|Diseased kidney from Richard Bright's Reports of Medical Cases Longman, London (1827–1831). Wellcome Library, London|
|Classification and external resources|
Bright's disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. It was characterized by edema, the presence of albumin in the urine and was frequently accompanied by high blood pressure (hypertension).
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms and signs of Bright's disease were first described in 1827 by the English physician Richard Bright, after whom the disease was named. In his Reports of Medical Cases, he described 25 cases of dropsy (edema) which he attributed to kidney disease. Symptoms and sign included: inflammation of serous membranes, hemorrhages, apoplexy, convulsions, blindness and coma. Many of these cases were found to have albumin in their urine (detected by the spoon and candle-heat coagulation), and showed striking morbid changes of the kidneys at autopsy. The triad of dropsy, albumin in the urine and kidney disease came to be regarded as characteristic of Bright's disease. Subsequent work by Bright and others indicated an association with cardiac hypertrophy, which was attributed by Bright to stimulation of the heart. Subsequent work by Mahomed showed that a rise in blood pressure could precede the appearance of albumin in the urine, and the rise in blood pressure and increased resistance to flow was believed to explain the cardiac hypertrophy.
Bright's disease was historically 'treated' with warm baths, abstinence from alcohol, cheese and red meat, blood-letting, squill, digitalis, mercuric compounds, opium, diuretics, and laxatives. Most of these treatments are in fact harmful to the patient. The disease was diagnosed frequently in diabetic patients. Arnold Ehret was diagnosed with Bright's disease and pronounced incurable by 24 of Europe's most respected doctors. He finally designed the The Mucusless Diet Healing System and cured himself. William Howard Hay, MD suffered from the illness and it is claimed cured himself using the Hay diet.
Bright's disease was a plot element in one of the early Dr. Kildare films (1945, Between Two Women). Sally (Marie Blake), the hospital switchboard operator, falls ill to a mysterious ailment and, fearing it is cancer, avoids treatment until Dr. Randall "Red" Adams (Van Johnson) correctly diagnoses it and operates on her kidney.
- Robert S. Abbott, founder of The Chicago Defender newspaper, died of the disease in 1940.
- Isaac Albéniz, Spanish composer
- Muthu Coomaraswamy, first Asian to be knighted, a lawyer in Ceylon Bar Council
- Alexander III, Tsar of Russia
- Paul Edward Anderson, weightlifter
- Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (20th Vice President of the United States)
- Harry Arundel, professional baseball player
- Abu Bakar of Johor, Sultan of Johor (died 1895)
- Washington Bartlett, Mayor of San Francisco and Governor of California
- H. H. Bennett (1843–1908), photographer, regarded as "the Father of the Dells" (Wisconsin Dells)
- James G. Blaine, U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time Secretary of State and nominee for president in 1884, developed Bright's disease and died in 1893.
- Madame Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society and author of The Secret Doctrine
- Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer
- Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian author of the novel The Master and Margarita and other novels and plays
- John Bunny, American vaudeville and silent film comedian, 1915
- George-Étienne Cartier, one of the fathers of Canadian Confederation
- Lydia Cassatt, elder sister of the artist Mary Cassatt
- Lorne Chabot, professional ice hockey player
- Ty Cobb, Hall of Fame baseball player
- Larry Corcoran, first baseball pitcher to throw multiple no-hitters
- James Creelman, Canadian yellow journalist, died of the disease in February 1915 on his way to cover World War I from the German front.
- John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute. Inherited from his mother, Lady Sophia Rawdon-Hastings (many members of her family also succumbed to the disease).
- Nig Cuppy, professional baseball pitcher
- Louis Cyr, Canadian strongman. Strongest man in the world. Still holds several records to this day.
