridge, a multiport bridge typically uses store and forward operation. The multiport bridge function serves as the basis for network switches.

Implementation[edit]

The forwarding information base stored in content-addressable memory (CAM) is initially empty. For each received ethernet frame the switch learns from the frame's source MAC address and adds this together with an ingress interface identifier to the forwarding information base. The switch then forwards the frame to the interface found in the CAM based on the frame's destination MAC address. If the destination address is unknown the switch sends the frame out on all interfaces (except the ingress interface). This behaviour is called unicast flooding.

Forwarding[edit]

Once a bridge learns the addresses of its connected nodes, it forwards data link layer frames using a layer-2 forwarding method. There are four forwarding methods a bridge can use, of which the second through fourth methods were performance-increasing methods when used on "switch" products with the same input and output port bandwidths:

  1. Store and forward: the switch buffers and verifies each frame before forwarding it; a frame is received in its entirety before it is forwarded.
  2. Cut through: the switch starts forwarding after the frame's destination address is received. There is no error checking with this method. When the outgoing port is busy at the time, the switch falls back to store-and-forward operation. Also, when the egress port is running at a faster data rate than the ingress port, store-and-forward is usually used.
  3. Fragment free: a method that attempts to retain the benefits of both store and forward and cut through. Fragment free checks the first 64 bytes of the frame, where addressing information is stored. According to Ethernet specifications, collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame, so frame transmissions that are aborted because of a collision will not be forwarded. Error checking of the actual data in the packet is left for the end device.
  4. Adaptive switching: a method of automatically selecting between the other three modes.[7][8]

Shortest Path Bridging[edit]

Shortest Path Bridging (SPB), specified in the IEEE 802.1aq standard, is a computer networking technology intended to simplify the creation and configuration of networks, while enabling multipath routing.[9][10][11]

It is a proposed replacement for Spanning Tree Protocol which blocks any redundant paths that could result in a layer 2 loop. SPB allows all paths to be active with multiple equal cost paths. SPB also increases the number of VLANs allowed on a layer 2 network.[12]

The technology provides logical Ethernet networks on native Ethernet infrastructures using a link state protocol to advertise both topology and logical network membership. Packets are encapsulated at the edge either in media access control-in-media access control (MAC-in-MAC) 802.1ah or tagged 802.1Q/802.1ad frames and transported only to other members of the logical network. Unicast, multicast, and broadcast are supported and all routing is on symmetric shortest paths.

The control plane is based on the Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS), leveraging a small number of extensions defined in RFC 6329.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Traffic regulators: Network interfaces, hubs, switches, bridges, routers, and firewalls" (PDF). Cisco Systems. September 14, 1999. Retrieved July 27, 2012.[dead link]
  2. ^ "What is a Network Switch vs. a Router?". Cisco Systems. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
  3. ^ "RFC 1286 - Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges". Tools.ietf.org. July 14, 1989. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  4. ^ "Local Area Networks: Internetworking". manipalitdubai.com. Archived from the original (PPT) on May 13, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  5. ^ "Bridging Protocols Overview" (PPT). iol.unh.edu. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  6. ^ "Transparent Bridging". Cisco Systems, Inc. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
  7. ^ Dong, Jielin (2007). Network Dictionary. Javvin Technologies Inc. p. 23. ISBN 9781602670006. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  8. ^ "Cray makes its Ethernet switches responsive to net conditions". IDG Network World Inc. July 1, 1996. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  9. ^ "Alcatel-Lucent, Avaya, Huawei, Solana and Spirent Showcase Shortest Path Bridging Interoperability". Huawei. September 7, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  10. ^ Luo, Zhen; Suh, Changjin (March 3, 2011). "An improved shortest path bridging protocol for Ethernet backbone network". The International Conference on Information Networking 2011 (ICOIN2011). Information Networking, International Conference on. IEEE Xplore. pp. 148–153. doi:10.1109/ICOIN.2011.5723169. ISBN 978-1-61284-661-3. ISSN 1976-7684. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  11. ^ "Lab Testing Summary Report; Data Center Configuration with SPB" (PDF). Miercom. September 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
  12. ^ Shuang Yu. "IEEE approves new IEEE 802.1aq™ Shortest path bridging". IEEE Standards Association. Retrieved June 19, 2012. Using the IEEE’s next-generation VLAN, called a Service Interface Identifier (I-SID), it is capable of supporting 16 million unique services compared to the VLAN limit of four thousand.
  13. ^ "IS-IS Extensions Supporting IEEE 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging". IETF. April 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2012.

Further reading[edit]