The general officers of the Confederate States Army (CSA) were the senior military leaders of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War of 1861–1865. They were often former officers from the United States Army (the regular army) before the Civil War, while others were given the rank based on merit or when necessity demanded. Most Confederate generals needed confirmation from the Confederate States Congress, much like prospective generals in the modern U.S. armed forces.
Like all of the Confederacy's military forces, these generals answered to their civilian leadership, in particular Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America and therefore commander-in-chief of the Military forces of the Confederate States.
Much of the design of the Confederate States Army was based on the structure and customs of the United States Army when the Confederate States Congress established the Confederate States War Department on February 21, 1861. The Confederate States Army was composed of three parts; the Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA, intended to be the permanent, regular army), the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS, or "volunteer" Army, to be disbanded after hostilities), and the various Confederate States State militias.
Graduates from United States Military Academy and Mexican–American War veterans were highly sought after by Jefferson Davis for military service, especially as general officers. Like their U.S. Army counterparts, the Confederate Army had both professional and political generals within it. Ranks throughout the CSA were roughly based on the U.S. Army in design and seniority. On February 27, 1861, a general staff for the army was authorized, consisting of four positions: an adjutant general, a quartermaster general, a commissary general, and a surgeon general. Initially, the last of these was to be a staff officer only. The post of adjutant general was filled by Samuel Cooper (the position he had held as a colonel in the U.S. Army from 1852 until resigning) and he held it throughout the Civil War, as well as the army's inspector general.
Initially, the Confederate States Army commissioned only brigadier generals in both the volunteer and regular services; however, the Congress quickly passed legislation allowing for the appointment of major generals as well as generals, thus providing clear and distinct seniority over the existing major generals in the various state militias. On May 16, 1861, when there were only five officers at the grade of brigadier general, this legislation was passed, which stated in part:
That the five general officers provided by existing laws for the Confederate States shall have the rank and denomination of 'general', instead of 'brigadier-general', which shall be the highest military grade known to the Confederate States ...
As of September 18, 1862, when lieutenant generals were authorized, the Confederate States Army had four grades of general officers; they were (in order of increasing rank) brigadier general, major general, lieutenant general, and general. As officers were appointed to the various grades of general by Jefferson Davis (and were confirmed), he would create the promotion lists himself. The dates of rank, as well as seniority of officers appointed to the same grade on the same day, were determined by Davis, "usually following the guidelines established for the prewar U.S. Army."
These generals were most often infantry or cavalry brigade commanders, aides to other higher-ranking generals, and War Department staff officers. By the war's end, the Confederacy had at least 383 different men who held this rank in the PACS and three in the ACSA: Samuel Cooper, Robert E. Lee, and Joseph E. Johnston. The Confederate States Congress authorized the organization of regiments into brigades on March 6, 1861. Brigadier generals commanded them, and these generals were nominated by Davis and confirmed by the Confederate Senate.
Though close to the U.S. Army in assignments, Confederate brigadiers mainly commanded brigades, while U.S. brigadiers sometimes led divisions and brigades, particularly in the first years of the war. These generals also often led sub-districts within military departments, with command over soldiers in their sub-district. These generals outranked Confederate States Army colonels, who commonly led infantry regiments.
This rank was equivalent to brigadier general in the modern U.S. Army.
These generals were most commonly infantry division commanders, aides to other higher-ranking generals, and War Department staff officers. They also led the districts that made up military departments and had command over the troops in their districts. Some Major generals also led smaller military departments. By the end of the war, the Confederacy had at least 88 men who had held this rank, all in the PACS.
The Confederate States Congress authorized divisions on March 6, 1861, and major generals would command them. These generals were to be nominated by Davis and confirmed by the Confederate Senate. Major generals outranked brigadiers and all other lesser officers.
This rank was not synonymous with use in the U.S. Army, where major generals led divisions, corps, and entire armies. This rank was equivalent in most respects to a major general in the modern U.S. Army.