- Marcus Daly, Butte Montana Copper King
- Jessie Bartlett Davis, contralto; mentor of Carrie Jacobs-Bond
- Emily Dickinson (1830 – May 15, 1886), American poet
- Catherine Eddowes, fourth victim of the canonical five murdered by Jack the Ripper in 1888
- Henry Edwards (entomologist)
- Arnold Ehret (1866–1922) a diet reformer, had cured himself of Bright's disease after he had been given up by medical doctors and after a nature cure could bring him only temporary relief. He discovered that fasting and a diet "free of mucus and albumin", consisting mainly of fruits cured not only his illness but other chronic disease.
- Elizabeth F. Ellet (1818–1877), American writer and poet
- Father Frederick William Faber, C.O. (1814–1863), English Catholic priest and noted hymn writer, founder of the Brompton Oratory
- Andrew Hull Foote (1806–1863), Federal naval officer during the American Civil War
- May Agnes Fleming (1840–1880), Canadian-American writer
- Sydney Greenstreet (1879–1954), English actor
- William Gregory (1849–1901), Governor of Rhode Island 1900–1901
- Jean Harlow (1911–1937), American actress and sex-symbol
- Dean Hart, professional wrestler (member of the Hart family)
- Harry T. Hays, Confederate Army general and Louisiana politician
- David B. Hill (1843–1910), American politician and Governor of New York
- British author and feminist Winifred Holtby died of Bright's disease in 1935 aged 37.
- Karl Guthe Jansky (1905–1950), discoverer of radio waves emanating from the Milky Way
- Robert Wood Johnson I (1845–1910), one of the founders of Johnson & Johnson and its first CEO
- Kalākaua (1836–1891), King of Hawaii from 1874 to 1891
- Kitty Kiernan, fiancée of Irish revolutionary leader and chairman of the Provisional Government Michael Collins (all of her five siblings also suffered from the disease)
- Aldo Leopold, environmentalist
- Edmonia Lewis (ca. 1844–1907), sculptor
- H. P. Lovecraft, science-fiction/horror author died from a combination of Bright's disease and intestinal cancer.
- Alexander McDonnell (1798–1835), Irish chess master
- Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1764–1820), Scottish explorer, first European to traverse North America and commercial partner in the North West Company
- Rowland Hussey Macy, founder of RH Macy & Company (Macy's department store)
- Richard McBride, Premier of British Columbia (1903–1915) and founder of the British Columbia Conservative Party; died of Bright's disease 6 August 1917 (aged 46) in London, England.
- Henry McCrea, captain of the USS Georgia (BB-15) during the time of the explosion in the aft turret, July 15, 1907, and during the first leg of the Great White Fleet sailing
- Jervis McEntee, Hudson River School painter (1828–1891)
- Abbot Gregor Mendel, O.S.A., friar and scientist whose paper "Experiments in Plant Hybridization" showed that inheritance follows specific laws. His research led to the science of genetics.
- Father Edward McGlynn, Roman Catholic priest and social reformer from New York City, 1900
- John Milne, British seismologist, father of modern seismology, died of Bright's disease.
- Billy Miske, American boxer (1894–1924)
- Elizabeth Mitchell-Smith; first wife of John Cobb (racing driver)
- Helena Modjeska, Polish-American actress, real-estate investor, and philanthropist, 1909
- Commodore Nutt, dwarf who became famous working for P. T. Barnum
- Chief Ouray, Native American peacemaker, chief of the Ute nation (1833–1880)
- Commodore Perry Owens, (July 29, 1852 – May 10, 1919) American-born lawman and gunfighter of the Old West.
- Isaac Parker, "hanging judge" of the American West
- Linus Pauling, chemist and two-time Nobel laureate was successfully treated for a severe form of Bright's disease by Thomas Addis.
- Togie Pittinger, a professional baseball player
- Howard Pyle (March 5, 1853 – November 9, 1911), American illustrator and writer
- Bass Reeves, the first black commissioned United States deputy marshal west of the Mississippi River, 1910
- David Wallis Reeves, composer, cornetist, and bandleader
- Dan Rice, (1823–1900) famous clown, "Great American Humorist", inducted into Clown Hall of Fame in 1993, said to have inspired the character of Uncle Sam.
