The Brink's-Mat robbery at the Heathrow International Trading Estate on 26 November 1983 saw a record £26 million (today approx £79 million) worth of gold bullion, diamonds and cash stolen from a warehouse. The bullion was the property of Johnson Matthey Bankers Ltd, which collapsed the following year after making large loans to fraudsters and insolvent firms. Many of the robbery gang were convicted, but the gold has never been recovered. Insurers Lloyd’s of London paid out for the losses. Several murders have been linked to the case, plus links established to the Hatton Garden safe deposit burglary over 30 years later in April 2015.
The Brink's-Mat robbery occurred early on 26 November 1983 when six robbers broke into the Brink's-Mat warehouse, Unit 7 of the Heathrow International Trading Estate near Heathrow Airport in west London. At the time, it was described as "the crime of the century".
The gang gained entry to the warehouse from security guard Anthony Black. The robbers thought they were going to steal £3.2 million in cash. However, when they arrived, they found three tonnes of gold bullion and stole £26 million (today approx 79 million) worth of gold, diamonds and cash. Once inside, they poured petrol over staff and threatened them with a lit match if they did not reveal the combination numbers of the vault.
Two days after the robbery, a couple saw a white-hot crucible operating in a garden hut at a neighbour's property near Bath, Somerset. Suspecting it may be linked to the bullion robbery, they immediately informed police. The police arrived and were shown the hut, but they said it was just beyond their area and said they would pass the information on to the police responsible for that area. The couple were never asked to give a statement to police or give evidence in court. No explanation has been given for the police failure to follow up immediately on the tip-off. Only 14 months later were the premises raided, the smelter found, and occupier John Palmer, a local jeweller and bullion dealer, arrested. In court, Palmer said he was unaware the gold was linked to the robbery and he was cleared of all charges. For this incident, Palmer acquired the soubriquet of "Goldfinger".
One of the robbers, Brian Robinson, was caught after security guard insider Black, his brother-in-law, passed his name to investigating officers. He was arrested in December 1983.
Scotland Yard quickly discovered the family connection and Black confessed to aiding and abetting the raiders, providing them with a key to the main door, and giving them details of security measures.
Micky McAvoy had entrusted part of his share to associates Brian Perry and George Francis. Perry recruited Kenneth Noye, who was an expert in his field, to dispose of the gold. Noye melted down the bullion and recast it for sale, mixing in copper coins to disguise the source. However, the sudden movements of large amounts of money through a Bristol bank came to the notice of the Bank of England, which informed the police.
Noye was placed under police surveillance. In January 1985 he killed a police officer, DC John Fordham, whom he had discovered in his garden.[clarification needed] At the resulting trial the following December, the jury found him not guilty on the grounds of self-defence.
In 1986, Noye was found guilty of conspiracy to handle the Brink's-Mat gold, fined £500,000, plus £200,000 costs, and sentenced to 14 years in prison. He served seven years before being released in 1994. Francis was later murdered and McAvoy was thought to be a suspect.
Attempts by McAvoy to strike a deal to give back his share of the money in exchange for a reduced sentence failed, as by then the money had vanished. In January 1995, the High Court ordered McAvoy to make a payment of £27,488,299, making him responsible for the entire sum stolen. He was released from prison in 2000.
Much of the 31⁄2 tonnes of stolen gold has never been recovered and the other four robbers were never convicted. In 1996 about half of the gold, the portion which had been smelted, was thought to have found its way back into the legitimate gold market, including the reserves of the true owners, Johnson Matthey. According to the BBC, some have claimed that anyone wearing gold jewellery bought in the UK after 1983 is probably wearing Brink's-Mat.
On 21 December 1983, less than four weeks after the robbery, police in Austria arrested five men, four Italians and an Austrian, at a Vienna hotel. Police also recovered ten bullion bars bearing the refiner's mark and serial numbers of bars stolen in the Brink's-Mat robbery.
According to the police spokesman, the bars were gold-coated tungsten counterfeits, and therefore could not be Johnson Matthey's stolen gold bars. The spokesman explained that the arrested men planned to pass them off to others by fraudulently claiming that they were in fact from the Heathrow robbery. No explanation was given as to how the counterfeiters obtained the unpublished bar serial numbers, nor the likely benefit of counterfeiting stolen property in this way.
A person named Gordon Parry was responsible for laundering large amounts of cash from the robbery after the gold had been disposed of. First records in the Panama Papers show that an offshore financial intermediary firm in Jersey named Centre Services requested Mossack Fonseca to set up a Panamanian company 12 months after the Heathrow raid on behalf of an unnamed client. The next day, Feberion Inc was set up and later, under Parry’s direction, millions of pounds were put through Feberion and other front companies via banks in Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Jersey and the Isle of Man. Two nominee directors from Sark were appointed to Feberion, and the company then issued two bearer shares. Parry used the offshore firms and recycled the funds, said to have amounted to £10.7 million, through transactions including land in London Docklands, some buildings that used to form part of Cheltenham Ladies’ College, a farmhouse in Kent for McAvoy's girlfriend Kathleen Meacock and a £400,000 home for himself and his family – Crockham House, near Chartwell, Kent. The Metropolitan Police raided the offices of Centre Services late 1986 in cooperation with the Jersey authorities, seized papers and the two Feberion bearer shares. In 1987, Jürgen Mossack, the law firm's principal, devised a plot to regain control of the company by dilution and Parry appointed a fresh set of Feberion directors, who were instructed to issue 98 new shares to Western Cross Inc – a front company controlled by Parry or his associates. In 1995, Brink’s-Mat solicitors finally took control of Feberion and its assets. Crockham House was sold, and was reacquired by Parry’s wife, Irene Beaumont.
