Brightline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brightline
Brightline Logo.svg
Brightline train at Fort Lauderdale station.jpg
Brightline train at Fort Lauderdale station in December 2017
Overview
Service type
LocaleFlorida
First serviceJanuary 13, 2018 (2018-01-13)
Current operator(s)Florida East Coast Industries
Ridership1,290,000 (2022)
Websitegobrightline.com
Route
TerminiMiami
West Palm Beach
Orlando (planned)
Stops
  • 5 operational
  • 1 under construction
  • Multiple planned
Average journey time1 hour
Service frequencyHourly
On-board services
Class(es)
  • Premium (business class)
  • Smart (coach)
Disabled accessLevel boarding
Seating arrangements
  • 2×2 (smart)
  • 2×1 (premium)
Catering facilitiesAt-seat service
Baggage facilitiesChecked baggage available
Technical
Rolling stock
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Operating speed
  • 79 mph (130 km/h) Miami–West Palm Beach
  • 110 mph (180 km/h) West Palm Beach–Cocoa (planned)
  • 125 mph (200 km/h) Cocoa–Orlando (planned)
Track owner(s)Florida East Coast Railway
Route diagram
future expansion
future expansion
Jacksonville
(proposed)
I-95.svg I-95
I-10.svg I-10
Tampa
(planned)
Lakeland
(proposed)
Disney World Area
(planned)
Convention Center
(planned)
Maintenance facility
(opens 2022)
Orlando Int'l Airport
(opens 2023)
enlarge…
Orlando International Airport People Movers
Cocoa
(proposed)
Fort Pierce
(proposed)
Maintenance facility
West Palm Beach
Boca Raton
Fort Lauderdale
I-595.svg
I-595
Port Everglades Expressway
Aventura
I-395.svg
I-395
Dolphin Expressway
MiamiCentral enlarge…

Disabled access All stations are accessible

Brightline (reporting mark BLFX) is an inter-city rail route between Miami and West Palm Beach, Florida that runs on track owned by Florida East Coast Railway.

Brightline is the only privately owned and operated intercity passenger railroad in the United States. Its development started in March 2012 as All Aboard Florida by Florida East Coast Industries, a Florida real estate developer owned by Fortress Investment Group. Construction began in November 2014 and the route opened in January 2018. An extension from West Palm Beach to Orlando International Airport is expected to open in 2023, with additional stops being planned.

Origins and history[edit]

Former All Aboard Florida logo

In 2012, All Aboard Florida, a wholly owned subsidiary of Florida East Coast Industries (FECI), announced plans to operate passenger rail service between Miami and Orlando.[1] The construction was projected at the time to be $1.5 billion.[2] In March 2013, All Aboard Florida applied for a $1.6 billion Railroad Rehabilitation & Improvement Financing (RRIF) loan, which was administered by the Federal Railroad Administration,[3] and in late 2014, the company applied for a $1.75 billion private activity bond allocation, with proceeds from the bond sale substantially reducing or replacing entirely the amount of the RRIF loan request.[4]

The company received a Finding of No Significant Impact from the Federal Railroad Administration in January 2013, effectively clearing way for work to begin between Miami and West Palm Beach.[5] The Final Environmental Impact Statement was released on August 4, 2015.[6] By the beginning of 2015, the company had started site work at the Miami, Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach stations, plus right of way improvements along stretches of the corridor. On November 10, 2015, All Aboard Florida announced that the service would operate under the name Brightline.[7]

Service between Miami and West Palm Beach began on May 19, 2018.[8][9]

In September 2018, Brightline acquired XpressWest, a private company that intends to connect Las Vegas with Southern California via Victorville, California. Brightline announced the intent of purchasing 38 acres of land near the Las Vegas Strip for a station and following the Interstate 15 corridor from Las Vegas to Southern California.[10]

Two key counties on the coastal route north of the West Palm Beach station have, for various reasons, been fighting the extension of the rail line through Martin and Indian River Counties in court. One of their objections is that Brightline is owned by a private corporation, so they should not be allowed to issue tax-exempt bonds as if they were a municipality. On December 24, 2018, after four years of legal battles,[11] a Federal District Judge threw out a suit by Indian River County that claimed the U.S. Department of Transportation improperly approved the bond allocation, clearing the way for construction of the new rail corridor through the Treasure Coast and Space Coast.[12][13] On October 5, 2020, the US Supreme Court declined to hear the appeal of that decision, ending Indian River County's efforts to stymie development. The county's efforts at a Supreme Court hearing were financed with over $200,000 in private donations in addition to over $4 million in County funds.[14]

In April 2019, the company secured $1.75 billion in funding for the Orlando extension and said construction would begin right away.[15][16][17]

In November 2018, it was announced that Virgin Group would become a minority investor in the railroad and would provide rights to rebrand the service as Virgin Trains USA.[18] However, in August 2020, railroad managers announced that Virgin had not provided the agreed investment money and the company would be ending its branding deal, returning to the previous Brightline brand.[19][20][21] In March 2021, Virgin sued Brightline for $251.3 million because of the broken contract.[22][23]

Construction[edit]

Construction on MiamiCentral in 2015
Map of the Brightline route
Map of the Brightline route

Construction began on the Miami–West Palm Beach section with the laying of new tracks and closure of the temporary surface lots in Government Center, Downtown Miami, in mid 2014.[24] Preliminary work on the Miami station, such as site preparation and demolition, began later in the year.[25] Suffolk Construction was the general contractor for the Miami station.[26] Piles were being set on the four lots of MiamiCentral in early 2015.[27]

On October 29, 2014, work on the Fort Lauderdale station began with the demolition of existing buildings on the site.[28] A groundbreaking ceremony for the West Palm Beach station was held in November 2014.[29] Moss & Associates, of Fort Lauderdale, was the general contractor for the West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale stations.[30]

In January 2015, crews started replacing track throughout the corridor.[31][32] All Aboard Florida secured leasing of easement rights alongside the Beachline from the Central Florida Expressway Authority for $1.4 million in December 2015.

