Brief psychotic disorder

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Brief psychotic disorder
SpecialtyPsychotherapy, psychiatry Edit this on Wikidata

According to the classifications of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5, brief psychotic disorder is a psychotic condition involving the sudden onset of at least one psychotic symptom—such as incoherence, delusions, hallucinations, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior—that lasts 1 day to 1 month, often accompanied by emotional turmoil. Remission of all symptoms is complete with patients returning to the previous level of functioning. It may follow a period of extreme stress including the loss of a loved one. Most patients with this condition under DSM-5 would be classified as having acute and transient psychotic disorders under ICD-10. Prior to DSM-IV, this condition was called "brief reactive psychosis".[1][2] This condition may or may not be recurrent, and it should not be caused by another condition.

Description[edit]

The disorder is characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms, which may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, or catatonic behavior. The symptoms must not be caused by schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, or mania in bipolar disorder. They must also not be caused by a drug (such as amphetamines) or medical condition (such as a brain tumor). The term bouffée délirante describes an acute nonaffective and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorder, which is largely similar to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV brief psychotic and schizophreniform disorders.[3]

Symptoms generally last at least a day, but not more than a month, and there is an eventual return to full baseline functioning. It may occur in response to a significant stressor in one's life, or in other situations where a stressor is not apparent, including in the weeks following birth. In diagnosis, a careful distinction is considered for culturally appropriate behaviors, such as religious beliefs and activities. It is believed to be connected to or synonymous with a variety of culture-specific phenomena such as latah, koro, and amok.[4]

There are three forms of brief psychotic disorder:

1. Brief psychotic disorder with a stressor, such as a trauma or death in the family.

2. Brief psychotic disorder without a stressor.

3. Brief psychotic disorder with postpartum onset. Usually occurs about four weeks after giving birth.

Frequency[edit]

The exact incidence and prevalence of brief psychotic disorder is not known, but it is generally considered uncommon.[5] Internationally, it occurs twice as often in women than men, and even more often in women in the United States. It typically occurs in the late 30s and early 40s.[4]

The exact cause of brief psychotic disorder is not known. One theory suggests a genetic link, because the disorder is more common in people who have family members with mood disorders, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Another theory suggests that the disorder is caused by poor coping skills, as a defense against or escape from a particularly frightening or stressful situation. These factors may create a vulnerability to develop brief psychotic disorder. In most cases, the disorder is triggered by a major stress or traumatic event.

A woman being in a low estrogen state can trigger sudden and short-lived psychosis. They enter this state typically because they are premenstrual, postpartum or perimenopausal. The psychosis is often linked to an underlying bipolar or schizophrenic condition. Such psychosis (when diagnosed as such), is often considered "premenstrual exacerbation" or "menstrual psychosis", or postpartum psychosis. Childbirth may trigger the disorder in some women.[6] Approximately 1 in 10,000 women experience brief psychotic disorder shortly after childbirth.[7]

There are general medical causes of brief psychosis that should also be considered when being evaluated. Postnatal depression, HIV and AIDS, malaria, syphilis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, hypoglycaemia (an abnormally low level of glucose in the blood), lupus, multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PANS).[8]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ VandenBos, Gary R, ed. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. p. 145. doi:10.1037/14646-000. ISBN 978-1-4338-1944-5. brief psychotic disorder in DSM–IV–TR and DSM–5, a disturbance involving the sudden onset of at least one psychotic symptom (e.g., incoherence, delusions, hallucinations, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior). The condition is often accompanied by emotional turmoil and lasts from 1 day to 1 month, with complete remission of all symptoms and a full return to previous levels of functioning. It may develop following a period of extreme stress, such as the loss of a loved one. Formerly called brief reactive psychosis.
  2. ^ Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (2017), ACUTE AND TRANSIENT PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS AND BRIEF PSYCHOTIC DISORDER, Comparative Nosology. "Brief psychotic disorder is defined by DSM-5 as a psychotic condition that involves the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms and lasts 1 day or more but less than 1 month. Remission is full and patients return to their premorbid level of functioning. Thus, most individuals diagnosed with brief psychotic disorder under DSM-5 would be classified as having acute and transient psychotic disorders under ICD-10."
  3. ^ Chabrol, H (2003). "Chronic hallucinatory psychosis, bouffée délirante, and the classification of psychosis in French psychiatry". Current Psychiatry Reports. 5 (3): 187–91. doi:10.1007/s11920-003-0040-2. PMID 12773270.
  4. ^ a b "eMedicine - Brief Psychotic Disorder : Article by Mohammed A Memon". 2019-11-09. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ "Inkling".
  6. ^ "What Is Brief Psychotic Disorder?". WebMD. Archived from the original on 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  7. ^ Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan (2014). Abnormal Psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 230–231. ISBN 9780078035388.
  8. ^ Chang, Kiki; Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K.; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle (2014-10-17). "Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 25 (1): 3–13. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0084. ISSN 1044-5463. PMC 4340805. PMID 25325534.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Classification