|Freq. used||£B1, £B5, £B10, £B20|
|Central bank||Bristol Credit Union|
The Bristol Pound (£B) is a form of local, complementary, and/or community currency launched in Bristol, UK on 19 September 2012. Its objective is to encourage people to spend their money with local, independent businesses in Bristol and the former County of Avon. As of September 2012[update], it is the largest alternative in the UK to official sterling currency, though it is backed by sterling.
As of 2020, the official Web site indicates that the Bristol Pound digital currency has ceased operation and Bristol Pound accounts have been closed.
The Bristol Pound is a local, complementary, and/or community currency that was created to "improve Bristol's local economy". Its primary aim is to support independent traders in order to maintain diversity in business around the city. The scheme is a joint not-for-profit enterprise between Bristol Pound Community Interest Company and Bristol Credit Union.
Effect on the local economy
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (October 2018)
According to a 2002 New Economics Foundation publication, money that is re-spent locally is '... the same as attracting new money into that area.' If a person spends a pound at a local shop, the owner of this shop can re-spend it by buying supplies from another local business, or paying local taxes (Business Rates or Council Tax) to the Council. The process can be repeated with exchanges kept within the local economy. This local circulation can lead to additional economic benefits for the area; this is called the local multiplier effect. In comparison, Sterling Pounds spent at a supermarket chain typically leads to more than 80% of the money leaving the area almost immediately.
As well as potentially stimulating the local economy it can create stronger bonds within the community; by increasing social capital. Buying locally can decrease emissions as locally produced good require less transportation. Local trade through the use of complementary currencies can be a resilience strategy; reducing impact of national economic crises and dependency on international trade, and enhancing self-sufficiency. It can also increase the awareness of the impact of one's economic activity.
In 2017, the Bristol Post reported on some research that suggested the Bristol Pound venture is too small to affect significant change in localism and has not increased local wealth or the production. A spokesperson for the Bristol Pound claimed the findings contradicted previous research by the University of Bristol.
Bristol is the first city in the UK in which taxes and business rates can be paid in Bristol Pounds. Bristol Pound account holders can convert £Bs to and from pounds sterling at a 1:1 ratio. Bristol City Council, and other organisations in the city, offer their employees the option to take part of their salaries in Bristol Pounds. The former Mayor of Bristol, George Ferguson, accepted his entire salary (£51,000) in Bristol Pounds.
In June 2015, according to the Bristol Pound CEO, some £1 million had been issued in £Bs, with more than £B700,000 still in circulation. More than 800 businesses accept Bristol Pounds and more than a thousand users have a Bristol Pound account.
By late 2017, five million Bristol Pounds had been spent.
In March 2020, the Bristol Post reported that the currency faced an uncertain future and quoted managers as reporting potential closure of the initiative. The local newspaper reported that the reach of the currency had substantially diminished.
Organisation and partnerships
The Bristol Pound is managed by the non-profit Bristol Pound Community Interest Company in collaboration with the local financial institution, the Bristol Credit Union. The Bristol Credit Union ensures that every £1 sterling converted to a printed £B1 is backed in a secure trust fund. The scheme is supported by Bristol City Council, although the council had substantially reduced any financial support from 2018.
Lately Bristol Pound is involved in the Digipay4Growth project,[when?] coordinated by the Social Trade organisation and with partners such as Sardex. Through this project Bristol Pounds is involved in the digitalisation of its currency, using Cyclos software.
Bristol Pound is part of a larger international movement of local currencies. The European funded Community Currencies in Action partnership provided support for communities which want to develop their new currency and works on innovations. Within the UK, Bristol Pound CIC founded and maintains the Guild of Independent Currencies – a platform for sharing experiences about local currencies. In this framework, Bristol CIC is currently working with Exeter, amongst others, helping it to launch its own local currency; the Exeter Pound.
Using the Bristol Pound
The Bristol Pounds can be used in both paper and electronic format, like conventional money. One Bristol Pound is equivalent to one Sterling Pound. Some businesses apply discounts for customers paying in Bristol Pounds. Local taxes and electricity bills can be paid with Bristol Pounds online.
