Jump to content

Encyclopædia Britannica

Page protected with pending changes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Britannica.com Inc.)

Encyclopædia Britannica
Britannica's logo of a blue thistle
Britannica's thistle logo
AuthorAs of 2008, 4,411 named contributors
IllustratorSeveral; initial engravings by Andrew Bell
LanguageBritish English
PublisherEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Publication date
1768–2010 (printed version)
Publication place
Media type32 volumes, hardbound (15th edition, 2010); print editions discontinued in 2012
Pages32,640 (15th edition, 2010)
LC ClassAE5 .E363 2007
TextEncyclopædia Britannica at Wikisource

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for 'British Encyclopædia') is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It has been published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. since 1768, although the company has changed ownership seven times. The encyclopaedia is maintained by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes[1] and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. Since 2016, it has been published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia.

Printed for 244 years, the Britannica was the longest-running in-print encyclopaedia in the English language. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, in three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size; the second edition was 10 volumes,[2] and by its fourth edition (1801–1810), it had expanded to 20 volumes.[3] Its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th (1875–1889) and 11th editions (1911) are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Starting with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market.

In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.[citation needed] In the 21st century, the Britannica suffered first from competition with the digital multimedia encyclopaedia Microsoft Encarta,[4] and later with the online peer-produced encyclopaedia Wikipedia.[5][6][7]

In March 2012, it announced it would no longer publish printed editions and would focus instead on the online version.[6][8] Britannica has been assessed to be politically closer to the centre of the US political spectrum than Wikipedia.[9]

The 15th edition (1974–2010) has a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles (generally fewer than 750 words), a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles (two to 310 pages), and a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge. The Micropædia was meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the Macropædia; readers are advised to study the Propædia outline to understand a subject's context and to find more detailed articles. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics.[citation needed] Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling.

Present status[edit]

Print version[edit]

The 15th edition of the Britannica; the initial volume with the green spine is the Propædia; the red-spined and black-spined volumes are the Micropædia and the Macropædia, respectively. The last three volumes are the 2002 Book of the Year (black spine) and the two-volume index (cyan spine).

From 1985, the Britannica consisted of four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, and a two-volume index. The Britannica's articles are contained in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes, respectively, each volume having roughly one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from two pages to 310 pages, with references and named contributors. In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has roughly 65,000 articles, the vast majority (about 97%) of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, and no named contributors.[10] The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia. The Macropædia articles are meant as authoritative, well-written commentaries on their subjects, as well as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere.[11] The longest article (310 pages) is on the subject of the United States, and it resulted from merging separate articles on the individual US states. A 2013 "Global Edition" of Britannica contained approximately 40,000 articles.[12]

Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia; these are sparse, however, averaging one cross-reference per page.[13] Readers are instead recommended to consult the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic.[14]

The core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge.[15] Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.[15] The Outline can also be used as a study guide, as it puts subjects in their proper perspective and suggests a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth.[15] However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used for this purpose, and reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia.[16] The Propædia contains color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members, advisors, and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica.

Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise roughly 40 million words and 24,000 images.[14] The two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics.[13] The Britannica generally prefers British spelling over American;[13] for example, it uses colour (not color), centre (not center), and encyclopaedia (not encyclopedia). There are some exceptions to this rule, such as defense rather than defence.[17][original research?] Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour."

Since 1936, the Britannica has been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of the articles considered for revision each year.[13][18] According to one Britannica website, 46% of the articles in the 2007 edition were revised over the preceding three years;[19] however, according to another Britannica website, only 35% of the articles were revised over the same period.[20]

The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules.[21] Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out ("Eighteen-twelve, War of"). Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons, then by places, then by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and then by chronology; thus, Charles III of France precedes Charles I of England, listed in Britannica as the ruler of Great Britain and Ireland. (That is, they are alphabetized as if their titles were "Charles, France, 3" and "Charles, Great Britain and Ireland, 1".) Similarly, places that share names are organized alphabetically by country, then by ever-smaller political divisions.

In March 2012, the company announced that the 2010 edition would be the last printed version. This was part of a move by the company to adapt to the times and focus on its future using digital distribution.[22] The peak year for the printed encyclopaedia was 1990, when 120,000 sets were sold, but sales had dropped to 40,000 per annum by 1996.[23] There were 12,000 sets of the 2010 edition printed, of which 8,000 had been sold by March 2012.[24] By late April 2012, the remaining copies of the 2010 edition had sold out at Britannica's online store. As of 2016, a replica of Britannica's 1768 first edition is available via the online store.[25]

Related printed material[edit]

Children's Britannica

Britannica Junior was first published in 1934 as 12 volumes. It was expanded to 15 volumes in 1947, and renamed Britannica Junior Encyclopædia in 1963.[26] It was taken off the market after the 1984 printing.

A British Children's Britannica edited by John Armitage was issued in London in 1960.[27] Its contents were determined largely by the eleven-plus standardized tests given in Britain.[28] Britannica introduced the Children's Britannica to the US market in 1988, aimed at ages seven to 14.

In 1961, a 16-volume Young Children's Encyclopaedia was issued for children just learning to read.[28]

My First Britannica is aimed at children ages six to 12, and the Britannica Discovery Library is for children aged three to six (issued 1974 to 1991).[29]

There have been, and are, several abridged Britannica encyclopaedias. The single-volume Britannica Concise Encyclopædia has 28,000 short articles condensing the larger 32-volume Britannica;[30] there are authorized translations in languages such as Chinese[31] created by Encyclopedia of China Publishing House[32] and Vietnamese.[33][34]

Compton's by Britannica, first published in 2007, incorporating the former Compton's Encyclopedia, is aimed at 10- to 17-year-olds and consists of 26 volumes and 11,000 pages.[35]

Since 1938, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. has published annually a Book of the Year covering the past year's events. A given edition of the Book of the Year is named in terms of the year of its publication, though the edition actually covers the events of the previous year. The company also publishes several specialized reference works, such as Shakespeare: The Essential Guide to the Life and Works of the Bard (Wiley, 2006).

Optical disc, online, and mobile versions[edit]

The Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2012 DVD contains over 100,000 articles.[36] This includes regular Britannica articles, as well as others drawn from the Britannica Student Encyclopædia, and the Britannica Elementary Encyclopædia. The package includes a range of supplementary content including maps, videos, sound clips, animations and web links. It also offers study tools and dictionary and thesaurus entries from Merriam-Webster.

Britannica Online is a website with more than 120,000 articles and is updated regularly.[37] It has daily features, updates and links to news reports from The New York Times and the BBC. As of 2009, roughly 60% of Encyclopædia Britannica's revenue came from online operations, of which around 15% came from subscriptions to the consumer version of the websites.[38] As of 2006, subscriptions were available on a yearly, monthly or weekly basis.[39] Special subscription plans are offered to schools, colleges and libraries; such institutional subscribers constitute an important part of Britannica's business. Beginning in early 2007, the Britannica made articles freely available if they are hyperlinked from an external site. Non-subscribers are served pop-ups and advertising.[40]

On 20 February 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated announced that it was working with mobile phone search company AskMeNow to launch a mobile encyclopaedia.[41] Users will be able to send a question via text message, and AskMeNow will search Britannica's 28,000-article concise encyclopaedia to return an answer to the query. Daily topical features sent directly to users' mobile phones were also planned.