Construction work on Phase 2, between West Palm Beach and Orlando, officially began in June 2019, with a groundbreaking ceremony at Orlando International Airport.[33] Preliminary work on the corridor began in September 2019, in the area of Jensen Beach and Sebastian,[34] and began path clearing for construction of the Orlando–Cocoa portion in October of that year.[35]

As of May 2019, the contractors on the project were the Hubbard Construction Company, Wharton-Smith Inc., The Middlesex Corporation, Granite, and HSR Constructors. These five contractors are responsible for the development of 170 miles of new track into the completed state-of-the-art intermodal facility located in the new South Terminal at the Orlando International Airport (MCO).[36]

In 2019, Brightline operations sent a letter to the city of Boca Raton about the possibility of adding their city as an infill station along the Florida route. Brightline proposed constructing the station and rail infrastructure while the city would cover access and zoning requirements and costs.[37] In December 2019, the former community garden next to the Boca Raton Public Library was officially chosen as a station site for the station.[38][39]

In October 2019, Miami-Dade County allocated $76 million to build a Brightline Aventura station by the Aventura Mall in Ojus, Florida, between Miami and Fort Lauderdale. At the time of the announcement, the projected opening date was October 2020.[40] Groundbreaking on the station occurred in September 2020.[41] As of January 2023, construction on the Orlando line was approximately 87% complete.[42]

Opening[edit]

Public operations between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale began Saturday, January 13, 2018.[43][44] Service between West Palm Beach and Miami began on May 19, 2018.[8][9] Boca Raton began service on December 21, 2022, while Aventura was delayed for a few days and began service on December 24, 2022.[45][46]

Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

Brightline suspended operations on March 25, 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[47] All train services were completely closed, and the company cut 250 jobs.[48] Construction north to Orlando continued, as well as plans for the stations in Aventura and Boca Raton.[49][50]

In January 2021, the company stated that service would begin again in "late 2021," contrary to their earlier estimate of the third quarter of 2021. The company says that most station and operations staff will be brought back approximately 30–60 days before service resumes. Throughout January 2021 and May 2021, the trains ran with no passengers occasionally in order to test an upgraded corridor between the West Palm Beach and Miami train stations.[48] Service resumed on November 8, 2021, between West Palm Beach and Miami, with the Orlando line approximately 70% complete.[51]

Service[edit]

Schematic of rapid transit and passenger rail service in the Miami metropolitan area in 2017. It is unknown when the Tri-Rail Downtown Miami Link is scheduled to be operational.

Route[edit]

The route is made up of the following stations, from north to south:

County Station Brightline
in-service date
Time to
Miami
Connections
Palm Beach County West Palm Beach January 13, 2018 72-80 min Palm Tran: 1, 40, 41, & The Bolt 1
Palm Trolley: Yellow Line
Tri-Rail Commuter Connector: WPB-1
Boca Raton December 21, 2022[45] 51 min
Broward County Fort Lauderdale January 13, 2018 30-33 min Broward County Transit (at Central Terminal): 1, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14, 20, 22, 30, 31, 40, 50, 60, 81, US 1 Breeze
Sun Trolley: Downtown Link, Neighborhood Link, & NW Community Link
Tri-Rail Commuter Connector: FL-1, FL-3
Miami-Dade County Aventura December 24, 2022[46] 17 min Metrobus
MiamiCentral May 19, 2018[8][9] Metrorail (at Government Center): Green Line, Orange Lines, Downtown Express
Metromover (at Government Center): Omni Loop, Brickell Loop, Inner Loop
Metrobus: 2, 3, 7, 9, 11, 21, 51, 77, 93, 95, S (119), 120, 207, 208, 246, 277, 500
Broward County Transit (at Government Center): 95, 595
Miami Trolley: Coral Way
Tri-Rail Downtown Miami Link (planned)

Schedule[edit]

As of January 2019, between Miami and West Palm Beach, there are 17 round trips Monday through Friday, ten on Saturdays, and nine on Sundays.[52]

While Brightline does stop at all five of the stations, with the opening of Aventura and Boca Raton stations, there are select daily trains that exclude the stops at Aventura and Boca Raton, allowing for faster travel times between stations.[53]

Ridership[edit]

During the first two and a half months of introductory service between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, ridership totaled 74,780, increasing from 17,800 in January to 32,900 in March 2018.[54] The company itself announced that the ridership has been triple to what had been expected.[55] The forecast provided to bond investors calls for 240,000 passengers per month by 2020, which includes service to Miami,[56] and analyst Fitch Ratings has said that the company could break even at 56% of their ridership forecast.[55]

By the end of 2018 almost 600,000 passengers had ridden the train,[57] and the line welcomed its 1 millionth rider in August 2019.[58]

In August 2022 Brightline transported over 100,000 passengers for the first time.[59] In December 2022, Brightline served over 183,000 riders.[60]

Ridership by year[edit]

Year Ridership
2018 579,000[57]
2019 885,000[61]
2020
2021 159,474[62]
2022 1,230,494[62]

Stations[edit]

The five South Florida stations were designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in association with Zyscovich Architects.[63] Rockwell Group designed the interiors.[64] All five have adjacent parking at the rate of $5–6 per day.[65]

Miami[edit]

The downtown Miami station, known as MiamiCentral (not to be confused with Miami Central Station, now known as Miami Intermodal Center, near Miami International Airport), spans 9 acres (3.6 ha) located just east of Miami-Dade County Hall and includes 3 million square feet (280,000 m2) of mixed-use development with residential, office and commercial, and a retail concourse. The station connects Brightline with the Metrorail, Metromover, Metrobus and City of Miami trolley systems.[66] In the future, there will be a Tri-Rail station at MiamiCentral. This increases connections to activities and tourist destinations, including the Performing Arts Center, Bayside Market and Bayfront Park. Service to Miami began on May 19, 2018.[8][9]

Aventura[edit]

The Aventura station is located on West Dixie Highway west of the Aventura Mall in Ojus, Florida. The station is 34,000 sq ft (3,200 m2) on a 3 acre site. There are 240 parking spaces at the Aventura station, as well as a Miami-Dade Transit bus drop-off.[67] Complimentary shuttle service is available to and from the mall. In the future, it will include another bridge that will connect the platform to Aventura Mall, and it will serve as the terminus of planned commuter rail service.