Collapse of Johnson Matthey Bankers Ltd
On 30 September 1984, less than a year after the Brink's-Mat robbery, the banking and gold-trading arm of Johnson Matthey (Johnson Matthey Bankers Ltd) collapsed and was taken over by the Bank of England to protect the integrity of the London gold markets. Losses amounted to over $US300 million. The bank had made very large loans to fraudsters and insolvent businesses over several years, and had serious and unexplained gaps in records. The fraud squad was called in to investigate the bank and certain customers.
The so-called "Curse of Brink's-Mat" or "Curse of the Brink's-Mat millions" has led to the early deaths of many of those allegedly involved.
- In 1990, the former treasurer of the Great Train Robbery, Charlie Wilson, had moved to Marbella, Spain, where he was suspected to be involved in drug smuggling. Engaged to launder some of the proceeds from the Brink's-Mat robbery, he lost the investors £3 million. On 23 April 1990, a young British man knocked on the front door of his hacienda north of Marbella, and shot dead Wilson and his pet Husky dog, before riding off down the hill on a yellow bicycle. Over the next three years, four more shootings were connected to the Brink's-Mat raid. In 2007, supergrass Michael Michael claimed to know who the killer of Wilson was, but police made no arrest.
- In December 1998, Hatton Garden jeweller Solly Nahome, who had helped melt down hundreds of gold bars on behalf of the notorious Adams family, was shot dead outside his home.
- In mid-2001, Brian Perry was shot dead.
- On 14 May 2003, George Francis was shot dead by John O'Flynn.
- On 24 June 2015, John "Goldfinger" Palmer was shot dead.
In popular culture
- In 1992, a film called Fool's Gold based on the robbery was released with McAvoy portrayed by Sean Bean.
- On 4 November 2003, Channel 4 broadcast a documentary on the events of the raid.
- In 2010, another documentary was broadcast on the Crime Network.
- "Brinks Mat gold: The unsolved mystery". BBC News. 15 April 2000. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Connett, David (18 August 1992). "Police traced laundered money around the world". London: The Independent. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Thompson, Tony (18 May 2003). "Curse of the Brink's-Mat millions". The Observer. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Summers, Chris (26 January 2004). "In search of thieves' gold". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Brown, David (4 August 2007). "Brink's-Mat curse strikes again". The Times. Retrieved 22 September 2009.(subscription required)
- "Gold Clue To Brink's-Mat Robbery". Police Oracle. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Kelsey, Tim (2 April 1995). "Police 'ignored Brink's-Mat tip' two days after raid". The Independent (London).
- Sam Coates (23 November 1996). "Whatever happened to Brinks-Mat?". The Independent (London). Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Summers, Chris (28 January 2008). "The role of the 'inside man'". BBC News. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Noye: From street vendor to Mr Big. BBC News, 14 April 2000
- Luckett, Tim (30 July 2000). "pounds 27m MAN FREED; Life's good again for Brink's Mat mastermind". Sunday Mirror. Retrieved 22 September 2009.[dead link]
- "M25 murderer jailed". BBC News. 14 April 2000. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Coates, Sam (23 November 1996). "Whatever happened to Brinks-Mat?". The Independent. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Austrians Seize False Gold Tied to London Bullion Theft". The New York Times. 22 December 1983.
- Connett, David (18 August 1992). "Four jailed after Brink's-Mat bullion trial". The Independent (London).
- Simon Bowers. "How Mossack Fonseca helped hide millions from Britain’s biggest gold bullion robbery". the Guardian.
- "Announce New Banking Controls after Johnson Matthey Collapse". apnewsarchive.com.
- "Johnson Matthey Bankers". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) 83. House of Commons. 17 July 1985. col. 320–325. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Clarkson, Wensley (2 February 2006). Killing Charlie: The Bloody, Bullet-Riddled Hunt for the Most Powerful Great Train Robber of All. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1845960351.
- Jack Harvey. "The Great Train Robbery Part II – Did it end like a Children's Tea Party?". algarvedailynews.com. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- "Great train robber escapes from Prison". History Channel. 12 August 1964. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Wensley Clarkson (5 May 2012). "The curse of Brink's Mat: An ex-cop with an axe in his head – and a Great Train Robber shot dead in Marbella". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Rat shopped wife, mother, brother and lover". The Sun (London). 3 August 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Alford, Simon. "John O'Flynn, Terry Conaghan and Harry Richardson: The Curse of Brinks Mat". Court News. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Connett, David (4 July 2015). "Curse of Brink's Mat: Death of John 'Goldfinger' Palmer the latest killing related to 1983 heist". The Independent. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Fool's Gold: The Story of the Brink's-Mat Robbery". IMDB. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/tv_and_radio/article1019275.ece. Retrieved 22 September 2009. Missing or empty
- "About – Britain's Biggest Heists on Crime and Investigation Network". Crimeandinvestigation.co.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2011.