On 3 June 2008, an initiative to facilitate collaboration between online expert and amateur scholarly contributors for Britannica's online content (in the spirit of a wiki), with editorial oversight from Britannica staff, was announced.[42][43] Approved contributions would be credited,[44] though contributing automatically grants Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated perpetual, irrevocable license to those contributions.[45]

On 22 January 2009, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz, announced that the company would be accepting edits and additions to the online Britannica website from the public. The published edition of the encyclopaedia will not be affected by the changes.[46] Individuals wishing to edit the Britannica website will have to register under their real name and address prior to editing or submitting their content.[47] All edits submitted will be reviewed and checked and will have to be approved by the encyclopaedia's professional staff.[47] Contributions from non-academic users will sit in a separate section from the expert-generated Britannica content,[48] as will content submitted by non-Britannica scholars.[49] Articles written by users, if vetted and approved, will also only be available in a special section of the website, separate from the professional articles.[46][49] Official Britannica material would carry a "Britannica Checked" stamp, to distinguish it from the user-generated content.[50]

On 14 September 2010, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced a partnership with mobile phone development company Concentric Sky to launch a series of iPhone products aimed at the K–12 market.[51] On 20 July 2011, Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated announced that Concentric Sky had ported the Britannica Kids product line to Intel's Intel Atom-based Netbooks[52][53] and on 26 October 2011 that it had launched its encyclopaedia as an iPad app.[54] In 2010, Britannica released Britannica ImageQuest, a database of images.[55]

In March 2012, it was announced that the company would cease printing the encyclopaedia set, and that it would focus on its online version.[56][57]

On 7 June 2018, Britannica released a Google Chrome extension, "Britannica Insights", which shows snippets of information from Britannica Online whenever the user performs a Google Search, in a box to the right of Google's results.[58] Britannica Insights was also available as a Firefox extension but this was taken down due to a code review issue.[59]

Personnel and management[edit]


The print version of the Britannica has 4,411 contributors, many eminent in their fields, such as Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman, astronomer Carl Sagan, and surgeon Michael DeBakey.[60] Roughly a quarter of the contributors are deceased, some as long ago as 1947 (Alfred North Whitehead), while another quarter are retired or emeritus. Most (approximately 98%)[citation needed] contribute to only a single article; however, 64 contributed to three articles, 23 contributed to four articles, 10 contributed to five articles, and 8 contributed to more than five articles. An exceptionally prolific contributor is Christine Sutton of the University of Oxford, who contributed 24 articles on particle physics.[61]

While Britannica's authors have included writers such as Albert Einstein,[62] Marie Curie,[63] and Leon Trotsky,[62] as well as notable independent encyclopaedists such as Isaac Asimov,[64] some have been criticized for lack of expertise. In 1911 the historian George L. Burr wrote:

With a temerity almost appalling, [the Britannica contributor, Mr. Philips] ranges over nearly the whole field of European history, political, social, ecclesiastical... The grievance is that [this work] lacks authority. This, too—this reliance on editorial energy instead of on ripe special learning—may, alas, be also counted an "Americanizing": for certainly nothing has so cheapened the scholarship of our American encyclopaedias.[65]


Thomas Spencer Baynes, editor of the 9th edition. This portrait, painted in 1888, hangs in the Senate Room of the University of St Andrews.

As of 2007 in the 15th edition of Britannica, Dale Hoiberg, a sinologist, was listed as Britannica's Senior Vice President and editor-in-chief.[66] Among his predecessors as editors-in-chief were Hugh Chisholm (1902–1924), James Louis Garvin (1926–1932), Franklin Henry Hooper (1932–1938),[67] Walter Yust (1938–1960), Harry Ashmore (1960–1963), Warren E. Preece (1964–1968, 1969–1975), Sir William Haley (1968–1969), Philip W. Goetz (1979–1991),[11] and Robert McHenry (1992–1997).[68] As of 2007 Anita Wolff was listed as the Deputy Editor and Theodore Pappas as Executive Editor.[66] Prior Executive Editors include John V. Dodge (1950–1964) and Philip W. Goetz.

Paul T. Armstrong remains the longest working employee of Encyclopædia Britannica. He began his career there in 1934, eventually earning the positions of treasurer, vice president, and chief financial officer in his 58 years with the company, before retiring in 1992.[69]

The 2007 editorial staff of the Britannica included five Senior Editors and nine Associate Editors, supervised by Dale Hoiberg and four others. The editorial staff helped to write the articles of the Micropædia and some sections of the Macropædia.[70]

Editorial advisors[edit]

As of 2012, Britannica had an editorial board of advisors, which included a number of distinguished figures, primarily scholars from a variety of disciplines.[71][72]

The Propædia and its Outline of Knowledge were produced by dozens of editorial advisors under the direction of Mortimer J. Adler.[73] Roughly half of these advisors have since died, including some of the Outline's chief architects – Rene Dubos (d. 1982), Loren Eiseley (d. 1977), Harold D. Lasswell (d. 1978), Mark Van Doren (d. 1972), Peter Ritchie Calder (d. 1982) and Mortimer J. Adler (d. 2001). The Propædia also lists just under 4,000 advisors who were consulted for the unsigned Micropædia articles.[74]

Corporate structure[edit]

In January 1996, the Britannica was purchased from the Benton Foundation by billionaire Swiss financier Jacqui Safra,[75] who serves as its current chair of the board. In 1997, Don Yannias, a long-time associate and investment advisor of Safra, became CEO of Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated.[76]

In 1999, a new company, Britannica.com Incorporated, was created to develop digital versions of the Britannica; Yannias assumed the role of CEO in the new company, while his former position at the parent company remained vacant for two years. Yannias' tenure at Britannica.com Incorporated was marked by missteps, considerable lay-offs, and financial losses.[77] In 2001, Yannias was replaced by Ilan Yeshua, who reunited the leadership of the two companies.[78] Yannias later returned to investment management, but remains on the Britannica's Board of Directors.

In 2003, former management consultant Jorge Aguilar-Cauz was appointed President of Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. Cauz is the senior executive and reports directly to the Britannica's Board of Directors. Cauz has been pursuing alliances with other companies and extending the Britannica brand to new educational and reference products, continuing the strategy pioneered by former CEO Elkan Harrison Powell in the mid-1930s.[79]

In the fall of 2017, Karthik Krishnan was appointed global chief executive officer of the Encyclopædia Britannica Group. Krishnan brought a varied perspective to the role based on several high-level positions in digital media, including RELX (formerly known as Reed Elsevier, and one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 Index) and Rodale, in which he was responsible for "driving business and cultural transformation and accelerating growth".[80]

Taking the reins of the company as it was preparing to mark its 250th anniversary and define the next phase of its digital strategy for consumers and K–12 schools, Krishnan launched a series of new initiatives in his first year.

First was Britannica Insights,[81] a free, downloadable software extension to the Google Chrome browser that served up edited, fact-checked Britannica information with queries on search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Bing. Its purpose, the company said, was to "provide trusted, verified information" in conjunction with search results that were thought to be increasingly unreliable in the era of misinformation and "fake news."

The product was quickly followed by Britannica School Insights, which provided similar content for subscribers to Britannica's online classroom solutions, and a partnership with YouTube[82] in which verified Britannica content appeared on the site as an antidote to user-generated video content that could be false or misleading.

Krishnan, an educator at New York University's Stern School of Business, believes in the "transformative power of education"[83] and set steering the company toward solidifying its place among leaders in educational technology and supplemental curriculum. Krishnan aimed at providing more useful and relevant solutions to customer needs, extending and renewing Britannica's historical emphasis on "utility",[84] which had been the watchword of its first edition in 1768.