Fort Lauderdale[edit]

The Fort Lauderdale station is located at NW 2nd Avenue between Broward Boulevard and NW 4th Street. The four-acre station site has a 60,000 sq ft (5,600 m2) station and platform. The Brightline train service in Ft. Lauderdale connects to the Sun Trolley and Broward County Transit system.[68] Brightline also owns about three acres of land to the east of the Florida East Coast Railway corridor, where there are plans to build a transit-oriented development.[69]

Boca Raton[edit]

The Boca Raton station is located next to the Boca Raton Public Library. The station is 22,000 sq ft (2,000 m2) on a 1.8-acre site across from Mizner Park. The station has access to a 455-space parking garage that will also provide dedicated free parking for library patrons.

West Palm Beach[edit]

The West Palm Beach station is located between Datura and Evernia Streets and to the west of Quadrille. The two-acre station site has a 60,000 sq ft (5,600 m2) station and platform that connect with the neighborhood's existing vehicular, trolley and pedestrian networks and establish links to the Tri-Rail, Palm Tran Downtown Trolley and Amtrak West Palm Beach station.[70]

Planned and proposed routes and destinations[edit]

Orlando[edit]

In 2017, the new Orlando International Airport Intermodal Terminal at Orlando International Airport was opened.[71] Brightline will terminate at this station once the 170-mile (270 km) Orlando Extension track is built. Trains will run up to 125 mph (201 km/h) with a travel time of approximately three hours from Orlando's airport to Miami.[72][73] The first test run of the Brightline train into Orlando station happened on May 17, 2022.[74]

The extension is expected to see its first passengers in 2023.[75][76]

Tampa[edit]

As of September 2019, Brightline is in negotiations with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to lease right-of-way along the Interstate 4 corridor.[77] Brightline was the only bidder to submit a proposal to construct an intercity rail line along Interstate 4, which has been designated for federally funded high-speed rail.[77] This would be utilized for an extension of the line from Orlando International Airport to Tampa.[77] Potential stops along this route are the SunRail Meadow Woods station and Lakeland.[77] The deadline for the negotiations between Central Florida Expressway Authority, FDOT, and Brightline was March 31, 2020.[78] In September 2020, the railroad entered into a memorandum of understanding with a local developer to potentially construct the terminal station in Ybor City.[79]

In November 2020, Brightline and Walt Disney World Resort announced an agreement to build a station in Disney Springs as a part of its Tampa extension. The high-speed rail corridor between Disney Springs and Orlando International Airport was projected to cost $1 billion and travel alongside Florida State Road 417. While the project has yet to secure needed funding, passenger service was planned to start by 2026.[80] Then, on May 5, 2022, Universal Orlando offered 13 acres of land near the site where Universal's Epic Universe is being built for a commuter station, as well as bond guarantees. This was claimed to promote construction of an extension of Brightline that would include a brief confluence with SunRail between SunRail's Meadow Woods and Pine Castle stations, and lead through Disney eventually to Tampa. They did not mention the existing proposal to run Brightline down SR 417 to Disney Springs. But it did suggest a future SunRail service to Epic Universe, the Orange County Convention Center, and Disney Springs.[81] On June 28, 2022, Disney announced that Brightline would not run on their Walt Disney World park property; however Brightline said it would still build a station near Disney World to get riders as close as possible.[82][83]

Future expansion[edit]

As part of the initial construction for Brightline, All Aboard Florida said it was considering an extension to Jacksonville, Florida.[84]

In October 2019, Brightline announced plans to start building a station in PortMiami in 2020.[39][85] However, as of 2022, the plans for the station have been removed from Brightline's website.

Brightline has expressed interest in serving at the Miami Intermodal Center, at the facility where Amtrak plans to relocate its service, but no negotiations are currently underway, according to FDOT.[86]

Brightline has also expressed interest in adding a station on Florida's Treasure Coast and another on the Space Coast between West Palm Beach and Orlando. In August 2018, the company asked cities in the area to submit proposals for station locations. Fort Pierce, which last had passenger train service on July 31, 1968, has expressed interest.[87][88] The city of Stuart has also indicated that it will be negotiating for a potential station.[89] Brightline has indicated that Stuart is the most likely location for a Treasure Coast station, and that Cocoa would make the most sense for a Space Coast station, both because of proximity to Port Canaveral's cruise lines as well as for positioning for future expansion to Jacksonville.[90] Neither station has been committed in writing, and both are pending market studies, as completion of the line to Orlando is the top priority for Brightline.