Major generals by seniority
Not further promoted
- Abbreviations: KIA = killed in action, MW = mortally wounded, NC = non-combat death
|List of major generals by seniority|
|Name||Date of Rank||Rank Terminated||Reason|
|David E. Twiggs||May 22, 1861||October 11, 1861||retired|
|Earl Van Dorn||September 19, 1861||May 8, 1863||murdered, Spring Hill, TN|
|Gustavus W. Smith||September 19, 1861||February 17, 1863||resigned|
|Benjamin Huger||October 7, 1861||June 12, 1865||paroled|
|John B. Magruder||October 7, 1861||no record||no record|
|Mansfield Lovell||October 7, 1861||no record||no record|
|George B. Crittenden||November 9, 1861||October 23, 1862||resigned|
|William W. Loring||February 15, 1862||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Sterling Price||March 6, 1862||no record||no record|
|Benjamin F. Cheatham||March 10, 1862||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Samuel Jones||March 10, 1862||May 12, 1865||paroled|
|John P. McCown||March 10, 1862||May 12, 1865||paroled|
|Daniel Harvey Hill||March 26, 1862||no record||no record|
|Jones M. Withers||April 6, 1862||May 11, 1865||paroled|
|John C. Breckinridge||April 14, 1862||no record||no record|
|Thomas C. Hindman||April 14, 1862||no record||no record|
|Lafayette McLaws||May 23, 1862||no record||no record|
|Richard H. Anderson||July 14, 1862||no record||no record|
|J.E.B. Stuart||July 25, 1862||May 12, 1864||MW, Battle of Yellow Tavern|
|Samuel G. French||August 31, 1862||April 1865||paroled|
|George Pickett||October 10, 1862||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|Carter L. Stevenson||October 10, 1862||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|David R. Jones||October 11, 1862||January 15, 1863||NC, Richmond, VA|
|John H. Forney||October 27, 1862||June 20, 1865||paroled|
|Dabney H. Maury||November 4, 1862||May 11, 1865||paroled|
|Martin Luther Smith||November 4, 1862||May 1865||paroled|
|John G. Walker||November 8, 1862||no record||no record|
|Arnold Elzey||December 4, 1862||May 9, 1865||paroled|
|Patrick Cleburne||December 13, 1862||Nov 30, 1864||KIA, Battle of Franklin|
|Franklin Gardner||December 13, 1862||May 11, 1865||paroled|
|Isaac R. Trimble||January 17, 1863||April 16, 1865||paroled|
|Jubal Early||January 17, 1863||no record||no record|
|Daniel S. Donelson||January 17, 1863||April 17, 1863||NC, Knoxville, TN|
|Joseph Wheeler||January 20, 1863||June 9, 1865||paroled|
|W.H.C. Whiting||February 28, 1863||March 10, 1865||NC, New York City|
|Edward Johnson||February 28, 1863||July 22, 1865||paroled|
|Robert E. Rodes||May 2, 1863||September 19, 1864||KIA, Third Battle of Winchester|
|W.H.T. Walker||May 23, 1863||July 22, 1864||KIA, Battle of Atlanta|
|Henry Heth||May 24, 1863||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|John S. Bowen||May 25, 1863||July 6, 1863||Died with Rank unconfirmed|
|Robert Ransom, Jr.||May 26, 1863||no record||no record|
|Dorsey Pender||May 27, 1863||July 18, 1863||MW, Battle of Gettysburg|
|Cadmus M. Wilcox||August 3, 1863||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|Jeremy F. Gilmer||August 3, 1863||no record||no record, assignment incomplete|
|Fitzhugh Lee||August 3, 1863||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|William Smith||August 12, 1863||January 1, 1864||resigned|
|Howell Cobb||September 9, 1863||May 18, 1865||paroled|
|John A. Wharton||November 10, 1863||April 6, 1865||murdered, Houston, TX|
|William T. Martin||November 10, 1863||May 11, 1865||paroled|
|Charles W. Field||February 14, 1864||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|J. Patton Anderson||February 17, 1865||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|William B. Bate||February 24, 1864||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Prince de Polignac||April 8, 1864||no record||no record|
|Robert F. Hoke||April 20, 1864||April 1, 1865||paroled|
|W.H.F. Lee||April 23, 1864||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|James F. Fagan||April 24, 1864||June 20, 1865||Temporary promotion, paroled|
|John B. Gordon||May 14, 1864||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|Joseph B. Kershaw||May 18, 1864||no record||no record|
|Bushrod Johnson||May 21, 1863||May 9, 1865||paroled|
|Stephen D. Ramseur||June 1, 1864||June 20, 1865||Temporary Promotion, MW, Battle of Cedar Creek|
|Edward C. Walthall||June 6, 1864||no record||Temporary Promotion, no record|
|Henry Clayton||July 1, 1864||April 1865||Temporary Promotion, resigned|
|William Mahone||July 30, 1864||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|John C. Brown||August 4, 1864||May 2, 1865||Temporary promotion, paroled|
|Lunsford L. Lomax||August 10, 1864||May 2, 1865||Temporary promotion, paroled|
|Matthew C. Butler||September 9, 1864||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|James L. Kemper||September 9, 1864||May 2, 1865||paroled|
|G.W.C. Lee||October 20, 1864||April 6, 1865||paroled|
|Thomas L. Rosser||November 1, 1864||May 1865||Temporary promotion, paroled|
|P.M.B. Young||December 12, 1864||no record||Temporary promotion, no record|
|Bryan Grimes||February 15, 1865||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|William W. Allen||March 4, 1865, ||May 1865||Unconfirmed paroled|
|Thomas J. Churchill||March 17, 1865||June 7, 1865||Temporary promotion, paroled|
|John S. Marmaduke||March 18, 1865||July 24, 1865||paroled|
Evander Mclver Law was promoted to the rank of Major General on March 20, 1865, on the recommendation of Generals Johnston and Hampton just before the surrender. The promotion was too late to be confirmed by the Confederate Congress however.
There were 18 lieutenant generals in the Confederate States Army, and these general officers were often corps commanders within armies or military department heads in charge of geographic sections and all soldiers in those boundaries. All of the Confederate lieutenant generals were in the PACS. The Confederate Congress legalized the creation of army corps on September 18, 1862, and directed that lieutenant generals lead them. These generals were to be nominated by President Davis and confirmed by the C.S. Senate. Lieutenant generals outranked major generals and all other lesser officers. Most were graduates of the United States Military Academy and were former officers in the United States Army, with the exceptions of Richard Taylor, Wade Hampton, and Nathan Bedford Forrest.
This rank was not synonymous with the U.S. Army's use of it; Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885) was one of only two U.S. lieutenant generals during the war, the other being Winfield Scott (1786–1866), General-in-Chief of the United States Army 1841–1861, at the beginning of the American Civil War who also served in the War of 1812 (1812–1815), and led an army in the field during the Mexican–American War (1846–1849), received a promotion to brevet lieutenant general by a special Act of Congress in 1855. Gen. Grant was the only U.S. Army lieutenant general in active service at the time of his promotion on March 9, 1864. Grant became General-in-Chief, commander of the United States Army ("Union Army"), answering directly to President Abraham Lincoln and charged with the task of leading the U.S. Army to victory over the Confederate States Army. The CSA lieutenant general rank is also roughly equivalent to lieutenant general in the modern U.S. Army.
The Confederate Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for "temporary" general officers in the PACS, to be appointed by President Jefferson Davis and confirmed by the Confederate Senate and given a non-permanent command by Davis. Under this law, Davis appointed several officers to fill open positions. Richard H. Anderson was appointed a "temporary" lieutenant general on May 31, 1864, and given command of the First Corps in the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by Gen. Lee (following the wounding of Lee's second-in-command, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet on May 6 in the Battle of the Wilderness.) With Longstreet's return that October, Anderson reverted to a major general. Jubal Early was appointed a "temporary" lieutenant general on May 31, 1864, and given command of the Second Corps (following the reassignment of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell to other duties) and led the Corps as an army into the third Confederate attack on the United States in July 1864 during the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland and the Battle of Fort Stevens outside the U.S. capital city, Washington, D.C., until December 1864, when he too reverted to a major general. Likewise, both Stephen D. Lee and Alexander P. Stewart were appointed to fill vacancies in the Western Theater as "temporary" lieutenant generals and also reverted to their prior grades as major generals as those assignments ended. However, Lee was nominated a second time for lieutenant general on March 11, 1865.