As the Britannica is a general encyclopaedia, it does not seek to compete with specialized encyclopaedias such as the Encyclopaedia of Mathematics or the Dictionary of the Middle Ages, which can devote much more space to their chosen topics. In its first years, the Britannica's main competitor was the general encyclopaedia of Ephraim Chambers and, soon thereafter, Rees's Cyclopædia and Coleridge's Encyclopædia Metropolitana. In the 20th century, successful competitors included Collier's Encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia Americana, and the World Book Encyclopedia. Nevertheless, from the 9th edition onwards, the Britannica was widely considered to have the greatest authority of any general English-language encyclopaedia,[85] especially because of its broad coverage and eminent authors.[11][13] The print version of the Britannica was significantly more expensive than its competitors.[11][13]

Since the early 1990s, the Britannica has faced new challenges from digital information sources. The Internet, facilitated by the development of Web search engines, has grown into a common source of information for many people, and provides easy access to reliable original sources and expert opinions, thanks in part to initiatives such as Google Books, MIT's release of its educational materials and the open PubMed Central library of the National Library of Medicine.[86][87]

The Internet tends to provide more current coverage than print media, due to the ease with which material on the Internet can be updated.[88] In rapidly changing fields such as science, technology, politics, culture and modern history, the Britannica has struggled to stay up to date, a problem first analysed systematically by its former editor Walter Yust.[89] Eventually, the Britannica turned to focus more on its online edition.[90]

Print encyclopaedias[edit]

The Encyclopædia Britannica has been compared with other print encyclopaedias, both qualitatively and quantitatively.[10][11][13] A well-known comparison is that of Kenneth Kister, who gave a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the 1993 Britannica with two comparable encyclopaedias, Collier's Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia Americana.[11] For the quantitative analysis, ten articles were selected at random—circumcision, Charles Drew, Galileo, Philip Glass, heart disease, IQ, panda bear, sexual harassment, Shroud of Turin and Uzbekistan—and letter grades of A–D or F were awarded in four categories: coverage, accuracy, clarity, and recency. In all four categories and for all three encyclopaedias, the four average grades fell between B− and B+, chiefly because none of the encyclopaedias had an article on sexual harassment in 1994. In the accuracy category, the Britannica received one "D" and seven "A"s, Encyclopedia Americana received eight "A"s, and Collier's received one "D" and seven "A"s; thus, Britannica received an average score of 92% for accuracy to Americana's 95% and Collier's 92%. In the timeliness category, Britannica averaged an 86% to Americana's 90% and Collier's 85%.[citation needed][91]

In 2013, the President of Encyclopædia Britannica announced that after 244 years, the encyclopaedia would cease print production and all future editions would be entirely digital.[92]

Digital encyclopaedias on optical media[edit]

The most notable competitor of the Britannica among CD/DVD-ROM digital encyclopaedias was Encarta,[93] now discontinued, a modern multimedia encyclopaedia that incorporated three print encyclopaedias: Funk & Wagnalls, Collier's and the New Merit Scholar's Encyclopedia. Encarta was the top-selling multimedia encyclopaedia, based on total US retail sales from January 2000 to February 2006.[94] Both occupied the same price range, with the 2007 Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate CD or DVD costing US$40–50[95][96] and the Microsoft Encarta Premium 2007 DVD costing US$45.[97]

The Britannica disc contains 100,000 articles and Merriam-Webster's Dictionary and Thesaurus (US only), and offers Primary and Secondary School editions.[96] Encarta contained 66,000 articles, a user-friendly Visual Browser, interactive maps, math, language and homework tools, a US and UK dictionary, and a youth edition.[97] Like Encarta, the digital Britannica has been criticized for being biased towards United States audiences; the United Kingdom-related articles are updated less often, maps of the United States are more detailed than those of other countries, and it lacks a UK dictionary.[93] Like the Britannica, Encarta was available online by subscription, although some content could be accessed free.[98]


The main online alternative to Britannica is Wikipedia.[99][100][101] The key differences between the two lie in accessibility; the model of participation they bring to an encyclopedic project; their respective style sheets and editorial policies; relative ages; the number of subjects treated; the number of languages in which articles are written and made available; and their underlying economic models: unlike Britannica, Wikipedia is a not-for-profit, does not carry advertising on its site, and is not connected with traditional profit- and contract-based publishing distribution networks.

Britannica's articles either have known authorship or a set of possible authors (the editorial staff). With the exception of the editorial staff, most of Britannica's contributors are experts in their field—some are Nobel laureates.[60] By contrast, the articles of Wikipedia are written by people of unknown degrees of expertise: most do not claim any particular expertise, and of those who do, many are anonymous and have no verifiable credentials.[102] It is for this lack of institutional vetting, or certification, that former Britannica editor-in-chief Robert McHenry noted his belief in 2004 that Wikipedia could not hope to rival the Britannica in accuracy.[103]

In 2005, the journal Nature chose articles from both websites in a wide range of science topics and sent them to what it called "relevant" field experts for peer review. The experts then compared the competing articles—one from each site on a given topic—side by side, but were not told which article came from which site. Nature got back 42 usable reviews.

The journal found just eight serious errors, such as general misunderstandings of vital concepts: four from each site. It also discovered many factual errors, omissions or misleading statements: 162 in Wikipedia and 123 in Britannica, an average of 3.86 mistakes per article for Wikipedia and 2.92 for Britannica.[102][104]

Although Britannica was revealed as the more accurate encyclopaedia, with fewer errors, in its rebuttal called Nature's study flawed and misleading[105] and called for a "prompt" retraction. It noted that two of the articles in the study were taken from a Britannica yearbook and not the encyclopaedia, and another two were from Compton's Encyclopedia (called the Britannica Student Encyclopedia on the company's website).

Nature defended its story and declined to retract, stating that, as it was comparing Wikipedia with the web version of Britannica, it used whatever relevant material was available on Britannica's website.[106] Interviewed in February 2009, the managing director of Britannica UK said:

Wikipedia is a fun site to use and has a lot of interesting entries on there, but their approach wouldn't work for Encyclopædia Britannica. My job is to create more awareness of our very different approaches to publishing in the public mind. They're a chisel, we're a drill, and you need to have the correct tool for the job.[38]

For the 15th anniversary of Wikipedia, the Telegraph published two opinion pieces which compared Wikipedia to Britannica and falsely claimed that Britannica had gone bankrupt in 1996.[107][108] In a January 2016 press release, Britannica responded by calling Wikipedia "an impressive achievement" but argued that critics should avoid "false comparisons" to Britannica in terms of differing models and purposes.[109]

Critical and popular assessments[edit]


A copperplate by Andrew Bell from the 1st edition

Since the 3rd edition, the Britannica has enjoyed a popular and critical reputation for general excellence.[10][11][13] The 3rd and 9th editions were pirated for sale in the United States,[110] beginning with Dobson's Encyclopædia.[111] On the release of the 14th edition, Time magazine dubbed the Britannica the "Patriarch of the Library".[112] In a related advertisement, naturalist William Beebe was quoted as saying that the Britannica was "beyond comparison because there is no competitor".[113] References to the Britannica can be found throughout English literature, most notably in one of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's favourite Sherlock Holmes stories, "The Red-Headed League". The tale was highlighted by the Lord Mayor of London, Gilbert Inglefield, at the bicentennial of the Britannica.[114]

The Britannica has a reputation for summarizing knowledge.[85] To further their education, some people have devoted themselves to reading the entire Britannica, taking anywhere from three to 22 years to do so.[110] When Fat'h Ali became the Shah of Persia in 1797, he was given a set of the Britannica's 3rd edition; after reading the complete set, he extended his royal title to include "Most Formidable Lord and Master of the Encyclopædia Britannica".[114]

Writer George Bernard Shaw claimed to have read the complete 9th edition, except for the science articles;[110] Richard Evelyn Byrd took the Britannica as reading material for his five-month stay at the South Pole in 1934; and Philip Beaver read it during a sailing expedition. More recently, A. J. Jacobs, an editor at Esquire magazine, read the entire 2002 version of the 15th edition, describing his experiences in the well-received 2004 book The Know-It-All: One Man's Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World. Only two people are known to have read two independent editions: the author C. S. Forester[110] and Amos Urban Shirk, an American businessman who read the 11th and 14th editions, devoting roughly three hours per night for four and a half years to read the 11th.[115]


The CD/DVD-ROM version of the Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, received the 2004 Distinguished Achievement Award from the Association of Educational Publishers.[116] On 15 July 2009, Encyclopædia Britannica was awarded a spot as one of "Top Ten Superbrands in the UK" by a panel of more than 2,000 independent reviewers, as reported by the BBC.[117]

Coverage of topics[edit]

Topics are chosen in part by reference to the Propædia "Outline of Knowledge".[15] The bulk of the Britannica is devoted to geography (26% of the Macropædia), biography (14%), biology and medicine (11%), literature (7%), physics and astronomy (6%), religion (5%), art (4%), Western philosophy (4%), and law (3%).[11] A complementary study of the Micropædia found that geography accounted for 25% of articles, science 18%, social sciences 17%, biography 17%, and all other humanities 25%.[13] Writing in 1992, one reviewer judged that the "range, depth, and catholicity of coverage [of the Britannica] are unsurpassed by any other general Encyclopaedia."[118]

The Britannica does not cover topics in equal detail; for example, the whole of Buddhism and most other religions is covered in a single Macropædia article, whereas 14 articles are devoted to Christianity, comprising nearly half of all religion articles.[119] The Britannica covers 50,479 biographies, 5,999 of them about women, with 11.87% being British citizens and 25.51% US citizens.[120] However, the Britannica has been lauded as the least biased of general Encyclopaedias marketed to Western readers[11] and praised for its biographies of important women of all eras.[13]

It can be stated without fear of contradiction that the 15th edition of the Britannica accords non-Western cultural, social, and scientific developments more notice than any general English-language encyclopedia currently on the market.