Commuter rail

In 2020, it was revealed that Brightline was planning a commuter rail service to complement their existing service. Referred to as the Northeast Corridor,[91] trains would run between MiamiCentral and Aventura with five stations between.[91] Brightline and the Miami-Dade County Commission agreed to access fees in November 2020.[92] The estimated cost for full buildout of the line is $325 million.[91] Operations are expected to start as early as 2024.[93]

The following year, the Florida Department of Transportation and Broward County executed a memorandum of understanding to implement a passenger transportation system along the FEC corridor. Plans call for a 27-mile (43 km) commuter rail route starting at Aventura station in the south and running as far north as Deerfield Beach.[94] Service could start in 2028.[95]

Brightline West[edit]

On September 18, 2018, Fortress Investment Group announced that it would acquire XpressWest, a venture capital proposal to build a privately funded high-speed rail passenger train from Apple Valley, California to Las Vegas, Nevada from hotel developer Marnell Corrao Associates.[96][97][98] When Fortress subsequently entered into its partnership with Virgin Group in 2019, it was announced that the newly formed consortium will build and operate XpressWest when it opens.[99] In September 2020, Fortress Investment Group renamed the project Brightline West.

Despite funding difficulties, Brightline currently plans on constructing the 180-mile (290 km) long Brightline West track starting in 2023.[100] They plan on carrying passengers at speeds of up to 200 mph (322 km/h) for an 85-minute trip. Trains on this line will be fully electric and run alongside Interstate 15. Fortress' Wes Edens has stated that Brightline's service is modeled off of Eurostar's Paris-to-London commute. Its coach design includes white-and-blue interiors, roomy seating, and free Wi-Fi.[73]

Engineering[edit]

Train speeds[edit]

Upon full buildout of the Miami–Orlando route, trains will operate at up to 79 mph (127 km/h) between Miami and West Palm Beach, up to 110 mph (177 km/h) between West Palm Beach and Cocoa, and up to 125 mph (201 km/h) between Cocoa and the Orlando International Airport.[101] A future extension to Tampa from Orlando would, if constructed, also allow trains to operate at up to 125 mph (201 km/h).[102] It will be one of the few rail services in the United States to approach the lowest high-speed rail standard set by the International Union of Railways, 200 km/h (124.3 mph) for existing lines, although newly built railways are typically expected to meet the higher standard of 250 km/h (155.3 mph) to be considered high speed.[103][104]

The planned travel time between Miami and Orlando is 3 hours.[105] Driving between the two takes 3+12 hours using the Florida's Turnpike, and 3+34 hours using the I-95/SR 528 freeways along the planned train route via Cocoa. The flight time between MIA and MCO is one hour, not including check-in, security, and last mile transportation.

To meet the 3 hour schedule, trains will have to operate with an overall average speed of 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), which is similar to the overall average speed of the Amtrak Acela Express operating on the Northeast Corridor between New York City and Washington, D.C.[106][107][108]

Pre-existing Miami–Cocoa Corridor upgrades[edit]

The project calls for more than $1.5 billion in upgrades to the rail corridor between Miami and Cocoa. The company is double tracking the corridor, improving signaling systems, and upgrading every grade crossing to meet the highest applicable safety standards set by FDOT and Federal Railroad Administration.[109][110] In January 2013, the Federal Railroad Administration issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Miami–Cocoa phase of the project, effectively clearing the way for work to begin.[111] Part of the corridor safety upgrades includes installing positive train control (PTC), which will enhance Brightline's ability to monitor and control train movements safely.[112]

Quiet zones[edit]

Responding to citizen concerns about increased noise from additional horns, the company stated that it will work with local communities to implement quiet zones where possible.[113] Federal law requires quiet zone requests to originate from the local authority that has jurisdiction over the roadway, not the railroad company.[114]

In August 2014, the company announced a partnership with the Broward and Palm Beach Metropolitan Planning Organizations to implement quiet zones between the city of Hallandale Beach and 15th Street in West Palm Beach.[115] In December 2014, the Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization approved funding to construct quiet zones between PortMiami and the northern Miami-Dade County line.[116] The quiet zones were originally planned to be in place when Brightline becomes operational between Miami and West Palm Beach by the end of 2017. Brightline started service on January 11, 2018, but various delays in constructing the quiet zones have stretched their in-service date to sometime in March.[117]

On May 14, 2018, quiet zones went into effect in West Palm Beach, in Lake Worth on May 21 and in Boca Raton on May 30. The "no train horn" areas apply to all trains, freight and passenger.[118] Quiet Zones remove the legal duty of a train engineer to sound the horn. Train engineers do still use the horn in quiet zones for emergency situations (such as a trespasser fouling the tracks).[119]

Bridges[edit]

The FEC rail corridor includes a number of fixed-span bridges that will be replaced as part of the project. Most do not require United States Coast Guard (USCG) permitting as they do not span significant navigable waterways and clearances will not change. Twelve other bridges—St. Johns River, Eau Gallie River, St. Sebastian River, Crane Creek, Turkey Creek, West Palm Beach Canal, Boynton Canal, Middle River (both the North and South Fork), Oleta River, Arch Creek and Hillsboro Canal—will require permitting by the USCG. In addition, the project calls for significant investment and upgrades to three movable bridges: St. Lucie, Loxahatchee, and New River. These improvements will ensure that bridge mechanical systems for raising and lowering the bridge spans are either fully upgraded or replaced. The company has stated that, prior to it becoming operational, it will start to regularly notify mariners of scheduled bridge closings via the internet, smart phone application and countdown signage on the bridges to enable mariners to have real-time information to decrease wait times at each bridge. Also, the company will station a bridge tender at the New River bridge.[120]

Deaths[edit]

There have been 60[121] deaths since Brightline began test runs in 2017, giving it the worst per-mile fatality rate in the nation, according to an ongoing Associated Press analysis that began in 2019.[122] In December 2019, the AP produced a story based on FRA data that Brightline had the worst per-mile death rate of the nation's 821 railroads.[123]

None of Brightline's deaths were caused by crew error or faulty equipment, but were all related to suicides or pedestrians and drivers trying to cross and beat the trains, according to law enforcement and federal reports. [124][125]