Lieutenant generals by seniority
- Abbreviations: KIA = killed in action, MW = mortally wounded
|List of lieutenant generals by seniority|
|Name||Date of Rank||Nominated||Confirmed||Rank Terminated||Reason|
|James Longstreet||October 9, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|Edmund Kirby Smith||October 9, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||February 19, 1864||promoted to general|
|Leonidas Polk||October 10, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||June 14, 1864||KIA, Pine Mountain|
|Theophilus H. Holmes||October 10, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|William J. Hardee||October 10, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Stonewall Jackson||October 10, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 11, 1862||May 10, 1863||MW, Chancellorsville|
|John C. Pemberton||October 10, 1862||October 10, 1862||October 13, 1862||May 18, 1864||resigned|
|Richard S. Ewell||May 23, 1863||May 23, 1863||February 2, 1864||July 19, 1865||paroled|
|A.P. Hill||May 24, 1863||May 23, 1863||January 15, 1864||April 2, 1865||KIA, Petersburg|
|D.H. Hill||July 11, 1863||?||withdrawn||October 15, 1863||Rift with General Bragg after the Battle of Chattanooga|
|John Bell Hood||September 20, 1863||February 1, 1864||February 4, 1864||May 31, 1865||paroled|
|Richard Taylor||April 8, 1864||May 14, 1864||May 16, 1864||May 11, 1865||paroled|
|Jubal Early||May 31, 1864||May 31, 1864||May 31, 1864||no record||Temporary Rank|
|Richard H. Anderson||May 31, 1864||May 31, 1864||May 31, 1864||no record||Temporary Rank|
|Alexander P. Stewart||June 23, 1864||June 23, 1864||February 20, 1865||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Stephen D. Lee||June 23, 1864||March 11, 1865||March 16, 1865||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Simon B. Buckner||September 20, 1864||September 20, 1864||January 17, 1865||June 9, 1865||paroled|
|Wade Hampton||February 14, 1865||February 14, 1865||February 15, 1865||no record||no record|
|Nathan Bedford Forrest||February 28, 1865||March 2, 1865||March 2, 1865||May 10, 1865||paroled|
Originally five officers in the Confederate States Army were appointed to the rank of general, and only two more would follow. These generals occupied the senior posts in the Confederate Army, mostly entire army or military department commanders and advisers to Jefferson Davis. This rank was equivalent to the general in the modern U.S. Army. The grade is often referred to in modern writings as "full general" to help differentiate it from the generic term "general", meaning simply "general officer".
All Confederate generals were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all militia officers, except for Edmund Kirby Smith, who was appointed general late in the war and into the PACS. Pierre G.T. Beauregard, had also initially been appointed a PACS general, was elevated to ACSA two months later with the same date of rank. These generals outranked all other grades of generals and lesser officers in the Confederate States Army. All were graduates of the United States Military Academy and were former officers in the United States Army.
The first group of officers appointed to general was Samuel Cooper, Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston, and Pierre G.T. Beauregard, with their seniority in that order. This ordering caused Cooper, a staff officer who would not see combat, to be the senior general officer in the CSA. That seniority strained the relationship between Joseph E. Johnston and Jefferson Davis. Johnston considered himself the senior officer in the Confederate States Army and resented the ranks that President Davis had authorized. However, his previous position in the U.S. Army was staff, not line, which was a criterion for Davis regarding establishing seniority and rank in the subsequent Confederate States Army.
On February 17, 1864, Congress passed legislation to allow President Davis to appoint an officer to command the Trans-Mississippi Department in the Far West, with the rank of general in the PACS. Edmund Kirby Smith was the only officer appointed to this position. Braxton Bragg was appointed a general in the ACSA with a date of rank of April 6, 1862, the day his commanding officer Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston died in combat at Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing.
The Confederate Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for "temporary" general officers in the PACS, to be appointed by Davis and confirmed by the C.S. Senate and given a non-permanent command by Davis. John Bell Hood was appointed a "temporary" general on July 18, 1864, the date he took command of the Army of Tennessee in the Atlanta Campaign, but the Congress did not later confirm this appointment, and he reverted to his rank of lieutenant general in January 1865. Later in March 1865, shortly before the end of the war, Hood's status was spelled out by the Confederate States Senate, which stated:
Resolved, That General J. B. Hood, having been appointed General, with temporary rank and command, and having been relieved from duty as Commander of the Army of Tennessee, and not having been reappointed to any other command appropriate to the rank of General, he has lost the rank of General, and therefore cannot be confirmed as such.