— Kenneth Kister, in Kister's Best Encyclopedias (1994)

Criticism of editorial decisions[edit]

On rare occasions, the Britannica has been criticized for its editorial choices. Given its roughly constant size, the encyclopaedia has needed to reduce or eliminate some topics to accommodate others, resulting in controversial decisions. The initial 15th edition (1974–1985) was faulted for having reduced or eliminated coverage of children's literature, military decorations, and the French poet Joachim du Bellay; editorial mistakes were also alleged, such as inconsistent sorting of Japanese biographies.[121] Its elimination of the index was condemned, as was the apparently arbitrary division of articles into the Micropædia and Macropædia.[11][122] Summing up, one critic called the initial 15th edition a "qualified failure...[that] cares more for juggling its format than for preserving."[121] More recently, reviewers from the American Library Association were surprised to find that most educational articles had been eliminated from the 1992 Macropædia, along with the article on psychology.[16]

Some very few Britannica-appointed contributors are mistaken. A notorious instance from the Britannica's early years is the rejection of Newtonian gravity by George Gleig, the chief editor of the 3rd edition (1788–1797), who wrote that gravity was caused by the classical element of fire.[110] The Britannica has also staunchly defended a scientific approach to cultural topics, as it did with William Robertson Smith's articles on religion in the 9th edition, particularly his article stating that the Bible was not historically accurate (1875).[110]

Other criticisms[edit]

The Britannica has received criticism, particularly as editions become outdated. It is expensive to produce a completely new edition of the Britannica,[a] and its editors delay for as long as fiscally sensible (usually about 25 years).[18] For example, despite continuous revision, the 14th edition became outdated after 35 years (1929–1964). When American physicist Harvey Einbinder detailed its failings in his 1964 book, The Myth of the Britannica,[123] the encyclopaedia was provoked to produce the 15th edition, which required 10 years of work.[11] Editors have struggled at times to keep the Britannica current: one 1994 critic writes, "it is not difficult to find articles that are out-of-date or in need of revision", noting that the longer Macropædia articles are more likely to be outdated than the shorter Micropædia articles.[11] Information in the Micropædia is sometimes inconsistent with the corresponding Macropædia article(s), mainly because of the failure to update one or the other.[10][13] The bibliographies of the Macropædia articles have been criticized for being more out-of-date than the articles themselves.[10][11][13]

In 2005, a 12-year-old schoolboy in Britain found several inaccuracies in the Britannica's entries on Poland and wildlife in Eastern Europe.[124] In 2010, an entry about the Irish Civil War, which incorrectly described it as having been fought between the north and south of Ireland, was discussed in the Irish press following a decision by the Department of Education and Science to pay for online access.[125][126]

Writing about the 3rd edition (1788–1797), Britannica's chief editor George Gleig observed that "perfection seems to be incompatible with the nature of works constructed on such a plan, and embracing such a variety of subjects."[127] In March 2006, the Britannica wrote, "we in no way mean to imply that Britannica is error-free; we have never made such a claim".[105] However, the Britannica sales department had previously made a well-known claim in 1962 regarding the 14th edition that "[i]t is truth. It is unquestionable fact."[128] The sentiment of the 2006 statement was also reflected in the introduction to the first edition of the Britannica, written by its original editor William Smellie:[129]

With regard to errors in general, whether falling under the denomination of mental, typographical or accidental, we are conscious of being able to point out a greater number than any critic whatever. Men who are acquainted with the innumerable difficulties attending the execution of a work of such an extensive nature will make proper allowances. To these we appeal, and shall rest satisfied with the judgment they pronounce.


The title page of the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, published in 1771

Past owners have included, in chronological order, the Edinburgh, Scotland-based printers Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell, Scottish bookseller Archibald Constable, Scottish publisher A & C Black, Horace Everett Hooper, Sears Roebuck and William Benton.

The present owner of Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. is Jacqui Safra, a Brazilian billionaire and actor. Recent advances in information technology and the rise of electronic encyclopaedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, Encarta and Wikipedia have reduced the demand for print encyclopaedias.[130] To remain competitive, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. has stressed the reputation of the Britannica, reduced its price and production costs, and developed electronic versions on CD-ROM, DVD, and the World Wide Web. Since the early 1930s, the company has promoted spin-off reference works.[18]


The Britannica has been issued in 15 editions, with multi-volume supplements to the 3rd and 4th editions (see the Table below). The 5th and 6th editions were reprints of the 4th, and the 10th edition was only a supplement to the 9th, just as the 12th and 13th editions were supplements to the 11th. The 15th underwent massive reorganization in 1985, but the updated, current version is still known as the 15th. The 14th and 15th editions were edited every year throughout their runs, so that later printings of each were entirely different from early ones.

Throughout history, the Britannica has had two aims: to be an excellent reference book, and to provide educational material.[131] In 1974, the 15th edition adopted a third goal: to systematize all human knowledge.[15] The history of the Britannica can be divided into five eras, punctuated by changes in management, or reorganization of the dictionary.


The early 19th-century editions of Encyclopædia Britannica included influential, original research such as Thomas Young's article on Egypt, which included the translation of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone (pictured).

In the first era (1st–6th editions, 1768–1826), the Britannica was managed and published by its founders, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell, by Archibald Constable, and by others. The Britannica was first published between December 1768[132] and 1771 in Edinburgh as the Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, compiled upon a New Plan. In part, it was conceived in reaction to the French Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert (published 1751–1772), which had been inspired by Chambers's Cyclopaedia (first edition 1728). It went on sale 10 December.[133]

The Britannica of this period was primarily a Scottish enterprise, and it is one of the most enduring legacies of the Scottish Enlightenment.[134] In this era, the Britannica moved from being a three-volume set (1st edition) compiled by one young editor—William Smellie[135]—to a 20-volume set written by numerous authorities.[136] Several other encyclopaedias competed throughout this period, among them editions of Abraham Rees's Cyclopædia and Coleridge's Encyclopædia Metropolitana and David Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopædia.


During the second era (7th–9th editions, 1827–1901), the Britannica was managed by the Edinburgh publishing firm A & C Black. Although some contributors were again recruited through friendships of the chief editors, notably Macvey Napier, others were attracted by the Britannica's reputation. The contributors often came from other countries and included the world's most respected authorities in their fields. A general index of all articles was included for the first time in the 7th edition, a practice maintained until 1974.

Production of the 9th edition was overseen by Thomas Spencer Baynes, the first English-born editor-in-chief. Dubbed the "Scholar's Edition", the 9th edition is the most scholarly of all Britannicas.[11][110] After 1880, Baynes was assisted by William Robertson Smith.[137] No biographies of living persons were included.[138] James Clerk Maxwell and Thomas Huxley were special advisors on science.[139] However, by the close of the 19th century, the 9th edition was outdated, and the Britannica faced financial difficulties.


An advertisement for the 11th edition, published in the May 1913 issue of National Geographic
A wooden shipping crate for the 14th edition of the Britannica

In the third era (10th–14th editions, 1901–1973), the Britannica was managed by American businessmen who introduced direct marketing and door-to-door sales. The American owners gradually simplified articles, making them less scholarly for a mass market. The 10th edition was an eleven-volume supplement (including one each of maps and an index) to the 9th, numbered as volumes 25–35, but the 11th edition was a completely new work, and is still praised for excellence; its owner, Horace Hooper, lavished enormous effort on its perfection.[110]

When Hooper fell into financial difficulties, the Britannica was managed by Sears Roebuck for 18 years (1920–1923, 1928–1943). In 1932, the vice-president of Sears, Elkan Harrison Powell, assumed presidency of the Britannica; in 1936, he began the policy of continuous revision. This was a departure from earlier practice, in which the articles were not changed until a new edition was produced, at roughly 25-year intervals, some articles unchanged from earlier editions.[18] Powell developed new educational products that built upon the Britannica's reputation.

In 1943, Sears donated the Encyclopædia Britannica to the University of Chicago. William Benton, then a vice president of the university, provided the working capital for its operation. The stock was divided between Benton and the university, with the university holding an option on the stock.[140] Benton became chairman of the board and managed the Britannica until his death in 1973.[141] Benton set up the Benton Foundation, which managed the Britannica until 1996, and whose sole beneficiary was the University of Chicago.[142] In 1968, the Britannica celebrated its bicentennial.


In the fourth era (1974–1994), the Britannica introduced its 15th edition, which was reorganized into three parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, and the Propædia. Under Mortimer J. Adler (member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica since its inception in 1949, and its chair from 1974; director of editorial planning for the 15th edition of Britannica from 1965),[143] the Britannica sought not only to be a good reference work and educational tool, but to systematize all human knowledge. The absence of a separate index and the grouping of articles into parallel encyclopaedias (the Micro- and Macropædia) provoked a "firestorm of criticism" of the initial 15th edition.[11][122] In response, the 15th edition was completely reorganized and indexed for a re-release in 1985. This second version of the 15th edition continued to be published and revised through the release of the 2010 print version. The official title of the 15th edition is the New Encyclopædia Britannica, although it has also been promoted as Britannica 3.[11]

On 9 March 1976 the US Federal Trade Commission entered an opinion and order enjoining Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. from using: a) deceptive advertising practices in recruiting sales agents and obtaining sales leads, and b) deceptive sales practices in the door-to-door presentations of its sales agents.[144]


An 1898 advertisement for the 9th edition

In the fifth era (1994–present), digital versions have been developed and released on optical media and online.

In 1996, the Britannica was bought by Jacqui Safra at well below its estimated value, owing to the company's financial difficulties. Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated split in 1999. One part retained the company name and developed the print version, and the other, Britannica.com Incorporated, developed digital versions. Since 2001, the two companies have shared a CEO, Ilan Yeshua, who has continued Powell's strategy of introducing new products with the Britannica name. In March 2012, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz, announced that it would not produce any new print editions of the encyclopaedia, with the 2010 15th edition being the last. The company will focus only on the online edition and other educational tools.[1][145]

Britannica's final print edition was in 2010, a 32-volume set.[1] Britannica Global Edition was also printed in 2010, containing 30 volumes and 18,251 pages, with 8,500 photographs, maps, flags, and illustrations in smaller "compact" volumes, as well as over 40,000 articles written by scholars from across the world, including Nobel Prize winners. Unlike the 15th edition, it did not contain Macro- and Micropædia sections, but ran A through Z as all editions up through the 14th had. The following is Britannica's description of the work:[12]

The editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, the world standard in reference since 1768, present the Britannica Global Edition. Developed specifically to provide comprehensive and global coverage of the world around us, this unique product contains thousands of timely, relevant, and essential articles drawn from the Encyclopædia Britannica itself, as well as from the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, the Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions, and Compton's by Britannica. Written by international experts and scholars, the articles in this collection reflect the standards that have been the hallmark of the leading English-language encyclopedia for over 240 years.

In 2020, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. released the Britannica All New Children's Encyclopedia: What We Know and What We Don't, an encyclopaedia aimed primarily at younger readers, covering major topics. The encyclopedia was widely praised for bringing back the print format. It was Britannica's first encyclopaedia for children since 1984.[146][147][148]


The Britannica was dedicated to the reigning British monarch from 1788 to 1901 and then, upon its sale to an American partnership, to the British monarch and the President of the United States.[11] Thus, the 11th edition is "dedicated by Permission to His Majesty George the Fifth, King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and to William Howard Taft, President of the United States of America."[149] The order of the dedications has changed with the relative power of the United States and Britain, and with relative sales; the 1954 version of the 14th edition is "Dedicated by Permission to the Heads of the Two English-Speaking Peoples, Dwight David Eisenhower, President of the United States of America, and Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth the Second."[89]

Consistent with this tradition, the 2007 version of the current 15th edition was "dedicated by permission to the current President of the United States of America, George W. Bush, and Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II",[150] while the 2010 version of the current 15th edition is "dedicated by permission to Barack Obama, President of the United States of America, and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II."[151]

Edition summary[edit]

Overview of editions of Encyclopædia Britannica
Edition / supplement Publication years Size Sales Chief editor(s) Notes
1st 1768–1771 3 volumes, 2,391 pages,[b] 160 plates 3,000[c] William Smellie Largely the work of one editor, Smellie; An estimated 3,000 sets were eventually sold, priced at £12 apiece; 30 articles longer than three pages. The pages were bound in three equally sized volumes covering Aa–Bzo, Caaba–Lythrum, and Macao–Zyglophyllum.
2nd 1777–1784 10 volumes, 8,595 pages, 340 plates 1,500[110] James Tytler Largely the work of one editor, Tytler; 150 long articles; pagination errors; all maps under "Geography" article; 1,500 sets sold[110]
3rd 1788–1797 18 volumes, 14,579 pages, 542 plates 10,000 or 13,000[d] Colin Macfarquhar and George Gleig £42,000 profit on 10,000 copies sold; first dedication to monarch; pirated by Moore in Dublin and Thomas Dobson in Philadelphia
supplement to 3rd 1801, revised in 1803 2 volumes, 1,624 pages, 50 plates George Gleig Copyright owned by Thomas Bonar
4th 1801–1810 20 volumes, 16,033 pages, 581 plates 4,000[155] James Millar Authors first allowed to retain copyright. Material in the supplement to 3rd not incorporated due to copyright issues.
5th 1815–1817 20 volumes, 16,017 pages, 582 plates James Millar Reprint of the 4th edition. Financial losses by Millar and Andrew Bell's heirs; EB rights sold to Archibald Constable
supplement to 4th, 5th, and 6th 1816–1824 6 volumes, 4,933 pages, 125 plates1 10,500[110] Macvey Napier Famous contributors recruited, such as Sir Humphry Davy, Sir Walter Scott, Malthus
6th 1820–1823 20 volumes Charles Maclaren Reprint of the 4th and 5th editions with modern font. Constable went bankrupt on 19 January 1826; EB rights eventually secured by Adam Black
7th 1830–1842 21 volumes, 17,101 pages, 506 plates, plus a 187-page index volume 5,000[110] Macvey Napier, assisted by James Browne, LLD Widening network of famous contributors, such as Sir David Brewster, Thomas de Quincey, Antonio Panizzi; 5,000 sets sold[110]
8th 1853–1860 21 volumes, 17,957 pages, 402 plates; plus a 239-page index volume, published 18612 8,000[citation needed] Thomas Stewart Traill Many long articles were copied from the 7th edition; 344 contributors including William Thomson; authorized American sets printed by Little, Brown in Boston; 8,000 sets sold altogether
9th 1875–1889 24 volumes, plus a 499-page index volume labeled Volume 25 55,000 authorized[e] plus 500,000 pirated sets Thomas Spencer Baynes (1875–80); then W. Robertson Smith Some carry-over from 8th edition, but mostly a new work; high point of scholarship; 10,000 sets sold by Britannica and 45,000 authorized sets made in the US by Little, Brown in Boston and Schribners' Sons in NY, but pirated widely (500,000 sets) in the US.3
supplement to 9th
1902–1903 11 volumes, plus the 24 volumes of the 9th. Volume 34 containing 124 detailed country maps with index of 250,000 names4 70,000 Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace and Hugh Chisholm in London; Arthur T. Hadley and Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City American partnership bought EB rights on 9 May 1901; high-pressure sales methods
11th 1910–1911 28 volumes, plus volume 29 index 1,000,000 Hugh Chisholm in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Another high point of scholarship and writing; more articles than the 9th, but shorter and simpler; financial difficulties for owner, Horace Everett Hooper; EB rights sold to Sears Roebuck in 1920
supplement to 11th
1921–1922 3 volumes with own index, plus the 29 volumes of the 11th5 Hugh Chisholm in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Summarized state of the world before, during, and after World War I
supplement to 11th
1926 3 volumes with own index, plus the 29 volumes of the 11th6 James Louis Garvin in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Replaced 12th edition volumes; improved perspective of the events of 1910–1926
14th 1929–1933 24 volumes7 James Louis Garvin in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Publication just before Great Depression was financially catastrophic[citation needed]
revised 14th 1933–1973 24 volumes7 Franklin Henry Hooper until 1938; then Walter Yust, Harry Ashmore, Warren E. Preece, William Haley Began continuous revision in 1936: every article revised at least twice every decade
15th 1974–1984 30 volumes8 Warren E. Preece, then Philip W. Goetz Introduced three-part structure; division of articles into Micropædia and Macropædia; Propædia Outline of Knowledge; separate index eliminated
1985–2010 32 volumes9 Philip W. Goetz, then Robert McHenry, currently Dale Hoiberg Restored two-volume index; some Micropædia and Macropædia articles merged; slightly longer overall; new versions were issued every few years. This edition is the last printed edition.
Global 2009 30 compact volumes Dale Hoiberg Unlike the 15th edition, it did not contain Macro- and Micropedia sections, but ran A through Z as all editions up to the 14th had.
Edition notes