- Al Ringling, one of the five founders of the Ringling Brothers Circus
- Henry Hobson Richardson, American architect, died of the disease in 1886
- Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, first wife of Theodore Roosevelt, died of the disease February 14, 1884, shortly after giving birth to TR's daughter, whom he named Alice (Alice Roosevelt Longworth).
- Hannah de Rothschild, Jewish-English countess and philanthropist
- Richard Warren Sears, founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company
- Jimmy Sebring, professional baseball player
- Louis Seymour (a.k.a. Adirondack French Louie), guide, trapper and hermit
- Kate Shelley, Irish-American woman famous for crossing a damaged railroad bridge in a storm to save a train full of passengers
- James S. Sherman, (1855–1912), 27th Vice President of the United States
- Father Edward Sorin, C.S.C., founder of the University of Notre Dame and St Edward's University
- Effingham Brown Sutton, (1817–1891), Shipping magnate of Clipper ships during California Gold Rush, Sutton Place NYC
- Charles Haddon Spurgeon, English Baptist pastor in London, nicknamed "The Prince of Preachers"
- Bram Stoker (1847–1912), writer of Dracula. Died having suffered from Bright's disease and two separate strokes.
- Victor Trumper, Australia's legendary batsman, one of the best "wet wicket" cricketers Australia ever produced, 1915
- George Tyrrell, modernist Roman Catholic priest
- William Wynn Westcott, Supreme Magus of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia and co-founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
- Ellen Wilson, first wife of US President Woodrow Wilson
- Ross Youngs (1897–1927), professional baseball player; Giants outfielder and member of the Baseball Hall of Fame
- Louis Van Zelst, a hunchback who was a mascot for University of Pennsylvania and The Philadelphia Athletics until his death from Bright's disease in 1915
- Stanford White, an American architect at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries. The presence of the disease was not discovered until he was autopsied, following his 1907 murder at the hand of Harry Thaw, which led to the first trial to be dubbed "Trial of the Century".
- Cameron, J. S. (1972-10-14). "Bright's Disease Today: The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Glomerulonephritis—I". British Medical Journal. 4 (5832): 87–90. doi:10.1136/bmj.4.5832.87. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC . PMID 4562073.
- Bright, R (1827–1831). Reports of Medical Cases, Selected with a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy, vol. I. London: Longmans.
- Millard, Henry B. (1884-01-01). A treatise on Bright's disease of the kidneys; its pathology, diagnosis, and treatment .. New York, W. Wood & Company.
- "A treatise on Bright's disease and diabetes : with especial reference to pathology and therapeutics". archive.org. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
- Peitzman, Steven J. (1989-01-01). "From Dropsy to Bright's Disease to End-Stage Renal Disease". The Milbank Quarterly. 67: 16–32. doi:10.2307/3350183. JSTOR 3350183. PMID 2682170.
- Wolf G (2002). "Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs (1819-1885) and Bright's disease". American journal of nephrology. 22 (5-6): 596–602. doi:10.1159/000065291. PMID 12381966.
- Peitzman SJ (1989). "From dropsy to Bright's disease to end-stage renal disease". The Milbank quarterly. 67 Suppl 1: 16–32. doi:10.2307/3350183. PMID 2682170.
- Saundby, Robert (2013-10-22). Lectures on Bright's Disease. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 9781483195360.
- Gilman, Goldwin Smith Professor of Human Studies Sander L.; Gilman, Sander L. (2008-01-23). Diets and Dieting: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135870683.
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- Barter, Judith (1998). Mary Cassatt: Modern woman (1. ed.). New York, New York: Abrams, Inc. p. 56. ISBN 0-8109-4089-2.
- The Grand Designer, Rosemary Hannah, Birlinn Ltd., 2012.
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- "Rhode Island's Governor William Gregory Passed Away at His Home in North Kingstown". Newport, Rhode Island. Newport Mercury. 21 December 1901. p. 1.
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- Weird NJ Magazine, Heather Wendt Kemp.
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