Cocoa–Orlando[edit]

The proposed line between Cocoa and Orlando is the only segment that does not have existing track or right-of-way owned by FEC. Originally, the Central Florida Expressway Authority (CFX) believed it could accommodate building new tracks for the project within the BeachLine Expressway's 300-foot (91 m) wide right-of-way. This segment of the proposed line will operate at speeds of up to 125 mph (201 km/h).[126][127]

CFX began negotiations with Deseret Ranch, which owns the land just south of the BeachLine, to purchase additional land in order to widen the right-of-way. According to a pact made on July 16, 2013, CFX tentatively agreed to pay $12 million for an extra 200 ft (61 m) along the 22-mile (35 km) BeachLine corridor between Cocoa and Orlando International Airport.[128] In early October 2013, CFX and All Aboard Florida reached a formal purchase agreement for the land required for the right-of-way. Although construction was slated to originally begin in early 2015, construction of the segment started on May 22, 2019.[129][130]

Also in October 2013, the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority (GOAA) board approved development of a station and maintenance facility on Orlando International Airport property, as well as an easement to build track between the station and the mainline to the coast.[131]

For the initial opening of the line it will be single track for most of the route, however all the bridges and infrastructure is designed for double track thus saving effort when upgrading.[132]

Maintenance[edit]

Brightline has two maintenance facilities. One is a Running Repair Facility, located north of the West Palm Beach station at 601 15th Street, designed for maintenance and minor repair work that does not require the train to be removed from service. The facility, named "workshop b", includes a maintenance pit for accessing the underside of the trains and can handle up to four 10-car train sets.

More extensive maintenance and repair is accomplished at a second larger facility known as the Vehicle Maintenance Facility near the Orlando International Airport.[133]

Technical[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

All Aboard Florida ordered five Siemens trainsets in 2014. Each Brightline trainset initially consisted of four passenger coaches, with a Siemens Charger SCB-40 diesel-electric locomotive on each end.[134][135] The coaches, with interiors designed by the LAB at Rockwell Group,[136] feature ergonomic seating, Wi-Fi, and level boarding, and meet ADA standards. Each trainset holds 248 passengers.[8] Working with All Aboard Florida, the LAB also conceived the Brightline name, brand platform, and visual identity.[137] The entire trainset, including passenger cars, were manufactured by Siemens in its solar-powered plant in Florin, California. Once the route to Orlando is in operation, the trainsets will be expanded to seven coaches, and five more complete trainsets will be purchased.[138][139] The first of five trainsets departed the Siemens factory on December 8, 2016,[140] and arrived in West Palm Beach on December 14.[141] The fifth trainset arrived in South Florida in October 2017.[142]

The trains offers two classes of service, with one "Premium" coach and three "Smart" coaches on each trainset. "Premium" offers 2x1 and four-to-a-table seating with 50 21-inch (530 mm)-wide seats per car and complimentary snacks and beverages, while the slightly less expensive "Smart" fare coaches seat 66 with narrower 19-inch (480 mm)-wide seats, with snacks and beverages available for purchase.[143][144] Each trainset is able to hold 248 passengers.[8]

Photo Model Year Total Power Weight
Brightline Trains at Workshop b.jpg
Siemens Charger SCB-40 locomotives 2017 10 units[135] 4,000 hp (3,000 kW)[145] 264,556 lb (120,001 kg)[146]
2022 8 delivered 3 units in production
Siemens Venture trainsets 2017 5 four-car trainsets[135] unpowered 111,999 lb (50,802 kg)[147]
2022 5 delivered 1 four-car trainset in production