1"Supplement to the fourth, fifth, and sixth editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica. With preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences."

2 The 7th to 14th editions included a separate index volume.

3 The 9th edition featured articles by notables of the day, such as James Clerk Maxwell on electricity and magnetism, and William Thomson (who became Lord Kelvin) on heat.

4 The 10th edition included a maps volume and a cumulative index volume for the 9th and 10th edition volumes: the new volumes, constituting, in combination with the existing volumes of the 9th ed., the 10th ed. ... and also supplying a new, distinctive, and independent library of reference dealing with recent events and developments

5 "Vols. 30–32 ... the New volumes constituting, in combination with the twenty-nine volumes of the eleventh edition, the twelfth edition"

6 This supplement replaced the previous supplement: The three new supplementary volumes constituting, with the volumes of the latest standard edition, the thirteenth edition.

7 At this point Encyclopædia Britannica began almost annual revisions. New revisions of the 14th edition appeared every year between 1929 and 1973 with the exceptions of 1931, 1934 and 1935.[157]

8 Annual revisions were published every year between 1974 and 2007 with the exceptions of 1996, 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2006.[157] The 15th edition (introduced as "Britannica 3") was published in three parts: a 10-volume Micropædia (which contained short articles and served as an index), a 19-volume Macropædia, plus the Propædia (see text).

9 In 1985, the system was modified by adding a separate two-volume index; the Macropædia articles were further consolidated into fewer, larger ones (for example, the previously separate articles about the 50 US states were all included into the "United States of America" article), with some medium-length articles moved to the Micropædia. The Micropædia had 12 vols. and the Macropædia 17.

The first CD-ROM edition was issued in 1994. At that time also an online version was offered for paid subscription. In 1999 this was offered free, and no revised print versions appeared. The experiment was ended in 2001 and a new printed set was issued in 2001.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ According to Kister, the initial 15th edition (1974) required over $32 million to produce.[11]
  2. ^ Vol. I has (viii), 697, (i) pages, but 10 unpaginated pages are added between pages 586 and 587. Vol. II has (iii), 1009, (ii) pages, but page numbers 175–176 as well as page numbers 425–426 were used twice; additionally page numbers 311–410 were not used. Vol. III has (iii), 953, (i) pages, but page numbers 679–878 were not used.[152]
  3. ^ Archibald Constable estimated in 1812 that there had been 3,500 copies printed, but revised his estimate to 3,000 in 1821.[153]
  4. ^ According to Smellie, it was 10,000, as quoted by Robert Kerr in his "Memoirs of William Smellie." Archibald Constable was quoted as saying the production started at 5,000 and concluded at 13,000.[154]
  5. ^ 10,000 sets sold by Britannica plus 45,000 genuine American reprints by Scribner's Sons, and "several hundred thousand sets of mutilated and fraudulent 9th editions were sold..."[156] Most sources estimate there were 500,000 pirated sets.