Paper Bristol Pounds
Paper £Bs can be used by anyone, have been designed by Bristolians, and carry many high security features to prevent fraud. In June 2015 new paper £Bs were issued. These can be exchanged at a 1:1 rate for sterling at seventeen different cash points throughout the city, or ordered online through the Bristol Pound website.
The Bristol Pound was the second local scheme (after the Brixton Pound) to be able to accept electronic payments in the UK. This allows, for example, participating small businesses to accept payments by SMS, without needing to pay for and install a credit card machine. The businesses are charged 2% of the amount billed for payments made by SMS, a similar or sometimes reduced rate than with credit or debit cards, or PayPal (3%). Payments can also be made online, with the recipient of each payment charged at a rate of 1%, capped at 95p per transaction.
Every paper £B is backed up by a pound sterling deposited at Bristol Credit Union. The Bristol Pound is not legal tender, and participation is therefore voluntary. The directors of the scheme cannot prevent national and multinational companies accepting paper £Bs, but can decide, based on the Rules of Membership, whether a business is permitted to open a Bristol Pound account and trade electronically.
Bristol Pounds can only be exchanged back into pounds sterling via an electronic Bristol Pound account. There is no fee for doing this. Paper Bristol Pounds cannot be directly exchanged back to sterling unless first deposited into an electronic account. Technically, the notes are vouchers and the first issue of the paper Bristol Pounds also have an expiry date (30 September 2015). The Bank of England acknowledges the existence and role of local currencies.
Bristol Pound contributed to Bristol being awarded the title of European Green Capital 2015.
- Bank Charter Act 1844
- Community Currency
- Local Currency
- Exeter Pound
- New Economics Foundation
- Brixton Pound
- Lewes Pound
- Stroud Pound
- Totnes Pound
- Cooper, Rachel (19 September 2012). "Bristol launches city's local currency". Telegraph.co.uk.
- [http://bristolpound.org/library/Download_docs/Bristol_Pound_Rules.pdf Bristol Pound Scheme Rules for Individual Members and Trader Members]
- Harvey, Dave (19 September 2012). "Bristol Pound launched to keep trade in the city". BBC West News. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Gosling, Emily (19 September 2012). "Bristol launches local currency". Design Week. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Rob Sharp (1 May 2008). "They don't just shop local in Totnes – they have their very own currency". The Independent. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Leo Hickman (16 September 2009). "Will the Brixton pound buy a brighter future?". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Sacks, Justin (1 December 2002). "The Money Trail". neweconomics.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Hickey, Shane (7 June 2015). "The Innovators : the Bristol pound is giving sterling a run for its money". The Guardian.
- Ferreira, Jennifer (March 2015). "Spending Time with Money : From Shared Values to Social Connectivity" (PDF). Brunel University.
- Ashcroft, Esme (9 December 2017). "Bristol Pound is not making us produce local products, say academics". bristolpost. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- Marshall, Adam P.; O'Neill, Daniel W. (April 2018). "The Bristol Pound: A Tool for Localisation?" (PDF). Ecological Economics. 146: 273–281. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.11.002.
- Community Currencies in Action (2015), New Economics Foundation (ed.), People Powered Money, pp. 190 pp
- Morris, Steven (20 November 2012). "Mayor to take salary in Bristol pounds". Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Rogers, John (17 June 2013). "Bristol pound is just one example of what local currencies can achieve". The Guardian.
- Morris, Steven (16 July 2015). "Bristol Pound gets boost of energy as power company signs up". The Guardian.
- Harvey, Dave (6 February 2012). "'Bristol Pound' currency to boost independent traders". BBC News. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Community Currencies in Action. "Community Currencies in Action Website".
- "Offers". BristolPound.org.
- Hastings, Rob (20 September 2012). "The Bristol Pound is launched to help independent retailers". The Independent. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Bank Notes Act 1954".
- Morris, Steven (21 September 2012). "Bristol banks on alternative pound to safeguard independent retailers". Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Bristol Pound – Our City. Our Money – FAQs". Bristol Pound website. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Naqvi, Mona (2013). "Banknotes, local currencies and central bank objectives" (PDF). bankofengland.co.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Bristol, 2015 European Green Capital". The European Union.