Generals by seniority
- Abbreviations: KIA = killed in action
|List of generals by seniority|
|Name||Date of Rank||Nominated||Confirmed||Rank Terminated||Reason|
|Samuel Cooper||May 16, 1861||August 31, 1861||August 31, 1861||May 3, 1865||paroled|
|Albert Sidney Johnston||May 30, 1861||August 31, 1861||August 31, 1861||April 6, 1862||KIA, Shiloh|
|Robert E. Lee||June 14, 1861||August 31, 1861||August 31, 1861||April 9, 1865||paroled|
|Joseph E. Johnston||July 4, 1861||August 31, 1861||August 31, 1861||May 2, 1865||paroled|
|P.G.T. Beauregard||July 21, 1861||August 31, 1861||August 31, 1861||May 1, 1865||paroled|
|Braxton Bragg||April 6, 1862||April 12, 1862||April 12, 1862||May 10, 1865||paroled|
|Edmund Kirby Smith||August 21, 1862||February 19, 1864||May 11, 1864||May 17, 1865||paroled|
|John Bell Hood||July 18, 1864||-||-||January 23, 1865||Temporary Rank|
During 1863, Beauregard, Cooper, J. Johnston, and Lee all had their ranks re-nominated on February 20 and then re-confirmed on April 23 by the Confederate Congress. This was in response to debates on February 17 about whether confirmations made by the provisional legislature needed re-confirmation by the permanent legislature, which was done by an Act of Congress issued two days later.
General in Chief
The position of General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States was created on January 23, 1865. Gen. Robert E. Lee, the only officer appointed to it, served from February 6 until April 12.
The Confederate states had maintained militias since the American Revolutionary War, consistent with the U.S. Militia Act of 1792. They went by various names such as State "Militia", "Armies", or "Guard" and were activated and expanded when the Civil War began. These units were commanded by "Militia Generals" to defend their particular state and sometimes did not leave the state to fight for the Confederate Army. The Confederate militias used the brigadier and major general officer ranks.
The regulations in the Act of 1792 provided for two classes of militia, divided by age. Class one included men from 22 to 30 years old, and class two consisted of men from 18 to 20 years and from 31 to 45 years old. The various Confederate states used this system during the war.
All Confederate generals wore the same uniform insignia regardless of their general rank, except for Robert E. Lee, who wore the uniform of a Confederate colonel, as well as Joseph E. Johnston who wore a Colonel's insignia with a larger six pointed star in the center, similar to the stars worn by George Washington during the American Revolution. Wade Hampton additionally wore shoulder straps with general stars to denote his specific general's rank, and was apparently the only Confederate general to ever do so. The only visible difference was the button groupings on their uniforms; groups of three buttons for lieutenant and major generals and two for brigadier generals. In either case, a general's buttons were also distinguished from other ranks by their eagle insignia.
|Rank||Collar insignia||Sleeve insignia||Buttons|
|Lieutenant General||Groups of three buttons|
|Major General||Groups of three buttons|
|Brigadier General||Groups of two buttons|
To the right is a picture of the CSA general's full uniform, in this case, of Brig. Gen. Joseph R. Anderson of the Confederate Bureau of Ordnance. All of the Confederate generals wore uniforms like this regardless of their general grade, and all with gold-colored embroidering.
The general officers of the Confederate States Army were paid for their services, and exactly how much (in Confederate dollars (CSD)) depended on their rank and whether they held a field command or not. On March 6, 1861, when the army only contained brigadier generals, their pay was $301 CSD monthly, and their aide-de-camp lieutenants would receive an additional $35 CSD per month beyond regular pay. As more grades of the general officer were added, the pay scale was adjusted. By June 10, 1864, a general received $500 CSD monthly, plus another $500 CSD if they led an army in the field. Also, by that date, lieutenant generals got $450 CSD and major generals $350 CSD, and brigadiers would receive $50 CSD in addition to regular pay if they served in combat.