  1. ^ a b c Bosman, Julie (13 March 2012). "After 244 Years, Encyclopædia Britannica Stops the Presses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  2. ^ "History of Encyclopædia Britannica and Britannica Online". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  3. ^ "History of Encyclopædia Britannica and Britannica.com". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 9 June 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  4. ^ Carmody, Tim (14 March 2012). "Wikipedia Didn't Kill Britannica. Windows Did". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  5. ^ Cooke, Richard (17 February 2020). "Wikipedia Is the Last Best Place on the Internet". Wired. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  6. ^ a b Bosman, Julie (13 March 2012). "After 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presses". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  7. ^ McArdle, Megan (15 March 2012). "Encyclopaedia Britannica Goes Out of Print, Won't Be Missed". The Atlantic. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  8. ^ Kearney, Christine (14 March 2012). "Encyclopaedia Britannica: After 244 years in print, only digital copies sold". The Christian Science Monitor. Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  9. ^ Blanding, Michael. "Wikipedia Or Encyclopædia Britannica: Which Has More Bias?". Forbes. Retrieved 25 July 2023 – via Harvard Business School.
  10. ^ a b c d e reviews by the Editorial Board of Reference Books Bulletin; revised introduction by Sandy Whiteley. (1996). Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points to Consider (5th ed.). Booklist Publications, American Library Association. ISBN 978-0-8389-7823-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Kister, K. F. (1994). Kister's Best Encyclopedias: A Comparative Guide to General and Specialized Encyclopedias (2nd ed.). Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press. ISBN 978-0-89774-744-8.
  12. ^ a b "Britannica Global Edition". Encyclopædia Britannica Store. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sader, Marian; Lewis, Amy (1995). Encyclopedias, Atlases, and Dictionaries. New Providence, New Jersey: R. R. Bowker (A Reed Reference Publishing Company). ISBN 978-0-8352-3669-0.
  14. ^ a b Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Index preface ed.). Chicago, Illinois. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  15. ^ a b c d e Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 5–8. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  16. ^ a b American Library Association (1992). Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points to Consider. Revised introduction by Sandra Whiteley (4th ed.). Chicago, IL: Booklist. ISBN 978-0-8389-5754-7.
  17. ^ "Defense mechanism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. p. 957.
  18. ^ a b c d "Encyclopaedia". Encyclopædia Britannica (14th ed.). 1954. Aside from providing a summary of the Britannica's history and early spin-off products, this article also describes the life-cycle of a typical Britannica edition. A new edition typically begins with strong sales that decay as the encyclopaedia becomes outdated. When work on a new edition is begun, sales of the old edition stop, just when fiscal needs are greatest: a new editorial staff must be assembled, articles commissioned. Elkan Harrison Powell identified this fluctuation of income as a danger to any encyclopaedia, one he hoped to overcome with continuous revision.
  19. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: School & Library Site, promotional materials for the 2007 Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  20. ^ "Australian Encyclopædia Britannica, promotional materials for the 2007 Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica Australia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  21. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Micropædia preface ed.). Chicago, Illinois. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  22. ^ "Change: It's OK. Really.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  23. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica to end print editions". Fox News. Associated Press. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  24. ^ Bosman, Julie (13 March 2012). "After 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  25. ^ "1768 Encyclopaedia Britannica Replica Set". Encyclopædia Britannica Store. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  26. ^ Britannica Junior Encyclopædia, 1984.
  27. ^ Children's Britannica. 1960. Encyclopædia Britannica Limited. London, England.
  28. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, 1988.
  29. ^ "Britannica Discovery Library (issued 1974–1991)". Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Limited. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  30. ^ "2003 Britannica Concise Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Limited. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  31. ^ Quân, Phạm Hoàng (25 July 2015). "Tên theo chủ: Qua vụ Google và vụ Britannica tiếng Việt" [Naming by authority: the cases of Google and the Vietnamese Britannica] (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  32. ^ Jiangshan, Wang; Yi, Tian, eds. (October 2020). Imperial China: The Definitive Visual History (First American ed.). New York: DK. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7440-2047-2.
  33. ^ "Britannica Concise Encyclopedia rendered into Vietnamese". Tuổi Trẻ News. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  34. ^ Long, Nguyễn Việt (9 July 2015). "Chuyện kể từ người tham gia làm Britannica tiếng Việt" [Stories from contributors to the Vietnamese Britannica] (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  35. ^ "2007 Compton's by Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Limited. Retrieved 11 April 2007.[dead link]
  36. ^ "Britannica 2012 Ultimate Reference DVD". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  37. ^ "Webmaster and Blogger Tools". Encyclopædia Britannica Incorporated, Corporate Site. 2014. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  38. ^ a b Charlton, Graham (10 February 2009). "Q&A: Ian Grant of Encyclopædia Britannica UK [interview]". Econsultancy. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  39. ^ "Britannica Online Store—BT Click&Buy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 August 2006. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
  40. ^ "Instructions for linking to the Britannica articles". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  41. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica Selects AskMeNow to Launch Mobile Encyclopedia" (Press release). AskMeNow, Incorporated. 21 February 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  42. ^ Cauz, Jorge (3 June 2008). "Collaboration and the Voices of Experts". Britannica Blog. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  43. ^ Van Buskirk, Eliot (9 June 2008). "Encyclopædia Britannica To Follow Modified Wikipedia Model". Wired. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  44. ^ Turton, Stuart (9 June 2008). "Encyclopaedia Britannica dips toe in Wiki waters". Alphr. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  45. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated, Corporate Site". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  46. ^ a b Moore, Matthew (23 January 2009). "Encyclopaedia Britannica fights back against Wikipedia". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  47. ^ a b Hunt, Samantha Rose (23 January 2009). "Britannica looking to give Wikipedia a run for its money with online editing". Tgdaily. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  48. ^ Akhtar, Naved (25 January 2009). "Encyclopædia Britannica takes on Wikipedia". Digital Journal. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  49. ^ a b Sweeney, Claire (22 January 2009). "Britannica 2.0 shows Wikipedia how it's done". Times Online. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  50. ^ "Britannica reaches out to the web". BBC News. 24 January 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  51. ^ "New Britannica Kids Apps Make Learning Fun" (Press release). Encyclopædia_Britannica, Incorporated. 14 September 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  52. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica to supply world-leading educational apps to Intel AppUp center" (Press release). Encyclopædia_Britannica, Incorporated. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  53. ^ "About | Mobile, Web and Enterprise | Design and Development". Concentricsky.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  54. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica App Now Available for iPad". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 October 2011. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  55. ^ "Britannica ImageQuest: One image database to rule them all | Reference Online". School Library Journal. 2015. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  56. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica stops printing after more than 200 years". The Telegraph. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  57. ^ McCarthy, Tom (13 March 2012). "Encyclopædia Britannica halts print publication after 244 years". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  58. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica's new Chrome extension is a simple fix to Google misinformation". The Verge. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  59. ^ "Britannica Insights Firefox extension missing · Issue #6081 · mozilla/addons-frontend". GitHub. Archived from the original on 17 December 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  60. ^ a b Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 531–674. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  61. ^ "Christine Sutton". Britannica. Britannica Group. Archived from the original on 8 February 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  62. ^ a b Brenner, Michael (1998). The Renaissance of Jewish Culture in Weimar Germany. Yale University Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780300077209. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  63. ^ Keen, Andrew (2007). The Cult of the Amateur: How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube, and the Rest of Today's User-generated Media are Destroying Our Economy, Our Culture, and Our Values. Doubleday. p. 44. ISBN 9780385520812. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  64. ^ "Isaac Asimov". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  65. ^ Burr, George L. (1911). "The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information". American Historical Review. 17 (1): 103–109. doi:10.2307/1832843. JSTOR 1832843.
  66. ^ a b Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 745. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  67. ^ "Milestones, Aug. 26, 1940". Time.com. 26 August 1940. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  68. ^ "History of Encyclopædia Britannica and Britannica Online". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
  69. ^ "Armstrong". Chicago Tribune. 20 January 2001. Archived from the original on 20 September 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  70. ^ "Biochemical Components of Organisms". Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed. Vol. 14. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. pp. 1007–1030.
  71. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 5. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  72. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica Board of Editors". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  73. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 524–530. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  74. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 675–744. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  75. ^ "Britannica sold by Benton Foundation". University of Chicago Chronicle. 4 January 1996. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  76. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica Announces Appointment of Don Yannias As Chief Executive Officer" (Press release). Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. 4 March 1997. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  77. ^ Abramson, Ronna (9 April 2001). "Look Under "M" for Mess—Company Business and Marketing". The Industry Standard. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  78. ^ "Ilan Yeshua Named Britannica CEO. Veteran Executive to Consolidate Operations of Encyclopædia Britannica and Britannica.com" (Press release). Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. 16 May 2001.
  79. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 2. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  80. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Group. "Encyclopaedia Britannica Group Appoints Karthik Krishnan as Global Chief Executive Officer". PR Newswire (Press release). Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  81. ^ Marotti, Ally. "Google results aren't always accurate. Encyclopaedia Britannica's new Chrome extension could help". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  82. ^ "YouTube now displays facts below conspiracy theory videos". Big Think. 8 August 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  83. ^ "NYU Stern – Karthik Krishnan – Adjunct Assistant Professor". www.stern.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  84. ^ "Exclusive Interview: Encyclopædia Britannica CEO Karthik Krishnan | Asia Outlook Magazine". Asia Outlook Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  85. ^ a b Thomas, Gillian (1992). A Position to Command Respect: Women and the Eleventh Britannica. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-2567-3.
  86. ^ Lawrence, S.; Giles, C. (1999). "Accessibility of information on the web". Nature. 400 (6740): 107–109. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..107L. doi:10.1038/21987. PMID 10428673. S2CID 4347646.
  87. ^ Lawrence, S.; Giles, C. (1999). "Searching the Web: general and scientific information access". IEEE Communications Magazine. 37 (1): 116–122. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/35.739314. S2CID 10947844.
  88. ^ "Electronic publishing takes journals into a new realm". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 17 January 1999. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  89. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (14th ed.). 1954. p. 3.
  90. ^ "Britannica ends its print edition". BBC News. 14 December 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  91. ^ Kister, Kenneth F. (1994). Kister's best encyclopedias : a comparative guide to general and specialized encyclopedias (2nd ed.). Phoenix: Oryx Press. ISBN 0897747445.
  92. ^ Cauz, Jorge (1 March 2013). "Encyclopædia Britannica's President on Killing Off a 244-Year-Old Product". Harvard Business Review. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via hbr.org.
  93. ^ a b Seymour, Ursula (9 November 2006). "Encyclopedia face-off: Encarta vs Britannica". PC Advisor. IDG. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
  94. ^ "Microsoft Encarta—Premium 2007: Overview". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007. Sales figures for January 2000 – February 2006 as provided by the NPD Group.
  95. ^ "Digital encyclopedia has wealth of information". The Washington Times. 27 March 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  96. ^ a b "The Britannica Store". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 November 2006.[permanent dead link]
  97. ^ a b "Amazon.com: Microsoft Encarta Premium 2007: Software". Amazon. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
  98. ^ Encarta's Encyclopedia Article Center. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  99. ^ Tancer, Bill (1 May 2007). "Look Who's Using Wikipedia". Time. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007. The sheer volume of content [...] is partly responsible for the site's dominance as an online reference. When compared to the top 3,200 educational reference sites in the US, Wikipedia is No. 1, attracting 24.3% of all visits to the category
  100. ^ Tancer, Bill (1 March 2007). "Wikipedia, Search and School Homework". Hitwise. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012.
  101. ^ Woodson, Alex (8 July 2007). "Wikipedia remains go-to site for online news". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2007. Online encyclopedia Wikipedia has added about 20 million unique monthly visitors in the past year, making it the top online news and information destination, according to Nielsen//NetRatings.
  102. ^ a b Giles, J. (2005). "Internet encyclopaedias go head to head: Jimmy Wales' Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries". Nature. 438 (7070): 900–901. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..900G. doi:10.1038/438900a. PMID 16355180.
  103. ^ McHenry, Robert (15 November 2004). "The Faith-Based Encyclopedia". TCS Daily. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010.
  104. ^ Terdiman, Daniel. "Study: Wikipedia as accurate as Britannica". Staff Writer, CNET News. CNET News. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  105. ^ a b "Fatally Flawed – Refuting the recent study on encyclopedic accuracy by the journal Nature" (PDF). Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. March 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  106. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica and Nature: a response" (PDF). Nature (Press release). 23 March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2006. (nature.com's own archive is under nature.com Archived 19 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine, inside Press release archives (zip): 2006 Archived 27 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine by filename Encyclopaedia Britannica and Nature a response.pdf. As of 20 November 2021, the PDF creation date is 2 August 2019))
  107. ^ "Wikipedia: an old-fashioned corner of truth on the internet". The Telegraph. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  108. ^ "How Wikipedia changed the world". The Telegraph. 14 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  109. ^ "Our Letter to the Telegraph". Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated Corporate Site. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kogan, Herman (1958). The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. LCCN 58008379.
  111. ^ Arner, Robert D. (1991). Dobson's Encyclopaedia: The Publisher, Text, and Publication of America's First Britannica, 1789–1803. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3092-5.
  112. ^ "Patriarch Revised". Time. Vol. XIV, no. 13. 23 September 1929. pp. 66–69. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  113. ^ "A Completely New Encyclopaedia (sic) Britannica". Time. Vol. XIV, no. 12. 16 September 1929. pp. 2–3.
  114. ^ a b Banquet at Guildhall in the City of London, Tuesday 15 October 1968: Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of the Encyclopædia Britannica and the 25th Anniversary of the Honorable William Benton as its Chair and publisher. United Kingdom: Encyclopædia Britannica International, Limited. 1968.
  115. ^ "Reader". The New Yorker. Vol. 9. 3 March 1934. p. 17.
  116. ^ "2004 Distinguished Achievement Awards Winners: Technology". Association of Educational Publishers. 1 August 2003. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  117. ^ "Top Ten Superbrands 2009–2010". BBC. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  118. ^ Lang, J. P. (1992). Reference Sources for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries (5th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: American Library Association. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8389-3406-7.
  119. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (2007). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Macropædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  120. ^ Gonzalez Larrañaga, Galder; Perez de Viñaspre Garralda, Olatz (16 March 2023). "Nor da nor Lur Hiztegi Entziklopedikoan? Euskarazko lehenengo entziklopediaren demografia digital alderatua". Uztaro. Giza Eta Gizarte-zientzien Aldizkaria (124): 25–49. doi:10.26876/uztaro.124.2023.2. S2CID 257423956.
  121. ^ a b Prescott, Peter S. (8 July 1974). "The Fifteenth Britannica". Newsweek. pp. 71–72.
  122. ^ a b
    • Baker, John F. (14 January 1974). "A New Britannica Is Born". Publishers Weekly. pp. 64–65.
    • Wolff, Geoffrey (June 1974). "Britannica 3, History of". The Atlantic. pp. 37–47.
    • Cole, Dorothy Ethlyn (June 1974). "Britannica 3 as a Reference Tool: A Review". Wilson Library Bulletin. pp. 821–825. Britannica 3 is difficult to use ... the division of content between Micropædia and Macropædia makes it necessary to consult another volume in the majority of cases; indeed, it was our experience that even simple searches might involve eight or nine volumes.
    • Davis, Robert Gorham (1 December 1974). "Subject: The Universe". The New York Times Book Review. pp. 98–100.
    • Hazo, Robert G. (9 March 1975). "The Guest Word". The New York Times Book Review. p. 31.
    • McCracken, Samuel (February 1976). "The Scandal of 'Britannica 3'". Commentary. pp. 63–68. This arrangement has nothing to recommend it except commercial novelty.
    • Waite, Dennis V. (21 June 1976). "Encyclopædia Britannica: EB 3, Two Years Later". Publishers Weekly. pp. 44–45.
    • Wolff, Geoffrey (November 1976). "Britannica 3, Failures of". The Atlantic. pp. 107–110. It is called the Micropædia, for 'little knowledge', and little knowledge is what it provides. It has proved to be grotesquely inadequate as an index, radically constricting the utility of the Macropædia.
  123. ^ Einbinder, Harvey (1964). The Myth of the Britannica. New York: Grove. ISBN 978-0-384-14050-9.
  124. ^ "Schoolboy spots errors in Encyclopaedia Britannica". The Guardian. 26 January 2005. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  125. ^ Cunningham, Grainne (3 February 2010). "Britannica errors spark unholy row". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  126. ^ Sheehy, Clodagh (4 February 2010). "Are they taking the Mick? It's the encyclopedia that thinks the Civil War was between the north and south". Evening Herald. Dublin. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020.
  127. ^ Supplement to the Encyclopædia or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Miscellaneous Literature. 1803. pp. iv.
  128. ^ Stockwell, Foster. A History of Information Storage and Retrieval. p. 116.
  129. ^ William Smellie in the Preface to the 1st edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
  130. ^ Day, Peter (17 December 1997). "Encyclopaedia Britannica changes to survive". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 April 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2007. Sales plummeted from 100,000 a year to just 20,000.
  131. ^ "Encyclopedias and Dictionaries". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. pp. 257–286.
  132. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Encyclopaedia" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 377.
  133. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica | History, Editions, & Facts". Britannica. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  134. ^ Herman, Arthur (2002). How the Scots Invented the Modern World. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80999-0.
  135. ^ Krapp, Philip; Balou, Patricia K. (1992). Collier's Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Macmillan Educational Company. p. 135. LCCN 91061165. The Britannica's 1st edition is described as "deplorably inaccurate and unscientific" in places.
  136. ^ Kafker, Frank; Loveland, Jeff, eds. (2009). The Early Britannica. Oxford University Press.
  137. ^  Cousin, John William (1910), "Baynes, Thomas Spencer", A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource
  138. ^ Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878). "Editor's Advertisement" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  139. ^ Baynes, T. S., ed. (1875–1889). "Prefatory Notice" . Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  140. ^ Chicago Tribune, 22 February 1945.
  141. ^ Chicago Tribune, 28 January 1943.
  142. ^ Feder, Barnaby J. (19 December 1995). "Deal Is Set for Encyclopaedia Britannica". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  143. ^ Mortimer J. Adler, A Guidebook to Learning: for the lifelong pursuit of wisdom. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1986, p. 88.
  144. ^ "In the Matter of Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. et al" (PDF). pp. 421–541. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  145. ^ Pepitone, Julianne (13 March 2012). "Encyclopedia Britannica to stop printing books". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  146. ^ "The new Children's Britannica: a fantastic voyage through the history of the world". www.telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  147. ^ "Why printed encyclopedias for children are more important than ever". The Independent. 19 November 2020. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  148. ^ "Britannica All New Children's Encyclopedia edited by Christopher Lloyd". The School Reading List. 8 October 2020. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  149. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1910. p. 3.
  150. ^ Goetz, Philip W. (1991). "The New Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated (15th edition, Propædia ed.). Chicago, Illinois: 3. Bibcode:1991neb..book.....G.
  151. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Propædia: Outline of Knowledge and Guide to the Britannica, 15th edition, 2010.
  152. ^ Kafker & Loveland (2009), p. 22.
  153. ^ Kafker & Loveland (2009), p. 58.
  154. ^ "Encyclopedia". Britannica. Vol. 8 (14th ed.). p. 374.
  155. ^ public domain Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878). "Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  156. ^ "Encyclopedia". Britannica. Vol. 8 (14th ed.). p. 376.
  157. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. interior flap.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]