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "All Aboard Florida plan announced". Railway Gazette. March 28, 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  2. ^ "Quiet zones plans for FEC tracks get boost, as All Aboard Florida picks up costs for some safety upgrades". Palm Beach Post. September 19, 2013.
  3. ^ "All Aboard Florida seeks federal loan". Orlando Sentinel. March 18, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  4. ^ "All Aboard Florida shocker: Rail seeks private financing". Palm Beach Post. October 8, 2014.
  5. ^ "High-speed rail service heads south". Florida Today. Associated Press. July 9, 2014.
  6. ^ "All Aboard Florida Final Environmental Impact Statement". Federal Railroad Administration. August 4, 2015.
  7. ^ "All Aboard Florida unveils branding of its rail service". The Real Deal Miami. November 9, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Roustan, Wayne K. (May 19, 2018). "All aboard as Brightline launches fast train service to Miami". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d Jacoby, Kenny (May 19, 2018). "Brightline's inaugural West Palm-to-Miami trip draws crowd, celebration". Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  10. ^ "Brightline to Build Express Intercity Passenger Rail Connecting Southern California and Las Vegas" (Press release). Brightline. September 18, 2018. Archived from the original on September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  11. ^ "Brightline spending reaches $7.2 million in Martin, Indian River counties, but for what?". TCPalm (Treasure Coast Newspapers). Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  12. ^ Rosenberg, Arnie (December 25, 2018). "Judge tosses out Indian River County's lawsuit against All Aboard Florida". TCPalm.
  13. ^ "Florida's Brightline clears legal hurdle, gets financing extension". Bond Buyer. December 26, 2018.
  14. ^ Soloman, Joshua (October 5, 2020). "U.S. Supreme Court won't hear Indian River County's appeal of Brightline lawsuit". TCPalm.
  15. ^ Forester, Thomas (April 4, 2019). "Brightline secures funding to Orlando, plans to open Walt Disney World station". WPEC.
  16. ^ Lyons, David (April 4, 2019). "Virgin Trains lines up funding for expansion to Orlando". Sun Sentinel.
  17. ^ "Virgin Trains finally set to launch construction of West Palm Beach-to-Orlando link". miamiherald.
  18. ^ Cohen, Howard (November 16, 2018). "Brightline forms a partnership with Virgin. A name change is coming soon". Miami Herald.
  19. ^ "Florida Luxury Train Cuts Branson Ties, Drops Virgin Name". Bloomberg Media. August 7, 2020.
  20. ^ Ohnsman, Alan (August 7, 2020). "High-Speed Rail Startup Brightline Ends Alliance With Richard Branson's Virgin". Forbes. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  21. ^ Johnston, Katie (August 11, 2020). "Brightline Trains Ends Partnership With Richard Branson's Virgin Group". WFOR-TV. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  22. ^ Lyons, David. "Virgin sues Brightline for $251.3 million over marketing divorce". sun-sentinel.com. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  23. ^ "Virgin sues Brightline for $US 251.3m over naming contract". International Railway Journal. March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  24. ^ Chardy, Alfonso (August 25, 2014). "Work begins — finally — on Miami-to-Orlando fast train". Miami Herald. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
  25. ^ Robbins, John Charles (September 27, 2016). "Brightline passenger rail service 65% built". Miami Today. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  26. ^ Judy, Scott (July 30, 2014). "All Aboard Florida Taps Suffolk to Build Miami Station". ENR Southeast. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  27. ^ Chardy, Alfonso (March 9, 2015). "On track: Details for downtown Miami railway hub are revealed". The Miami Herald. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  28. ^ Turnbell, Michael (October 29, 2014). "Demolition begins for All Aboard Florida's new station". SunSentinel. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  29. ^ Sorentrue, Jennifer (November 12, 2014). "All Aboard Florida to begin construction today on West Palm Beach station". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  30. ^ Turnbell, Michael (January 20, 2015). "Rail picks contractor for Fort Lauderdale, WPB stations". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  31. ^ Sorentrue, Jennifer (November 28, 2017). "Brightline to start limited service in December". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  32. ^ Sorentrue, Jennifer (July 24, 2017). "Brightline's Orlando leg delayed to 2020". myPalmBeachPost. Cox Media Group. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  33. ^ Solomon, Joshua (June 24, 2019). "Virgin Trains' Orlando leg underway as railroad eyes expansions to Tampa, Las Vegas". TCPalm. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  34. ^ Solomon, Joshua (September 18, 2019). "Virgin Trains expects to begin work Sept. 23 along Treasure Coast, Stuart officials say". TCPalm. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  35. ^ Virgin Trains rail construction to trigger Beachline Expressway nighttime closures, Rick Neale, Florida Today, October 21, 2019.
  36. ^ "Virgin Trains USA names contractors for Orlando expansion". www.MassTransitMag.com. May 30, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  37. ^ Hristoforidis, Christina (September 12, 2019). "Is the Proposed Brightline Train Station a Good Idea for Boca Raton?". The Boca Raton Tribute. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  38. ^ Baitinger, Brooke (December 11, 2019). "Brightline station coming to Boca Raton by 2021". South Florida Sun Sentinel. Boca Raton, Florida. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  39. ^ a b Newspapers, Joshua Solomon, Treasure Coast. "Virgin Trains OKs 3 new stations in South Florida, so when will it build stations here?". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  40. ^ Hanks, Douglas (October 11, 2019). "Miami-Dade approves $76 million to bring Brightline to Aventura Mall". Miami Herald.
  41. ^ "Brightline breaks ground on Aventura Mall station".
  42. ^ Johnston, Bob (January 3, 2023). "Brightline update: PTC plans outlined for 125-mph operation". www.trains.com. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  43. ^ "Happy rails to you: Brightline high-speed trains roll into action". my Palm Beach Post. January 13, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  44. ^ "Brightline slates fares and service date". Railway Age. January 11, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  45. ^ a b Fernandez, Jasmine (December 21, 2022). "'A great moment for Boca Raton's future': Brightline station opens for business". The Palm Beach Post. Gannett. Retrieved December 25, 2022.
  46. ^ a b "Grand opening held for new Brightline station in Aventura". WSVN. Sunbeam Television. December 24, 2022. Retrieved December 25, 2022.
  47. ^ Bryan, Susannah (March 25, 2020). "As Brightline suspends service, 250 employees lose their jobs". Sun-Sentinel.
  48. ^ a b Lyons, David (January 21, 2021). "Here's when Brightline trains are expected to restart service". The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  49. ^ Figueroa, Jessica (April 16, 2020). "Virgin Trains Continues Construction on South Florida to Orlando Rail Throughout COVID-19 Pandemic". WDW News Today. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  50. ^ Deal, Jeff (July 17, 2020). "High-speed rail service from OIA to South Florida on track for 2022". ABC. WFTV. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
