Mobile Brigade (Indonesia)
|Indonesian Mobile Brigade Corps
|Active||14 November 1946 - now|
|Branch||Indonesian National Police|
|Garrison/HQ||Mako Brimob Kelapa Dua, Cimanggis, Depok|
|Colors||Dark Blue berets|
|Mascot||Lotus Flower (Bunga Teratai)|
|Engagements||World War II Indonesian National Revolution
East Timor Conflict
West Papua confrontation
May 1998 riots of Indonesia
2016 Jakarta attacks
|Police Inspector General Murad Ismail|
|Police General Anton Soedjarwo|
Korps Brigade Mobil (English: Mobile Brigade Corps) also known as BRIMOB POLRI or simply BRIMOB is the main special police operations force and paramilitary of Indonesia. It is also known as for being one of the oldest units in the Indonesian National Police. Its duties are counter-terrorism, dealing with high-threat armed criminals and robbery, close protection, riot control, search and rescue, anti-anarchist, and explosive disposal operations in urban settings.
The Mobile Brigade is also known as the special "anti-riot" branch of the Indonesian National Police which deals with special operations. A paramilitary organization, its training and equipment is almost identical to the Indonesian Army's ("TNI"), and it conventionally operates under joint military command in areas such as Papua and, until 2005, Aceh.
Formed in late 1945 as a special police corps named Pasukan Polisi Istimewa (Special Police Troops) with the task of disarming remnants of the Japanese Imperial Army and protecting the chief of state and the capital city. Under the Japanese, it was called Tokubetsu Keisatsutai (特別警察隊). It fought in the revolution and was the first military unit to engage in the Battle of Surabaya under the command of Police Inspector Moehammad Jasin.
On 14 November 1946, Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir reorganised the Polisi Istimewa into the Mobile Brigade (Mobrig). This day is celebrated as the anniversary of this Blue Beret Corps. This Corps was reconstituted to suppress military and police conflicts and even coups d'etat.
On 1 December 1947 Mobrig was militarized and later deployed in various conflicts and confrontations like the PKI Rebellion in Madiun, DI Rebellion (1947), APRA Rebellion and RMS Proclamation (1950), PRRI People Rebellion (1953), and Permesta (1958).
As of 14 November 1961, the Mobrig changed its name to Korps Brigade Mobil (Brimob), and its troops took part in the military confrontation with Malaysia in the early 1960s and in the conflict in East Timor in the mid-1970s. After that, Brimob was placed under the command of the Indonesian National Police.
In 1981, the Mobile Brigade spawned a new unit called the Jihandak (Penjinak Bahan Peledak), an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) unit.
In 1992 the Mobile Brigade was essentially a paramilitary organisation trained and organised along military line. It had a strength of about 12,000. The brigade was used primarily as an elite unit for emergencies and supporting police operations as a rapid response unit. The unit was deployed in domestic security and defense operations, and to perform these tasks the unit is equipped with special riot-control equipment. They are trained to deal with mass demonstrations.
Since the May 1998 upheaval, PHH (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hara, Anti Riot Unit) have received special anti-riot training. Elements of the unit are cross trained for airborne and Search and Rescue operations. In each Police HQ that represents a province (which is known as POLDA) in Indonesia must have a BRIMOB force which consists of several Detachments of Pelopor and usually 1 - 2 detachment of GEGANA.
The Indonesian Police Chief, known as KAPOLRI, has the highest command in each police operation including BRIMOB, orders are delivered by the police chief and then executed by his Operational Assistant Agent with then further notification to the BRIMOB commander.
Pelopor is the main reaction force of the Mobile Brigade Corps of Indonesia. In each BRIMOB unit of a Police HQ in a province (Polda), there are about several detachments of pelopor and usually 1 - 2 detachment of Gegana.
Gegana is an Indonesian Brimob Police special response unit who have special abilities mainly in bomb disposal matters. On the other hand, it also specializes in the field of anti-terrorism, intelligence, anti-riot, and the handling of Chemical, Biological, and Radio Active Explosive threats.
This unit was formed in 1976 as a detachment. At first, it was meant to deal with aircraft hijacking. Later in 1995, with the expansion of Brimob, the Gegana Detachment was expanded to become the 2nd BRIMOB Regiment. However, there are a select few specialists who are very skilled in these specialties. Gegana does not have battalions or companies. The regiment is broken down into several detachments. Within each detachment they are split into sub-detachments (sub-den), and within each sub-den they are further sub-divided into several units. Each unit usually consists of 10 personnel. One sub-den consists of 40 personnel, and one detachment consists of about 280 personnel.
One operation is usually assigned to one unit. Therefore, from the 10 people in that unit, six are required to have special skills: two for EOD (Explosives and Ordnance Disposal), two for search and rescue operations, and two for counter-terrorist operations. In any operation, two experts are designated Operators One and Two while the rest of the unit members become the Support Team.
For example, in counter-terrorism operations, the designated Operators must have sharp-shooting skills, ability to negotiate, and be an expert in storm-and-arrest procedures. These skills and operations are not meant to be lethal because the main goal of every Gegana operation is to arrest suspects and bring them to the court. Unless there is a situation that Gegana has to do otherwise, there will be no shooting.
In Search and Rescue operations, the personnel are required to have the basic capabilities of diving, rappelling, shooting, and first aid. In anti-bomb operation, the Operators have to be the expert in their respective fields. Each Gegana personnel has been introduced to various types of bombs in general, including the risks of handling them. There are specific procedures for handling each bomb, including the required timing.
Currently, Gegana has three Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) tactical vehicles.
- Detachment 88 or Densus 88, Indonesian special counter-terrorism squad
- SWAT, the US equivalent to the Indonesian Brimob
- OMON, the Russian equivalent to the Indonesian Brimob
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), the Indian equivalent to the Indonesian Brimob
- Special Action Force, the Filipino equivalent
- List of special law enforcement units around the globe
- "Background on Kopassus and Brimob", etan., etan.org, 2008, retrieved 6 March 2016