The Confederate States Army lost more general officers killed in combat than the United States Army throughout the war, in the ratio of about 5-to-1 for the Confederacy compared to roughly 12-to-1 for the United States. The most famous of them is General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, among the best-known Confederate commanders, after General Robert E. Lee. Jackson's death was the result of pneumonia which emerged subsequently after a friendly fire incident had occurred at the Battle of Chancellorsville on the night of May 2, 1863. Replacing these fallen generals was an ongoing problem during the war, often having men promoted beyond their abilities (a common criticism of officers such as John Bell Hood and George Pickett, but an issue for both armies), or gravely wounded in combat but needed, such as Richard S. Ewell. The problem was made more difficult by the Confederacy's depleting workforce, especially near the war's end.
The last Confederate general in the field, Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865, and the war's last surviving Confederate full general, Edmund Kirby Smith, died on March 28, 1893. James Longstreet died on January 2, 1904, and was considered "the last of the high command of the Confederacy".
The Confederate States Army's system of using four grades of general officers is currently the same rank structure used by the U.S. Army (in use since shortly after the Civil War) and is also the system used by the U.S. Marine Corps (in use since World War II).
- List of American Civil War generals (Union)
- List of American Civil War brevet generals (Union)
- List of American Civil War generals (Confederate)
- List of American Civil War generals (Acting Confederate)
- General officers in the United States
- Eicher pp. 24–25. This resulted from the Confederacy's adoption of the U.S. 'Rules and Regulations of the Army' as their own, just with "Confederate States of America" put in wherever "United States of America" was in its text.
- Eicher, p. 23.
- Eicher, p. 23. "Actually, commissions in the ACSA were usually one grade higher than the former commissions in the U.S. Army, while commissions in the PACS usually amounted to whatever was suggested by the size of the volunteer unit accepted into the Confederate service."
- Dupuy, p. 190.
- Eicher, p. 24.
- Wright, p. 9. Confederate Congress Act of 16 May 1861, section 2.
- Eicher, p. 25
- Eicher, p. 807.
- Eicher, p. 817.
- Eicher, p. 810.
- promotion was not confirmed by the Confederate Senate
- Wright, p. 13. Confederate Congress Act of 31 May 1864.
- Eicher, pp. 787–788.
- Eicher, p. 808.
- The usage of the somewhat incorrect term "full general" is very unofficial, but commonly occurs in modern military writings; referring to a colonel as "full" and/or "bird" colonel (as compared to a lieutenant colonel, who ranks behind them) in U.S. forces also occurs.
- Eicher, p. 787.
- Eicher, p. 69.
- Wright, p. 12.
- Eicher, p. 141.
- Eicher, p. 303.
- Wright, p. 13. Confederate Senate Resolution, 16 March 1865.
- Eicher, p. 26.
- Eicher, p. 70.
- Eicher, p. 69. The original regulations for uniforms were issued when the Confederate States Congress authorized only brigadier generals. These regulations were never reissued when the higher ranks of generals were authorized later.
- , Katcher, p. 60.
- Foote, p. 1040. Of 583 U.S. general officers, 47 were killed due to combat; of 425 C.S. general officers, 77 fell.
- Jackson biography at Civil War Home.
- Dupuy, p. 346. "an excellent brigade and divisional commander, he was out of his depth with larger commands."
- Dupuy, p. 597. "his abilities were not suited to directing larger forces, as demonstrated at Five Forks."
- Dupuy, p. 244. "but it was a mark of the South's desperation for able leaders that a man with his disabilities should have spent so much time on active campaign."
- Dupuy, p. 406.
- Warner, p. 193.
- Dupuy, Trevor N., Johnson, Curt, and Bongard, David L., Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, Castle Books, 1992, 1st Ed., ISBN 0-7858-0437-4.
- Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Foote, Shelby, The Civil War: A Narrative: Vol. III Red River to Appomattox, Vintage Books, 1986, ISBN 0-394-74622-8.
- Katcher, Philip, The Army of Robert E. Lee, Sterling Publishing Co., 1994, ISBN 1-85409-174-3.
- Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: The Lives of the Confederate Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1959, ISBN 0-8071-3150-4.
- Wright, Marcus J., General Officers of the Confederate Army, J. M. Carroll & Co., 1983, ISBN 0-8488-0009-5.