  51. ^ "Brightline trains resume from West Palm Beach to Miami for first time since March 2020". November 8, 2021.
  52. ^ "Schedule". Brightline. 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  53. ^ "BRIGHTLINE TO HOST RIBBON CUTTINGS AT BOCA RATON AND AVENTURA". www.gobrightline.com. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  54. ^ Broadt, Lisa (June 29, 2018). "Brightline financial documents reveal first quarter ridership, revenue". TCPalm. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  55. ^ a b "Brightline Ridership Triples Expectations; Miami To Start By End Of April". The Next Miami. April 13, 2018.
  56. ^ "Here's How Many Passengers Have Been Riding Brightline Trains". The Next Miami. April 30, 2018.
  57. ^ a b Lyons, David. "Brightline expects to more than double ridership by adding three South Florida stations". sun-sentinel.com. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  58. ^ "Virgin Trains USA celebrates one million ride mark". www.MassTransitMag.com. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  59. ^ "🌱 Pembroke Park Police Department Now Active + Brightline Aug. Record". October 2022.
  60. ^ "Brightline Monthly Ridership and Revenue Report, December 2022" (PDF).
  61. ^ Newspapers, Joshua Solomon, Treasure Coast. "Virgin Trains OKs 3 new stations in South Florida, so when will it build stations here?". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  62. ^ a b "Monthly Revenue and Ridership Report" (PDF). December 2022.
  63. ^ "SOM completes three new Brightline Florida rail stations". Archinect. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  64. ^ "Brightline – Rockwell Group". www.rockwellgroup.com. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  65. ^ Kornfield, Meryl (July 2, 2018). "Brightline's garages start charging customers to park". Sun-Sentinel.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  66. ^ "Here Are Leasing Plans And New Renderings For All Aboard Florida's MiamiCentral Station Project". The Next Miami. September 22, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  67. ^ Staff, A. O. L. "Is Brightline's Aventura station open yet? Curious305 takes a behind-the-scenes look". www.aol.com. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  68. ^ "Fort Lauderdale". gobrightline.com. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  69. ^ Wallman, Brittany (May 4, 2014). "Rail firm appears on track to transform Fort Lauderdale". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  70. ^ Sorentrue, Jennifer (November 11, 2014). "All Aboard Florida updates WPB station design". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on February 12, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  71. ^ Fluker, Anjali (August 11, 2014). "Exclusive: What All Aboard Florida rail station may include at Orlando airport". Orlando Business Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  72. ^ "Brightline, Disney announce agreement for Disney Springs train station". Orlando Sentinel.
  73. ^ a b Ohnsman, Alan (June 11, 2020). "Inside A Wall Street Tycoon's Plan To Get Americans Off The Highway – And On His Trains". Forbes.
  74. ^ Luczak, Marybeth (May 18, 2022). "First Look: Brightline Rolls Into Orlando Station". Railway Age. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  75. ^ Bilbao, Richard (December 1, 2021). "Community Impact Heroes: Brightline's Christine Kefauver sets the stage for a long-term plan to improve mobility". Orlando Business Journal. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
  76. ^ Kokal, Katherne (December 20, 2021). "The Palm Beach Post". The Palm Beach Post. Mass Transit. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
  77. ^ a b c d Brezina-Smith, Veronica; Lynch, Ryan (September 11, 2019). "State Extends Virgin Trains' Deadline for Orlando-to-Tampa Right-of-Way Negotiations". Orlando Business Journal. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  78. ^ "Virgin Trains' Tampa-to-Orlando right of way negotiations extended again". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  79. ^ Brezina-Smith, Veronica (September 15, 2020). "Brightline, developer Darryl Shaw in negotiations for Ybor City rail station". Tampa Bay Business Journal. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  80. ^ Spear, Kevin (March 11, 2021). "Brightline reveals cost details and route choices for Disney service in 5 years". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
  81. ^ "Universal executives pledge to donate land to support SunRail/Brightline corridor". WESH.com. May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  82. ^ Johnston, Bob (June 28, 2022). "Brightline station serving Disney World won't be on theme park's property". Trains. Kalmbach Media. Archived from the original on June 28, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  83. ^ Lynch, Ryan; Bilbao, Richard. "Brightline confirms alternative train station near Disney — but not on property — in the works". Orlando Business Journal. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  84. ^ Talley, Karen. "All Aboard Florida gains easement, hints at Jacksonville in contract". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  85. ^ "Brightline Announces Plans to Build PortMiami Station in 2020". www.travelmarketreport.com. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  86. ^ "Amtrak Begins Active Preparations To Launch Service To Miami Intermodal Center". The Next Miami. March 3, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  87. ^ Rodriguez, Janny (September 6, 2018). "Brightline considers Fort Pierce train station". WPTV.
  88. ^ Gardner, Keona (September 5, 2018). "Fort Pierce: Brightline wants to build station, hotel at H.D. King site downtown". TC Palm.
  89. ^ Broadt, Lisa (October 23, 2018). "Stuart will pursue Brightline station; city is considering three locations". TCPalm. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  90. ^ Solomon, Joshua (October 25, 2019). "Virgin Trains moving closer to station in Cocoa, leaning toward Stuart". TCPalm. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  91. ^ a b c Scheckner, Jesse (March 23, 2021). "After $345 million buildout, Brightline to run new intercity rail". Miami Today. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  92. ^ "Brightline, Miami-Dade OK access fee for new commuter-rail system". Progressive Railroading. November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  93. ^ Scheckner, Jesse (April 6, 2021). "Miami-Dade seeks federal funding for Northeast commuter rail line". Miami Today. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  94. ^ Lester, David C. (August 24, 2021). "Florida's Broward County considering commuter rail line in FEC corridor". Railway Track and Structure. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  95. ^ Lyons, Davis (September 5, 2021). "Broward commuter rail link not likely until 2028". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  96. ^ "Brightline to Build Express Intercity Passenger Rail Connecting Southern California and Las Vegas" (Press release). XpressWest. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  97. ^ Velotta, Richard N. (September 18, 2018). "Florida firm acquires company planning Las Vegas to LA rail line". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  98. ^ "Las Vegas officials eye linking downtown to proposed high-speed rail". May 24, 2019.
  99. ^ Cordeiro, Monivette. "Brightline changes name to Virgin Trains USA in new partnership with billionaire Richard Branson". Orlando Weekly.
  100. ^ Akers, Mick (November 16, 2022). "High-speed rail project construction could begin in '23". Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  101. ^ "South Florida gets first peek at Brightline express train". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. January 11, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  102. ^ "Brightline-Virgin proposal for Tampa-to-Orlando rail service clears key state hurdle". Tampa Bay Times. November 28, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  103. ^ "General Definitions of Highspeed". International Union of Railways (UIC). Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  104. ^ Pyrgidis, Christos N. (April 21, 2016). Railway Transportation Systems: Design, Construction and Operation. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4822-6216-2.
  105. ^ Holsman, Melissa (April 22, 2019). "Virgin Trains sells $1.75 billion in private activity bonds for expansion to Orlando". TCPalm. Port St Lucie, FL: Treasure Coast Newspapers.
  106. ^ "FECI Bringing Private Passenger Rail To Florida By 2014". Metro Jacksonville. Retrieved July 16, 2012. FECI envisions a three-hour trip between the cities at an average speed similar to the Acela between New York and Washington, DC... The initial 240-mile project between Orlando and downtown Miami is expected to cost $1 billion.
  107. ^ "ACELA High-Speed Rail Network System". Railway Technology. Retrieved May 19, 2012. The 225 mile (362 km) New York Penn Station to Washington, DC takes 2 hours 48 minutes, an average of 80mph (129 km/h).
  108. ^ Gale, Kevin (March 22, 2012). "Florida East Coast Industries plans Miami-to-Orlando passenger service". South Florida Business Journal. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
  109. ^ Parker, Terri (July 23, 2014). "State requires All Aboard Florida to install millions in safety upgrades". WPBF. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  110. ^ "Private passenger train vision calls for double-tracking Florida East Coast". Trains Magazine. March 23, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  111. ^ "All Aboard Florida Passenger Rail Project FONSI". Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  112. ^ "Southeast Florida Passenger Rail Update: Sept. 20, 2013 Council Meeting" (PDF). Trasurer Coast Regional Planning Council. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  113. ^ Stone, Rick (August 14, 2014). "'Quiet Zones' Along The FEC Tracks May Silence Critics As Well As Train Whistles". WLRN. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  114. ^ "Federal Railroad Administration's Train Horn & Quiet Zone Rule". Union Pacific. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  115. ^ Reiser, Emon (August 13, 2014). "All Aboard Florida secures funds for Broward-Palm Beach quiet zone". South Florida Business Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  116. ^ Chardy, Alfonso (January 16, 2015). "With 'quiet zones' funded for Miami-Dade, All Aboard Florida moves ahead". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  117. ^ Sorentrue, Jennifer (January 11, 2018). "UPDATE: Quiet zone work to be completed in March, Brightline says". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  118. ^ Shatzman, Marci (May 30, 2018). "Trains to silence horns at 10 Boca Raton crossings". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  119. ^ "FRA Locomotive Horn Sounding and Quiet Zone Establishment". FRA. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  120. ^ "All Aboard Florida – Miami to Orlando Passenger Rail Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement". Federal Railroad Administration. September 19, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  121. ^ "Police investigating after Brightline train hit pedestrian in North Miami Beach". October 19, 2022.
  122. ^ "After 57 deaths, Brightline in Florida pleads with people to stop dangerous crossings". Tampa Bay Times.
  123. ^ "Brightline, Florida's High-Speed Train, Has Highest U.S. Death Rate". CBSMiami. Associated Press. December 2, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  124. ^ NOW, BOCA NEWS (August 9, 2022). "Brightline Train Kills Another, This Time In Lake Worth Beach". BocaNewsNow.com. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  125. ^ "Lake Worth Beach death marks 3rd fatal Brightline crash in Palm Beach County in week". WPTV. August 9, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  126. ^ "49 U.S.C. 26105 – Definitions". U.S. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  127. ^ "The Development of High Speed Rail in the United States: Issues and Recent Events" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  128. ^ Tracy, Dan (July 16, 2013). "Deal could lead to Miami-Orlando train, extended Osceola toll road". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  129. ^ "F A Q". Brightline. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  130. ^ Spear, Kevin. "Virgin Trains announces construction start for rail between Orlando and South Florida". orlandosentinel.com. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  131. ^ "All Aboard Florida secures right-of-way, station agreements". Railway Track and Structures. October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  132. ^ Brightline Construction: Work Train on the Orlando Line – January 10, 2022, retrieved January 28, 2022
  133. ^ Seemuth, Mike (January 18, 2016). "Concrete pours for Brightline facility in West Palm Beach". The Real Deal Miami. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  134. ^ "Cummins QSK95 achieves Tier 4 certification". Railway Gazette. London. April 6, 2016.
  135. ^ a b c "Brightline unveils Siemens locomotives and coaches". Railway Gazette. London. June 8, 2016.
  136. ^ Trejos, Nancy (November 9, 2015). "New Florida train service to whisk passengers between Miami and Orlando". USA Today.
  137. ^ "Florida's Brightline to 'take the grey out of travel'". Railway Gazette. November 10, 2015.
  138. ^ "All Aboard Florida Selects Siemens as Train Manufacturer" (Press release). All Aboard Florida. September 11, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  139. ^ Brinkmann, Paul (September 11, 2014). "Siemens to build All Aboard Florida trains". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  140. ^ Hendrickson, Eric (December 13, 2016). "First Brightline train on FEC rails". Trains Magazine. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  141. ^ Viglucci, Andres (December 14, 2016). "Take a gander at the very first finished Brightline train, now steaming to South Florida". Miami Herald. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  142. ^ "Fifth Trainset Delivered As Brightline Named Official Train Service Of Miami HEAT" (Press release). Brightline. October 5, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2018 – via PR Newswire.
  143. ^ "Brightline train service begins in South Florida". WFTV 9. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. January 11, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  144. ^ "Trains". Brightline. Archived from the original on January 20, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  145. ^ Vantuono, William C. (June 5, 2017). "Brightline going biodiesel". Railway Age. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  146. ^ "Charger Diesel-Electric Locomotive: All Aboard Florida" (PDF). Siemens Mobility. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  147. ^ "America's Passenger Rail Experience" (PDF). Siemens.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata