|Regions with significant populations|
|England||629,583 (1.1%) (2021)|
|Wales||15,317 (0.5%) (2021)|
|Scotland||3,788 (0.07%) (2011)|
|Sylheti[a] · Bengali · English|
|Predominantly Muslim (92%), minorities include no religion (1.5%), Hindu (1%), others (0.5%), and unspecified (5%)|
(Figures for England and Wales only)
|Related ethnic groups|
|Part of a series on|
|African and Afro-Caribbean|
British Bangladeshis (Bengali: বিলাতী বাংলাদেশী, romanized: Bilatī Bangladeshī) are people of Bangladeshi origin who have attained citizenship in the United Kingdom, through immigration and historical naturalisation. The term can also refer to their descendants. Bengali Muslims have prominently been migrating to the UK since the 1940s. Migration reached its peak during the 1970s, with most originating from the Sylhet Division. The largest concentration live in east London boroughs, such as Tower Hamlets. This large diaspora in London leads people in Sylhet to refer to British Bangladeshis as Londoni (Bengali: লন্ডনী).
Bangladeshis form one of the UK's largest group of people of overseas descent and are also one of the country's youngest and fastest growing communities. The 2011 UK Census recorded just over 450,000 residents of Bangladeshi ethnicity. While in the 2021 UK census, Bangladeshis in England and Wales enumerated 644,900, or 1.1% of the total England and Wales population.
Bengalis have been present in Britain as early as the 19th century. One of the earliest records of a Bengali migrant, by the name of Saeed Ullah, can be found in Robert Lindsay's autobiography. Saeed Ullah was said to have migrated not only for work but also to attack Lindsay and avenge his elders for the Muharram Rebellion of 1782. Other early records of arrivals from the region that is now known as Bangladesh are of Sylheti cooks in London during 1873, in the employment of the East India Company, who travelled to the UK as lascars on ships to work in restaurants.
The first educated South Asian to travel to Europe and live in Britain was I'tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim cleric, Munshi and diplomat to the Mughal Empire who arrived in 1765 with his servant Muhammad Muqim during the reign of King George III. He wrote of his experiences and travels in his Persian book, Shigurf-nama-i-Wilayat (or 'Wonder Book of Europe'). This is also the earliest record of literature by a British Asian. Also during the reign of George III, the hookah-bardar (hookah servant/preparer) of James Achilles Kirkpatrick was said to have robbed and cheated Kirkpatrick, making his way to England and stylising himself as the Prince of Sylhet. The man was waited upon by the Prime Minister of Great Britain William Pitt the Younger, and then dined with the Duke of York before presenting himself in front of the King.
Many Sylheti people believed that seafaring was a historical and cultural inheritance due to a large proportion of Sylheti Muslims being descended from foreign traders, lascars and businessman from the Middle East and Central Asia who migrated to the Sylhet region before and after the Conquest of Sylhet. Khala Miah, who was a Sylheti migrant, claimed this was a very encouraging factor for Sylhetis to travel to Calcutta aiming to eventually reach the United States and United Kingdom. A crew of lascars would be led by a Serang. Serangs were ordered to recruit crew members themselves by the British and so they would go into their own villages and areas in the Sylhet region often recruiting their family and neighbours. The British had no problem with this as it guaranteed the group of lascars would be in harmony. According to lascars Moklis Miah and Mothosir Ali, up to forty lascars from the same village would be in the same ship.
Shah Abdul Majid Qureshi is said to be the first Sylheti to open a restaurant in the country. It was called Dilkush Delight and located in Soho. Another one of his restaurants, known as India Centre, alongside early Sylheti migrant Ayub Ali Master's Shah Jalal cafe, became a hub for the British Asian community and a site where the India League would hold meetings attracting influential figures such as Subhas Chandra Bose, Krishna Menon and Mulk Raj Anand. Ayub Ali was also the president of the United Kingdom Muslim League having links with Liaquat Ali Khan and Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
Some ancestors of British Bangladeshis went to the UK before the Second World War. Author Caroline Adams records that in 1925 a lost Bengali man was searching for other Bengali settlers in London. These first few arrivals started the process of "chain migration" mainly from one region of Bangladesh, Sylhet, which led to substantial numbers of people migrating from rural areas of the region, creating links between relatives in Britain and the region. They mainly immigrated to the United Kingdom to find work, achieve a better standard of living, and to escape conflict. During the pre-state years, the 1950s and 1960s, Bengali men immigrated to London in search of employment. Most settled in Tower Hamlets, particularly around Spitalfields and Brick Lane. In 1971, Bangladesh (until then known as "East Pakistan") fought for its independence from West Pakistan in what was known as the Bangladesh Liberation War. In the region of Sylhet, this led some to join the Mukti Bahini, or Liberation Army.
In the 1970s, changes in immigration laws encouraged a new wave of Bangladeshis to come to the UK and settle. Job opportunities were initially limited to low paid sectors, with unskilled and semi-skilled work in small factories and the textile trade being common. When the 'Indian' restaurant concept became popular, some Sylhetis started to open cafes. From these small beginnings a network of Bangladeshi restaurants, shops and other small businesses became established in Brick Lane and surrounding areas. The influence of Bangladeshi culture and diversity began to develop across the East London boroughs.
The early immigrants lived and worked mainly in cramped basements and attics within the Tower Hamlets area. The men were often illiterate, poorly educated, and spoke little English, so they could not interact well with the English-speaking population and could not enter higher education. Some became targets for businessmen, who sold their properties to Sylhetis, even though they had no legal claim to the buildings.
By the late 1970s, the Brick Lane area had become predominantly Bengali, replacing the former Jewish community which had declined. Jews migrated to outlying suburbs of London, as they integrated with the majority British population. Jewish bakeries were turned into curry houses, jewellery shops became sari stores, and synagogues became dress factories. The synagogue at the corner of Fournier Street and Brick Lane became the Brick Lane Jamme Masjid or 'Brick Lane Mosque', which continues to serve the Bangladeshi community to this day. This building represents the history of successive communities of immigrants in this part of London. It was built in 1743 as a French Protestant church; in 1819 it became a Methodist chapel, and in 1898 was designated as the Spitalfields Great Synagogue. It was finally sold, to become the Jamme Masjid.
The period also however saw a rise in the number of attacks on Bangladeshis in the area, in a reprise of the racial tensions of the 1930s, when Oswald Mosley's Blackshirts had marched against the Jewish communities. In nearby Bethnal Green the anti-immigrant National Front became active, distributing leaflets on the streets and holding meetings. White youths known as "skinheads" appeared in the Brick Lane area, vandalising property and reportedly spitting on Bengali children and assaulting women. Bengali children were allowed out of school early; women walked to work in groups to shield them from potential violence. Parents began to impose curfews on their children, for their own safety; flats were protected against racially motivated arson by the installation of fire-proof letterboxes.
On 4 May 1978, Altab Ali, a 24-year-old Bangladeshi leather clothing worker, was murdered by three teenage boys as he walked home from work in a racially motivated attack. The murder took place near the corner of Adler Street and Whitechapel Road, by St Mary's Churchyard. This murder mobilised the Bangladeshi community in Britain. Demonstrations were held in the area of Brick Lane against the National Front, and groups such as the Bangladesh Youth Movement were formed. On 14 May, over 7,000-10,000 people, mostly Bangladeshis, took part in a demonstration against racial violence, marching behind Altab Ali's coffin to Hyde Park. Some youths formed local gangs and carried out reprisal attacks on their skinhead opponents (see Youth gangs).
The name “Altab Ali” became associated with a movement of resistance against racist attacks, and remains linked with this struggle for human rights. His murder was the trigger for the first significant political organisation against racism by local Bangladeshis. The identification and association of British Bangladeshis with Tower Hamlets owes much to this campaign. A park has been named after Altab Ali at the street where he was murdered. In 1993, racial violence was incited by the anti-immigration British National Party (BNP); several Bangladeshi students were severely injured, but the BNP's attempted inroads were stopped after demonstrations of Bangladeshi resolve.
In 1986, the House of Commons Home Affairs Committee's race relations and immigration sub-committee conducted an inquiry called Bangladeshis in Britain. In evidence given to the committee by Home Office officials, they noted that an estimated 100,000 Bangladeshis lived in Great Britain. The evidence also noted issues of concern to the Bangladesh community, including "immigration arrangements; relationships with the police (particularly in the context of racial harassment or attacks); and the provision of suitable housing, education, and personal, health and social services". A Home Office official noted that the Sylheti dialect was "the ordinary means of communication for about 95 per cent of the people who come from Bangladesh" and that all three Bengali interpreters employed at Heathrow Airport spoke Sylheti, including Abdul Latif.
In 1988, a "friendship link" between the city of St Albans in Hertfordshire and the municipality of Sylhet was created by the district council under the presidency of Muhammad Gulzar Hussain of Bangladesh Welfare Association, St Albans. BWA St Albans were able to name a road in Sylhet municipality (now Sylhet City Corporation) called St Albans Road. This link between the two cities was established when the council supported housing project in the city as part of the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless initiative. It was also created because Sylhet is the area of origin for the largest ethnic minority group in St Albans. In April 2001, the London Borough of Tower Hamlets council officially renamed the 'Spitalfields' electoral ward Spitalfields and Banglatown. Surrounding streets were redecorated, with lamp posts painted in green and red, the colours of the Bangladeshi flag. By this stage the majority living in the ward were of Bangladeshi origin—nearly 60% of the population.
|Region||Population||Percent of region|
|East of England||50,685||0.8%|
|Yorkshire and The Humber||29,018||0.53%|
Bangladeshis in the UK are largely a young population, heavily concentrated in London's inner boroughs. In the 2011 Census 451,529 UK residents specified their ethnicity as Bangladeshi, forming 0.7% of the total population. In the 2021 census there were 644,900 Bangladeshis in England and Wales, forming 1.1% of the total England and Wales population. The UK is also the third single largest export destination for Bangladesh and Britain has the largest Bengali population outside of Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Nearly half of the population live in London, with a heavy concentration mainly in East London boroughs. London's Bangladeshi population in 2021 was 322,054, the highest concentrations were found in Tower Hamlets (34.6% of total borough population), Newham (15.9%), Redbridge (10.3%), Barking and Dagenham (10.2%) and Camden (6.8%). The largest populations outside London are in Birmingham, where there were 48,232 Bangladeshis in 2021, Oldham with 21,754, and Luton with a population of 20,630.
Based on the 2011 census, 52% of Bangladeshis were British-born, while 48% were born outside of the UK of which 212,000 were born in Bangladesh. In the same year, there was a slightly larger male than female population, with 52% male and 48% female. Bangladeshis are one of the youngest of the UK's ethnic populations. In 2011, 38.3% were aged between 0–17, 56.9% were aged between 18-59 and only 4.9% were aged 60 and over.
Majority of British Bangladeshis originate from several administrative sub-districts (known in Bangladesh as upazilas or thanas) of one of the four districts in the Sylhet Division. Most originate from the Sylhet District thanas of Balaganj, Beanibazar, Bishwanath, Fenchuganj and Golapganj. Thanas outside of the Sylhet District which have the highest numbers of origin include Jagannathpur of Sunamganj District, Moulvibazar, and Nabiganj of Habiganj District.
Since 2012/13, it is estimated that around 20,000 Italian Bangladeshis had settled in the UK, according to the Bangladeshi Italian Welfare Association (based on figures provided by the Embassy of Italy, London). Majority had settled within the long-established Bangladeshi community in East London. Many were skilled graduates who left their homes in South Asia attracted by jobs in Italy's industrial north, but moved to the UK when Italian manufacturing jobs went into decline.
Since 2004, the combined Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities have consistently had the lowest rate of employment out of all ethnic groups, although this figure has improved from 44% in 2004 to 58% in 2021. Bangladeshis are now mainly employed in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industries. New generation Bangladeshis, however, aspire to professional careers, becoming doctors, engineers, IT management specialists, teachers and in business. In 2011 within England and Wales, nearly-half (48%) of British Bangladeshis in the 16 to 64 age group were reported to be employed, while 40% were economically inactive and 10% unemployed. Men were more likely to be employed than women, with 65% of men in employment against 30% of women. Of those employed, 53% were working within the low-skill sector. Bangladeshis were most likely to be employed in accommodation and food services (27.3%), 18.8% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.2% in education, 8.8% in human health and social work, and the rest in many other sectors of employment. In 2021, Bangladeshis were the most likely ethnic group to be economically inactive with 35% of 16 to 64-year-olds out of work and not looking for employment, rising to 51% for Bangladeshi women compared to 24% of White British women.
In 2021, 58% of Bangladeshi 16 to 64-year-olds were employed, compared to 78% of British Indians, 76% of White British, and 67% of Black Britons. The employment rate for Bangladeshi 16 to 24-year-olds was 37%, compared to 56% of White British and 31% of Black Britons. The average hourly pay for British Bangladeshis in the same year was the lowest out of all ethnicity groups at £12.03, alongside British Pakistanis. According to aggregated Department for Work and Pensions data between 2018–2021, 24% of Bangladeshi families were in receipt of income-related benefits, compared to 16% of White British families and 8% of British Chinese and Indian families. Bangladeshi families were also the most likely ethnicity to be in receipt of the disability living allowance (in both the care component and the mobility component), child benefit, child tax credit, pension credit, working tax credit, housing benefit, and the most likely Asian ethnicity to reside in social housing. Since 2008, British Bangladeshis have consistently been the most likely ethnicity group to live in households classified as low income (after housing costs) at 63% in 2008 falling to 55% in 2020. British Bangladeshis have the highest overall relative poverty rate of any ethnic group in the UK. The Economist has argued that the lack of a second income in households was "the main reason" why many Bangladeshi families live below the poverty line and the resulting high proportion reliant on welfare payments from the government.
According to research by Yaojun Li from the University of Manchester in 2016, while the employment rate of Bangladeshis has improved and the proportion of women in work has risen by one-third in the last five years, it is still weaker than educational performance. Nine per cent of working age Bangladeshis are unemployed which is almost twice the national average.
In December 2016, according to a Social Mobility Commission study, children of Bangladeshi origin are among the British Asians who 'struggle for top jobs despite better school results'. The UK's Social Mobility Commission commissioned an 'Ethnicity, Gender and Social Mobility' report with research carried out by academics from LKMco and Education Datalab which found that there has been an increase in educational attainment for Bangladeshi origin pupils in the UK and their performance has improved at a more rapid rate than other ethnic groups in recent years at almost every key stage of education. Almost half of young Bangladeshi people from the poorest quintile go to university. However, this is not reflected or translating in labour market outcomes because although young people from Bangladeshi backgrounds are more likely to "succeed in education and go to university," they are less likely to go on to "find employment or secure jobs in managerial or professional occupations." The report also found that female Bangladeshi graduations are less likely to gain managerial and professional roles than male Bangladeshis graduates, despite achieving at school. British Bangladeshi women earn less than other ethnic minority groups.
Ofsted reports from secondary schools have shown that many Bangladeshi pupils are making significant progress, compared with other ethnic minority groups. Girls are more likely to do better in education than boys; 55% of girls are achieving 5 or more A*-C at GCSE, compared to 41% boys, as of 2004. The overall achievement rate for Bangladeshi pupils was 48%, compared with 53% for all UK pupils, in 2004. By 2013, the British Bangladeshi achievement rate (5 or more A*-C at GCSE) had increased considerably to 61%, compared to 56% for White British students and 51% for British Pakistani students. It was reported in 2014, there were a total of 60,699 graduates of Bangladeshi descent. In November 2015, an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) report said that Bangladeshi children living in the UK have a nearly 49 percent higher chance on average of a university education than white British pupils.
Until 1998, Tower Hamlets, where the concentration of British Bangladeshis is greatest was the worst performing local authority in England. Until 2009, Bangladeshis in England performed worse than the national average. In 2015, 62 per cent of British Bangladeshis got five good GCSEs, including English and Maths which is five per cent above the average, and Bangladeshi girls outperformed boys by eight per cent. In February 2018, according to a report from social mobility by the Sutton Trust, British Bangladeshi students are over six times more likely than white students to stay living at home and studying nearby.
According to Department for Education statistics for the 2020-21 academic year, British Bangladeshi pupils attained below the national average for academic performance at A-Level, but above the national average for GCSE level. 21.4% of British Bangladeshi pupils achieved at least 3 As at A Level and an average score of 55.6 was achieved in Attainment 8 scoring at GCSE level. In an article published in The Economist in November 2022, the improved GCSE results for Bangladeshi students were highlighted with no other ethnic group seeing the same level of improvement in the past two decade span.
A survey in the 1990s on the visible communities in Britain by the Policy Studies Institute concluded that British Bangladeshis continue to be among the most severely disadvantaged. Bangladeshis had the highest rates of illness in the UK, in 2001. Bangladeshi men were three times as likely to visit their doctor as men in the general population. Bangladeshis also had the highest rates of people with disabilities, and were more likely to smoke than any other ethnic group, at a rate of 44% in 1999 in England. Smoking was very common amongst the men, but very few women smoked, perhaps due to cultural customs. Research suggests that British Bangladeshis need intervention to prevent diabetes at a body mass index (BMI) of 21, which is lower than the otherwise recommended threshold.
The average number of people living in each Bangladeshi household is 5, larger than all other ethnic groups. Households which contained a single person were 9%; houses containing a married couple were 54%, pensioner households were 2%. There were twice as many people per room as white households, with 43% living in homes with insufficient bedroom space. A third of Bangladeshi homes contain more than one family—64% of all overcrowded households in Tower Hamlets are Bangladeshi. In England and Wales, only 37% of Bangladeshis owned households compared to 69% of the population, those with social rented tenure is 48%, the largest of which in Tower Hamlets (82%) and Camden (81%).
British Bangladeshis are around three times more likely to be in poverty compared to their white counterparts, according to a 2015 report entitled 'Ethnic Inequalities' by the Centre for Social Investigation (CSI) at Nuffield College at University of Oxford. The research found that poverty rate is 46% of people of Bangladeshi background – compared with 16% for the white British in 2009–11. "Bangladeshi background are also more likely to have a limiting long-term illness or disability and to live in more crowded conditions," it noted. In Tower Hamlets, an estimated one-third of young Bangladeshis are unemployed, one of the highest such rates in the country.
Research from the Resolution Foundation published in 2020 has found that the ethnic group has the second lowest median family wealth per adult at £31,000 and the lowest mean family net wealth per adult at £88,000.
As majority of British Bangladeshis originate from the northeastern region of Sylhet in Bangladesh, accordingly the most common language spoken is Sylheti, with around an estimated 400,000 speakers. Though generally considered as a dialect of Bengali, some linguists view Sylheti as an independent language. In the context of diglossia in Bangladesh, Sylheti is viewed as a regional dialect while standard Bengali (the official language), is the standard of communication and education. In the UK however, Sylheti being used as the main vernacular by a majority uninfluenced by standard Bengali has led some to view it as a distinct language. There had been unsuccessful attempts by a fringe group during the 1980s to recognise Sylheti as a language in Tower Hamlets, which lacked support from the rest of the local Sylheti community as most favoured Standard Bengali to be taught in "mother tongue" classes.
Standard Bengali maintains its prominence in British Bangladeshi media and is considered as a prestige language which helps to foster a cultural or national identity linked with Bangladesh. Parents therefore encourage young people to attend Bengali classes to learn the language. Although many Sylheti speakers find this learning progress difficult in the UK.
The Language Movement Day or Language Martyrs' Day (Shôhid Dibôs) commemorates the martyrs of the Bengali language movement, which other than in Bangladesh is also held annually in the UK. In Tower Hamlets, the Shaheed Minar was erected in Altab Ali Park in 1999. A similar monument was built in Westwood, in Oldham, through a local council regeneration. The event takes place at midnight on 20 February annually, where the community come together to lay wreaths at the monument. Around 2,500 families, councillors and community members paid their respect at Altab Ali Park, as of February 2009.
Some linguists are attempting to revive a script that was historically used in the Sylhet region called Sylheti Nagri. The Sylheti Project of SOAS University of London is notable for promoting Sylheti in its exclusivity. In 2017, British schools enlisted Sylheti in the list of native languages spoken by students. BBC News has also broadcast online videos relating to COVID-19 in five major South Asian languages which included Sylheti.
Based on the 2011 census, English is spoken as a main language by nearly half of the population. While those who considered Bengali (includes Sylheti and Chittagonian) as their main language, more than half (70%) were proficient in speaking English. English tends to be spoken among the younger generation, and Bengali/Sylheti with the older generation.
One way in which British Bangladeshis try to hold on to their links to Bangladesh is by sending their British-born children to school there. Pupils are taught the British curriculum and children born in the UK are dotted among those in the classroom.
According to the 2011 census,[b] majority of the Bangladeshi population were Muslim (89.9%), while a small minority followed other religions which include, Christian (1.5%), Hindu (0.9%), and all other religions (0.4%). Those who responded with no religion were 1.4%, and 5.9% did not give any preference. In London, Bangladeshi Muslims make up 24% of all London Muslims, more than any other single ethnic group in the capital. The largest affiliations are the Deobandis (mainly of Tablighi Jamaat), the Jamaat-e-Islami movement, and the Sufi Barelvi movement (which includes the Fultoli). The Hizb ut-Tahrir, and the Salafi movement also have a small following.
A majority of older women wear the burqa, and young women are wearing the niqab, whereas in Bangladesh, comparatively few women do so; this has been described as a "British phenomenon". Arabic is also learned by children, many of whom attend Qur'an classes at mosques or the madrasah. Many male youths are also involved with Islamic groups, which include the Young Muslim Organisation, affiliated with the Islamic Forum Europe. This group is based in Tower Hamlets, and has thus attracted mainly young Bangladeshi Muslims. It has been increasingly associated with the East London Mosque, which is one of the largest mosques used predominantly by Bangladeshis. In 2004, the mosque created a new extension attached, the London Muslim Centre which holds up to 10,000 people.
|Religion||England and Wales|
Significant Bengali events or celebrations are celebrated by the community annually. The Baishakhi Mela is a celebration of the Bengali New Year, celebrated by the Bengali community every year. Held each April–May since 1997 in London's Banglatown, it is the largest Asian open-air event in Europe, and the largest Bengali festival outside Bangladesh. In Bangladesh and West Bengal it is known as the Pohela Boishakh. The event is broadcast live across different continents; it features a funfair, music and dance displays on stages, with people dressed in colourful traditional clothes, in Weavers Field and Allen Gardens in Bethnal Green. The Mela is also designed to enhance the area's community identity, bringing together the best of Bengali culture. Brick Lane is the main destination where curry and Bengali spices are served throughout the day. As of 2009, the Mela was organised by the Tower Hamlets council, attracting 95,000 people, featuring with popular artists such as Momtaz Begum, Nukul Kumar Bishwash, Mumzy Stranger and many others.
The Nowka Bais is a traditional boat racing competition. It was first brought to the United Kingdom in 2007 to commemorate the 1000th birthday of Oxfordshire. It has gained recognition and support from Queen Elizabeth II and others. Since 2015, it has been hosted in Birmingham, where it is the largest cultural event in the West Midlands and the largest boat race in Britain, attracting thousands of people.
Bangladeshi weddings are celebrated with a combination of Bengali and Muslim traditions, and play a large part in developing and maintaining social ties. Many marriages are between the British diaspora (Londonis) and the native-born Bangladeshis. Sometimes men will go to Bangladesh to get married, however recently more women are marrying in Bangladesh. Second or third generation Bangladeshis are more likely to get married in the UK within the British culture. However this exposure has created a division between preferences for arranged marriages or for love marriages. Tradition holds that the bride's family must buy the bridegroom's family a set of new furniture to be housed in the family home, with all original furniture given away or discarded. The average Bangladeshi outlay for a wedding is £30–60,000 for a single wedding, including decorations, venue, food, clothing and limousines, all areas in which there is competition between families.
Forced marriages are rare; the British High Commission has been involved with many cases concerning on British citizens. Another media highlight includes a Bangladeshi-born National Health Service doctor Humayra Abedin. She was deceived by her parents after asking her to arrive at their home in Dhaka, a court ordered her parents to hand her over to the British High Commission. The commission has been reported to have handled 56 cases from April 2007 to March 2008. According to 2017 data by the Forced Marriage Unit (FMU), a joint effort between the Home Office and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, of the 129 callers related to Bangladesh, 71% were female and 29% were male, 16% were under the age of 15 and another 12% were aged 16–17. The majority of the victims were likely in the 18-21 age group and the proportion of males were higher for Bangladeshis than other groups. However, Pakistan has the highest number of cases of forced marriage.
British Bangladeshis consume traditional Bangladeshi food, in particular rice with curry. Many traditional Bengali dishes are served with rice, including chicken, lentil (dahl), and fish. Another popular food is shatkora, which is a citrus and tangy fruit from Sylhet, mainly used for flavourings in curries. Bangladeshi cooking has become popular in Britain because of the number of Bangladeshi-owned restaurants, which has increased significantly. In 1946, there were 20 restaurants, while in 2015 there are 8,200 owned by Bangladeshis, out of a total of 9,500 Indian restaurants in the UK.
British Bangladeshis have made a number of recent contributions to the culinary heritage of inner-city London. Drawing on the kebab culture introduced to the city by its Turkish and Kurdish population, as well as the city's chicken shop culture, British Bangladeshis have invented dishes such as naga doner, shatkora doner and naga wings. These fusion dishes are popular with South Asian Londoners, particularly in the East End.
Five Bengali channels are available on satellite television in Britain. These include Channel S, NTV, ATN Bangla, TV One, IQRA Bangla and iON TV. Bengali newspapers have been increasing within the community, most prominent of these include Potrika, Janomot, Surma News Group and Bangla Post. The first international film based on a story about British Bangladeshis was Brick Lane (2007), based on the novel by author Monica Ali, her book is about a woman who moves to London from rural Bangladesh, with her husband, wedded in an arranged marriage. The film was critically acclaimed and the novel was an award-winning best seller. The film however caused some controversy within the community. Other films created in the community are mainly based on the struggles which British Bangladeshis face such as drugs and presenting a culture clash. These dramas include Shopner Desh (2006) – a story related to the culture clashes. In 2020, BBC Four released an episode of A Very British History focusing on the history of British Bangladeshis and Bangladeshi emigration to the United Kingdom from the 1960s onwards, hosted by Dr Aminul Hoque.
Religious Muslim festivals are celebrated by the community each year including Eid al-Adha and Eid ul-Fitr. Muslims dress for the occasion in traditionally Bangladeshi style clothing. Children are given clothing or money. Eid prayers are attended by large numbers of men. Relatives, friends, and neighbors visit and exchange food and sweets. In the evening, young people will often spend the remaining time socialising with friends. Some, however, will go "cruising" – travelling across cities in expensive hired cars, playing loud music and sometimes waving the Bangladesh flag. Sociologists suggest these British Bangladeshi boys and girls have reinterpreted the older, more traditional practice of their faith and culture. The Eid al-Adha is celebrated after Hajj, to commemorate the prophet Ibrahim's compliance to sacrifice his son Isma'il. Traditionally, an animal has to be sacrificed, and its meat distributed among family, friends, and the poor as zakat (charity). In the UK, however, people usually purchase the meat from specialized shops. Instead of distributing meat, some donate to mosques, or remit money to Bangladesh for the purchase of cows for sacrifice and distribution there.
Rushanara Ali is the first person of Bangladeshi origin to have been elected as a member of parliament during the 2010 general election for the Labour Party from the constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow, winning by a large majority of more than 10,000. Tulip Siddiq became a member of parliament in the 2015 general election, getting elected from Camden Town. Tulip is the niece of the sitting Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina and granddaughter of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman the founder father of Bangladesh. Baroness Uddin was the first Bangladeshi and Muslim woman to enter the House of Lords; she swore the oath of office in her own faith. Anwar Choudhury became the British High Commissioner for Bangladesh in 2004, the first non-white British person to be appointed in a senior diplomatic post. Lutfur Rahman is the first directly elected mayor of Tower Hamlets, who was later removed from office for breaching electoral rules. Enam Ali became the first Muslim and the first representative of the British curry industry to be granted Freedom of the City of London in recognition of his contribution to the Indian hospitality industry. Dr. Muhammad Abdul Bari is the chairman of the Muslim Council of Britain – the largest Muslim organisation in Britain. Murad Qureshi, a Labour politician, is a member of the Greater London Assembly.
Others have contributed in the British media and business worlds. Konnie Huq is the longest-serving female presenter in Blue Peter, a BBC television programme for children. Other notable national TV presenters have included Lisa Aziz of Sky News, Nina Hossain (ITV and BBC London), Tasmin Lucia Khan (BBC News) and Shawkat Hashmi is Community Editor at BBC Sheffield, (BBC News). In drama, Shefali Chowdhury and Afshan Azad both starred in the Harry Potter movies as Parvati and Padma Patil. Mumzy is an R&B and hip-hop music artist, the first Bangladeshi to release a music single. Syed Ahmed is a businessman and also a television star, well known for being a candidate on The Apprentice. There are many other entrepreneurs, including the late Abdul Latif, known for his dish "Curry Hell"; Iqbal Ahmed, placed at number 511 on the Sunday Times Rich List 2006, and celebrity chef Tommy Miah. Rizwan Hussain is also very well known for presenting Islamic and charity shows on Channel S and Islam Channel, mainly known within the community.
Artists include fashion designer and artist Rahemur Rahman, dancer and choreographer Akram Khan, pianist Zoe Rahman, vocalist Suzana Ansar and Sohini Alam (born 1978), and the visual artist on film and photography Runa Islam.
Notable authors who have received praise for their books include Zia Haider Rahman whose debut novel In the Light of What We Know was published in 2014, Ed Husain, who wrote the book The Islamist on account of his experience for five years with the Hizb ut-Tahrir, Monica Ali for her book Brick Lane a story based on a Bangladeshi woman, and Kia Abdullah for her book, Life, Love and Assimilation.
Large numbers of people from the Bangladeshi community have also been involved with local government, increasingly in the London boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Camden. The majority of the councillors in Tower Hamlets are of Bangladeshi descent and part of the Labour Party. As of 2009, 32 of the total 51 councillors were Bangladeshi (63%), 18 were White (35%) and 1 Somali (2%). The first Bangladeshi mayor in the country was Ghulam Murtuza in Tower Hamlets. Camden has appointed many Bangladeshis as mayors since the first, Nasim Ali. The London Borough of Islington followed suit in the year 2012; appointing councillor Jilani Chowdhury as their mayor.
Anwar Uddin was the first notable British Bangladeshi footballer to achieve notability. He began his career at West Ham United, where he joined the winning team of the 1999 FA Youth Cup Finals. In May 2015, he was appointed manager of Sporting Bengal United. Hamza Choudhury currently plays for Leicester City F.C., making him the first player of Bengali descent to play in the Premier League, and he has also made appearances for the England under-21 team.
British Bangladeshis have also engaged themselves in other sports like cricket, snooker and badminton. Bulbul Hussain of Whitechapel is a wheelchair rugby player of Bengali origin, and he has been a part of the Great Paralympic Team since 2008.
In 2012, British kickboxing champion Ruqsana Begum was among the nine people of Bangladeshi descent who carried the Olympic torch along with some 8,000 Britons across the UK. Architectural and graphic designer Saiman Miah was the designer for the two commemorative £5 coins released by British Royal Mint to mark the 2012 London Olympic Games. Akram Khan was a choreographer of the Olympic opening ceremony. Khan was in direction when 12,000 dance artistes performed in the Olympic opening ceremony. Enam Ali's Le Raj restaurant was selected as one of the official food suppliers of the London Olympics. The restaurant also prepared and provided Iftar to the Muslim guests at the Olympics.
In Bangladeshi politics there are two groups, favouring different principles, one Islamic and the other secular. Between these groups, there has always been rivalry; however, the Islamic faction is steadily growing. This division between religious and secular was an issue during the Bangladesh Liberation War; the political history of Bangladesh is now being re-interpreted again, in the UK. The secular group show nationalism through monuments, or through the introduction of Bengali culture, and the Islamic group mainly through dawah.
One symbol of Bengali nationalism is the Shaheed Minar, which commemorates the Bengali Language Movement, present in Altab Ali Park – the park is also the main venue for rallies and demonstrations, and also in Westwood, Oldham. The monuments are a smaller replica of the one in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and symbolises a mother and the martyred sons. Nationalism is mainly witnessed during celebrations of the mela, when groups such as the Swadhinata Trust try to promote Bengali history and heritage amongst young people, in schools, youth clubs and community centres.
According to a 2013 survey by the Center on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE) at the University of Manchester, ethnic minorities in the country were more likely to describe themselves as exclusively "British" than their white British counterparts. 72% of Bangladeshis reported an exclusive "British" identity, in contrast 72% of white Britons preferred to call themselves "English" rather than the more expansive "British" designation. A 2009 study by the University of Surrey suggested that some Bangladeshis in Britain, particularly the youth, embrace their "Britishness" while feeling alienated from "Englishness". The underlying assumption was that "Englishness" was associated with "whiteness" whereas "Britishness" denoted a more universal kind of identity that encompasses various cultural and racial backgrounds.
As a response to conditions faced by their first generation elders during the 1970s (see history), younger Bangladeshis started to form gangs, developing a sense of dominating their territory. One consequence of this was that Bangladeshi gangs began fighting each other. Bangladeshi teenagers involved with gangs show their allegiance to this kind of lifestyle in various ways: heavily styled hair, expensive mobile phones and fashionable labels and brands. Teenage street gangs have been responsible for sometimes lethal violence; it is estimated that in Tower Hamlets alone there are 2,500 Bengali youths affiliated to one of the many local gangs, and that 26 out of the 27 gangs in the area are Bangladeshi. The notorious gangs have been given names that end with massive or posse, such as the Brick Lane Massive and Brady Street Massive. Other smaller groups include the Shadwell Crew, Cannon Street Posse, Bengal Tigers and Bethnal Green Boys.
In the past, Bangladeshi gangs have fostered criminal elements, including low level drug use and credit card fraud. However, for many the focus has changed to fighting over their territories. They use a variety of weapons, such as samurai swords, machetes, kitchen knives and meat cleavers, although guns are rarely used. When members reach their twenties they usually grow out of gang membership, but some move on to more serious criminal activity. Increasing numbers of Bangladeshi youths are taking hard drugs, in particular heroin. Islamic fundamentalism has also played a part in the youth culture, illustrated by the efforts of one Brick Lane gang to oust prostitutes from the area. As to dietary customs, youths generally avoid eating pork, and some from drinking alcohol; however, many take part in recreational drug use, in particular heroin.
95% of all South Asian restaurants are run by Bangladeshis. The curry industry employs over 150,000 people, contributes £4.5 billion to the economy each year and is viewed as recognition of Bangladeshi success, through awards such as 'The British Curry Awards'. Brick Lane, known as Banglatown, is home to many of these restaurants, and is now regarded as London's 'curry capital', with thousands of visitors every day. The restaurants serve different types of curry dishes, including fish, chutneys, and other halal dishes. Attitudes towards restaurant work has shifted among second-generation Bangladeshis who lack interest in working in the curry industry due to their social mobility and opportunities provided by their parents. As of 2016, according to the Bangladesh High Commission, Brick Lane has 57 Bangladeshi-owned curry houses, and in England as a whole, around 90% of all curry houses are owned by British Bangladeshis.
Although the curry industry has been the primary business of Bangladeshis (see Cuisine), many other Bangladeshis own grocery stores. Whitechapel is a thriving local street market, offering many low-priced goods for the local Bengali community. In Brick Lane there are many Bengali staples available, such as frozen fish and jack fruits. There are also many travel agents offering flights to Sylhet. Many Bangladeshi businesses located in the East End wish to maintain a link with Sylhet, for example the Weekly Sylheter Dak or the Sylhet Stores. There are also many money transfer companies; in 2007, a firm called First Solution Money Transfer went into liquidation. Company chairman, Dr Fazal Mahmood, admitted the business owed hundreds of thousands of pounds to the public. and claimed that the firm had lost control of the money it handled due to a lack of regulation. Other large companies include Seamark and IBCO, owned by millionaire Iqbal Ahmed, Taj Stores, and many others.
In 2004, Guild of Bangladeshi Restaurateurs requested for ethnic restaurant staff positions to be designated as a shortage occupation, which would make it easier for Bangladeshi citizens to obtain UK work permits. In 2008, Guild of Bangladeshi Restaurateurs members raised concerns that many restaurants were under threat because the British Government announced a change in immigration laws which could block entry of high skilled chefs from Bangladesh to the UK. They requested that the Government recognises that they are skilled workers. The law demanded these workers speak fluent English, and have good formal qualifications. However, these changes did not take place.
Immigration policy changes has made it more difficult to source skilled workers from abroad, resulting in a paucity of chefs with the culinary skills to run an Indian-style kitchen. The situation has worsened due to a yearly salary minimum of £35,000 applied to tier 2 migrants, or skilled workers with a job offer in the UK, coming into effect April 2016. The Government's cap on skilled-workers from outside the EU means chefs must earn this salary a year to be permitted to work in UK restaurants. A Government scheme set up in 2012 to train UK nationals to work as chefs in Asian and Oriental restaurants struggled with a lack of interest, despite a YouGov poll at the time indicating that almost a third of young people would consider working in the sector. Experts say curry houses are closing down at the rate of two a week because of a shortage of tandoori chefs.
The UK is the second biggest foreign investor in Bangladesh and one of the largest development partners of Bangladesh. Over 240 UK companies are operating in different sectors including retail, banking, energy, infrastructure, consultancy and education with leading centres of operation in Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet.
Many British Bangladeshis send money to Bangladesh to build houses. In villages in Sylhet, there are houses built suburbs or communities through financial support mainly received from the UK, fuelling a building boom. Businesses have also been established by the British expatriates in the city of Sylhet, such as hotels, restaurants, often themed on those found in London, have also been established to cater to the visiting Sylheti expatriate population and the growing Sylheti middle classes (i.e. London Fried Chicken or Tessco). The financial relationship between British Bengalis and relatives in Bangladesh has changed, only 20% of Bangladeshi families in east London were sending money to Bangladesh as of 1995, this figure was approximately 85% during 1960–1970s. For a large number of families in Britain the cost of living, housing, or education for the children severely constrains any regular financial commitment towards Bangladesh. Moreover, the family reunion process has resulted in the social and economic reproduction of the household in Britain; conflicts over land or money can arise involving the mutual or reciprocal relationship between members of a joint household divided by migration. This, in turn, can reduce even more the level of investment in Sylhet. The emergence of a second and a third generation of British Bangladeshis is another factor explaining the declining proportion of people's income being sent as remittances to Bangladesh. About 7% of all remittance sent to Bangladesh are from Britain as of 2019. As of January 2020, $1175m is sent from UK to Bangladesh per year.
- Bangladesh–United Kingdom relations
- Bangladeshi diaspora
- Bengali people
- British Indians
- British Pakistanis
- British Sri Lankans
- East Asians in the United Kingdom
- History of Bangladeshis in the United Kingdom
- List of Bangladeshi people
- List of Bangladesh-related topics
- List of Bengalis
- List of British Bangladeshis
- List of British Muslims
- "2021 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
- "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- McCarthy, K.M.; Evans, B.G.; Mahon, M. (September 2013). "Acquiring a second language in an immigrant community: The production of Sylheti and English stops and vowels by London-Bengali speakers". Journal of Phonetics. 41 (5): 344–358. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2013.03.006.
Chalmers and Miah (1996) describe Sylheti as a distinct language that is 'mutually unintelligible to a Standard Bengali speaker' (p. 6), but anecdotal evidence from members of the London-Bengali community suggests that the differences are relatively small (Rasinger, 2007)
- Ethnic group by religion Office for National Statistics. 28 March 2023. Retrieved on 28 March 2023.
- Audrey Gillan (21 July 2002). "From Bangladesh to Brick Lane". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- "Discover Tower Hamlets – Borough Profile". Tower Hamlets. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
- Mairtin Mac an Ghaill and Chris Haywood (2005). Young Bangladeshi people's experience of transition to adulthood. p. 5. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Lindsay, Robert (1858). "Anecdotes of an Indian life: Chapter VII". Lives of the Lindsays: or, a Memoir of the Houses of Crawford and Balcarres. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). London: John Murray.
- "Islam in the UK (1500s-present): Before the 20th century". BBC. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- "Bengali-speaking community in the Port of London". PortCities UK. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- C.E. Buckland, Dictionary of Indian Biography, Haskell House Publishers Ltd, 1968, p.217
- Alam, Shahid (12 May 2012). "For casual reader and connoisseur alike". The Daily Star.
- Colebrooke, Thomas Edward (1884). "First Start in Diplomacy". Life of the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone. Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9781108097222.
- Fidler, Ceri-Anne (2011). Lascars, c.1850 - 1950: The Lives and Identities of Indian Seafarers in Imperial Britain and India (PDF) (Thesis). Cardiff University. p. 123.
- Choudhury, Yousuf (1995). Sons of the Empire: Oral History from the Bangladeshi Seamen who Served on British Ships During the 1939-45 War.
- Adams, Caroline (1987). Across Seven Seas and Thirteen Rivers. London: THAP Books. ISBN 0-906698-15-4.
- Hossain, Ashfaque (2014). "The world of the Sylheti seamen in the Age of Empire, from the late eighteenth century to 1947". Journal of Global History (Thesis). Cambridge University.
- "Making it to British mainstream life". Bdnews24.com. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Kabir, Md Anwarul (16 January 2007). "A glimpse of the UK Bangladeshi community". New Age. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- Meenakshi Thapan (2005). Transnational migration and the politics of identity. SAGE. pp. 102. ISBN 978-0-7619-3425-7
- "Sukhdev Sandhu: Come hungry, leave edgy, Brick Lane by Monica Ali". London Review of Books. Retrieved 10 September 2003.
- "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC News. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "Faith — Bangladeshi London". BBC London. Retrieved 27 May 2005.
- Ahmed, Helal Uddin (2012). "Mukti Bahini". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "Immigration and Emigration – London – Banglatown". BBC: Legacies — UK History Local To You. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
- "Bangladeshi London". Exploring 20th century London. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- "London Jamme Masjid, London". Sacred Destinations. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
- Tames, Richard (2006). London: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press US. p. 267. ISBN 1-904955-21-5.
- Troyna, Barry; Bruce Carrington (1990). Education, Racism, and Reform. Taylor & Francis. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-415-03826-3.
- Keith, Michael (2005). After the Cosmopolitan?. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-415-34169-1.
- Panayi, Panikos (1996). Racial violence in Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Leicester University Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7185-1397-9.
- Leech, Kenneth (1988). Struggle in Babylon. Sheldon. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-85969-577-0.
- Bowling, Benjamin (1998). Violent Racism: Victimization, Policing, and Social Context. Clarendon Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-826252-7.
- "Stopping the BNP in Tower Hamlets". Youth Against Racism in Europe. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- Bangladeshis in Britain. Minutes of evidence: Home Office (Report). Session 1985-86. House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, Race Relations and Immigration Sub-Committee. 12 May 1986.
- "Sylhet, Bangladesh". St Albans District Council. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Liebman, Robert (15 May 1999). "Property: Hot Spot – St Albans: Near the madding crowd". The Independent. London. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- "Ethnic group - England and Wales regions". Office for National Statistics. 29 November 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
- "UK concentrating more on Bangladesh now: Alison Blake". Bdnews24.com. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Chowdhury, Munzer Ahmed (20 February 2018). "The triumph of Bangla in the UK". Dhaka Tribune. Dhaka. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Ghosh, Palash (6 June 2013). "Bangladeshis In Britain Proud To Be 'British,' But Not 'English'". International Business Times. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Ethnic group (detailed) - Lower Tier Local Authorities". Office for National Statistics. 29 November 2022. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
- [People born outside the UK https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/uk-population-by-ethnicity/demographics/people-born-outside-the-uk/latest] GOV.UK. 17 December 2018. Retrieved on 13 August 2020.
- Male and female populations GOV.UK. 17 December 2018. Retrieved on 13 August 2020.
- Age Groups GOV.UK 22 August 2018. Retrieved on 13 August 2020.
- Gardner, Katy (1995). Global Migrants, Local Lives: Travel and Transformation in Rural Bangladesh. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–2, 41. ISBN 978-0-19-827919-8.
- Smith, Michael; John Eade (2008). Transnational Ties: Cities, Migrations, and Identities. Transaction Publishers. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-4128-0806-4.
- For the children: European Bangladeshis’ mass exodus to UK Dhaka Tribune. 13 June 2018. Retrieved on 17 August 2020.
- Clarke, Hilary (30 November 2015). "Italian Bengalis: Meet London's newest ethnic minority". The Independent. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Employment: By ethnicity over time". gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 1 October 2023.
- "Employment Patterns". National Statistics. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Karim, Rezaul (June 2007). "Bangladeshis: Moving with the times". Forum. The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
- Ethnicity and the Labour Market, 2011 Census, England and Wales ONS.
- DC6216EW - Industry by ethnic group 2011 Census. nomis.
- "Ethnicity facts and figures: Economic inactivity". service.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
- "Ethnicity facts and figures: Employment". gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
- "Ethnicity fact and figures: Average hourly pay". gov.uk. Office for National Statistics.
- "Ethnicity facts and figures: State Support". service.gov.uk. Department for Work and Pensions.
- "Ethnicity facts and figures: Renting social housing". service.gov.uk. Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government.
- "People in low income households". gov.uk. Department for Work and Pensions. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
- Palmer, Guy; Kenwy, Peter (30 April 2007). "Poverty rates among ethnic groups in Great Britain | JRF". www.jrf.org.uk. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- Francis-Devine, Brigid (6 April 2023). "Poverty in the UK: statistics". Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "Asian Muslim women – All about taking part". The Economist. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Wigmore, Tim (26 May 2016). "Why Britain's Bangladeshis are so successful". New Statesman. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "British-Bangladeshi jobseekers face racial discrimination". Prothom Alo. Bangladesh. 28 December 2016. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- Asthana, Anushka (27 December 2016). "British Asians 'struggle for top jobs despite better school results'". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Study: British Bangladeshis do better at school, worse at work". Dhaka Tribune. Dhaka. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Bangladeshi pupils can improve". BBC News. 7 May 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Achievement of Bangladeshi heritage pupils (PDF). Ofsted. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- "Have Bangladeshis overtaken Pakistanis in Britain? - Blogs". Dawn.Com. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Graduates in the UK by Gender, Ethnicity and Disability (Excel sheet 63Kb) ONS.
- "White children fall behind Bangladeshis, other Asians and Caribbeans in UK". Bdnews24.com. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Busby, Eleanor (27 February 2018). "Poorer students three times more likely to live at home while at university, study says". The Independent. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Disadvantaged university students are three times more likely to live at home". The Week. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Pells, Rachael (27 February 2018). "Poor students 'three times more likely to live at home'". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Pells, Rachael (27 February 2018). "Poor students 'three times more likely to live at home'". BBC News. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Students getting 3 A grades or better at A level". gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
- "GCSE results (Attainment 8)". gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
- "British Bangladeshis are doing astonishingly well at school". The Economist. 24 November 2022.
- "GCSE English and maths results". gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
- Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin (5 July 1999). "Comment: Cool Britannia II - the Bangladeshis are coming". The Independent. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Ethnicity & Identity: Health". National Statistics. 14 April 2001. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
- "Focus on Ethnicity & Identity" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. March 2005. p. 13. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- "Are you at risk of diabetes? Research finds prevention should start at a different BMI for each ethnic group". NIHR Evidence (Plain English summary). 10 March 2022. doi:10.3310/alert_48878. S2CID 247390548.
- Caleyachetty, Rishi; Barber, Thomas M; Mohammed, Nuredin Ibrahim; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Hardy, Rebecca; Mathur, Rohini; Banerjee, Amitava; Gill, Paramjit (11 May 2021). "Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study". The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 9 (7): 419–426. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00088-7. PMC 8208895. PMID 33989535.
- "Channel S". Chsuk.tv. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Cramped life for Bangladeshis". BBC News. 8 April 1999. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "Local – Bridging the gap". BBC London. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "2001 Census Profiles: Bangladeshis in London" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2004.
- "UK Bangladeshis at higher risk of poverty: Report". The Daily Star. Bangladesh. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "A gap that won't close • Resolution Foundation". 22 December 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
- Bangham, George (December 2020). "A gap that won't close" (PDF). Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- Comanaru, Ruxandra; D'Ardenne, Jo (2018). The Development of Research Programme to theTranslate and Test the Personal well-being Questions in Sylheti and Urdu. pp.16. Köln: GESIS - Leibniz-Institut für Sozialwissenschaften. Retrieved on 30 June 2020.
- Sebastian M. Rasinger (2007). Bengali-English in East London: A Study in Urban Multilingualism. pp. 26-27. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- Alyson Callan (2012). Patients and Agents. pp.12-13. Retrieved 12-13.
- Schott, Judith; Alix Henley (1996). Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society: A Handbook for Health Professionals. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7506-2050-5.
- Gregory, Eve Gregory; Ann Williams (2000). City Literacies: Learning to Read Across Generations and Cultures. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-19116-6.
- Hamid, Shahela (2011). Language Use and Identity: The Sylheti Bangladeshis in Leeds. pp. 26–28. ISBN 9783039115594.
- Chalmers, R. (1996:6). Learning Sylheti. London: Centre for Bangladeshi Studies, Roechampton Institute.
- Anne J. Kershen (2005). Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1660–2000. Routledge. pages. 148–150
- Martin-Jones, Marilyn; Kathryn Jones (2000). Multilingual Literacies: Reading and Writing Different Worlds. p. 68. ISBN 978-90-272-1804-9.
- "Sylheti Bengali – Bangladeshi children in Hampshire schools". Hampshire County Council. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
- "Altab Ali Arch". Whitechapel's Free Art and History. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- Dr David Garbin (17 June 2005). "Bangladeshi Diaspora in the UK : Some observations on socio-culturaldynamics, religious trends and transnational politics" (PDF). University of Surrey. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Banglatown and the Bengali East End" (PDF). Visit East London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2005. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- Remembering Bengali martyrs, p. 7. East End Life – Tower Hamlets Council. Issue 748 (2–8 March 2009). Retrieved 2 March 2009.
- Anne J. Kershen (2000). Language, Labour and Migration.. pp.30.
- Sylhetis, Assamese, 'Bongal Kheda', and the rolling thunder in the east The Daily Star. Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury. 7 September 2018. Retrieved on 5 December 2022.
- British schools enlist Sylheti in their syllabi Dhaka Tribune. 12 July 2017. Retrieved on 10 August 2020.
- "Coronavirus vaccine Q&A in five South Asian languages". BBC News. 17 December 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
- CT0517_2011 Census - Sex by age by ethnic group by main language - England and Wales (Excel sheet 724Kb) ONS. 2 October 2015.
- 2011 Census: Detailed analysis - English language proficiency in England and Wales, Main language and general health characteristics ONS. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "World News – ... The majority of British Bangladeshis ...". The Guardian. London. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- Witts, Sophie (16 December 2011). "British-Bangladeshi pupils from London miss the UK". BBC News. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Italian Bangladeshis in UK: Ethnic minority fears Brexit impact Al Jazeera. 24 October 2019. Retrieved on 8 August 2020.
- DC2201EW - Ethnic group and religion (Excel sheet 21Kb) ONS. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Ethnicity group by religion Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland. 2011. Retrieved on 2023-03-19.
- Dietrich Reetz (11 November 2008). "The Islamic Missionary Movement Tablighi Jama'at in Europe". Muslim in Europa. Zentrum Moderner Orient. Archived from the original on 29 August 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- McGown, Rima Berns (1999). Muslims in the Diaspora: The Somali Communities of London and Toronto. University of Toronto Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8020-8281-7.
- Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 970. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
Bangladeshis worship at the Brick Lane Mosque, which is Barelwi, in the tradition of Indian folk religion and Sufism;
- "Genetics, Religion and Identity: A Study of British Bangladeshis – 2004–2007" (PDF). School of Social Sciences – Cardiff University – funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- "Veiled but not oppressed". BBC London. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- "bdirectory: Islamist politics among Bangladeshis in the UK". David Garbin – Cronem, University of Surrey. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- Tariq Modood, Tahir Abbas (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. Zed Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-84277-449-6.
- Eade, John; Fremeaux, Isabelle; Garbin, David (2002). "The Political Construction of Diasporic Communities in the Global City". In Gilbert, Pamela K. (ed.). Imagined Londons. SUNY Press. pp. 167–170. ISBN 978-0-7914-5501-2.
- Ghosh, Papiya (2007). Partition and the South Asian Diaspora: Extending the Subcontinent. Routledge. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-7914-5501-2.
- Paula Dear (12 June 2004). "Crowds flock to new Muslim centre". BBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- "New Muslim centre opens its doors". BBC News. 12 June 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2201EW - Ethnic group and religion". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Size: 21 Kb.
- "Ethnic group by religion - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
- "Banglatown spices it up for the new year". The Londoner. Archived from the original on 1 May 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- "Baishakhi Mela". eFestivals. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- "Baishakhi Mela 2007". What's on London. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- "A Baishakhi Mela". Tower Hamlets. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Grand Union Orchestra Bangla All-Stars + Mumtaz Begum + Mumzy + Selim Choudhury + Nukul Kumar Bishash + Kajol Dewan". Time Out London. 10 May 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Swinging down the Lane". Tower Hamlets. 5–10 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.[dead link]
- "All buoyed up for water aid". OxfordMail. 26 April 2007.
- Morshed Akhter Badol (25 July 2017). "Bangladeshi boat race takes the UK by storm". Dhaka Tribune.
- "St Joseph makes a splash at the 2019 Nowka Bais". Berkeley Group.
- Bentley, David (29 July 2018). "Free festival with street food and dragon boat racing returns to Birmingham". Birmingham Mail.
- Ballard, Roger (1994). Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-85065-091-1.
- Phillipson, Chris; Nilufar Ahmed; Nilufer Raihan Ahmed; Joanna Latimer (2003). Women in Transition: A Study of the Experiences of Bangladeshi Women Living in Tower Hamlets. The Policy Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-86134-510-3.
- Abdullah, Kia (2006). Life, Love and Assimilation. Adlibbed Ltd. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-897312-00-1.
- Lynn Welchman, Sara Hossain (2005). Honour: crimes, paradigms and violence against women. Zed Books. pp. 295–296.
- Barrowclough, Anne (25 July 2008). "Diplomats rescue British teenager from forced marriage". Times Online. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008.
- "Freed doctor forced into marriage". BBC News. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Kidnapped doctor freed from parents in Bangladesh". CNN. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Bingham, John (19 December 2008). "Forced marriage doctor cannot be abducted from UK, court rules". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Court tells Bangladeshi parents to free daughter". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Forced Marriage Unit Statistics 2017 (PDF). Home Office & Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 16 March 2018. pp. 3, 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2018.
- "New ethnicities among British Bangladeshi and mixed-heritage youth". University of Surrey (Department of Psychology). 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- Peoples of Eastern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. 2004. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7614-7548-4.
- "London 2012: The World in London – visitlondon.com blog". Visitlondon.com. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Spice Hut: the home of naga doner and naga wings". Halalxplorer. 12 August 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
- "Channel S, working for the community". Channel S. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Bangla channel NTV set for return in the UK Archived 20 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine Biz Asia UK (19 July 2008).Spice Business Magazine established since 1998, British curry industry bible Spice Business, a quarterly trade magazine featuring articles in English and Bengali with information on the restaurant sector and community new and a quarterly readership of over 100,000 also includes a section for the Bengali readers. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
- "Brick Lane Movie". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- "Brick Lane Review (DVD)". Future Movies. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- Neil Smith (8 October 2007). "BBC Entertainment". BBC News. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Mario Cacciottolo (31 July 2006). "Brick Lane protestors hurt over 'lies'". BBC News. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Yve Ngoo (21 April 2006) Bangla Dreams: Talking 'bout my gener-Asian BBC Tyne. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Kalia, Ammar (26 February 2020). "TV tonight: an intimate look at life for Britain's Bengali families". The Guardian.
- Eade, John; Fremeaux, Isabelle; Garbin, David (2002). "The Political Construction of Diasporic Communities in the Global City". In Gilbert, Pamela K. (ed.). Imagined Londons. SUNY Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-7914-5501-7.
- Garbin, David. "A diasporic sense of place: Politics of Identity and Locality among Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain". University of Roehampton, London. Archived from the original (DOC) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- "What is Eid-al-Adha". The Telegraph. London. 24 September 2015.
- "Eid Al-Adha" (PDF). TeacherNet (Department for Children, Schools and Families – Crown). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- Eade, John; Fremeaux, Isabelle; Garbin, David (2002). "The Political Construction of Diasporic Communities in the Global City". In Gilbert, Pamela K. (ed.). Imagined Londons. SUNY Press. p. 170–171. ISBN 0-7914-5501-7.
- "Rushanara Ali becomes first Bangladeshi MP". Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "British-Bangladeshis who have made a mark". New Age Xtra. 10–16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- "Profile:Anwar Choudhury". BBC News. 21 May 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- "Tower Hamlets election fraud mayor Lutfur Rahman removed from office". BBC News. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Profile: Dr Muhammad Abdul Bari". BBC News. 5 June 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- "London Assembly Member Murad Qureshi". london.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Afshan Azad IMDb. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Music Video: "One More Dance" by Mumzy Stranger MTV Iggy. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Media troubling Apprentice stars". BBC News. 21 August 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- "British Bengali Success Stories". BritBangla. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
- Yasmin Alibhai- Brown (5 July 1999). "Comment: Cool Britannia II — the Bangladeshis are coming". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
- Beaten up by Bangladeshi officials BBC London. 24 April 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "Rahemur Rahman: Child of the rag trade". Poplar London. December 2021. Archived from the original on 2 January 2023. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
- "Akram Khan's Dance in Limbo – Sky Arts". BSkyB. May 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
- "Lokkhi Terra at Ronnie Scott's". Ronniescotts.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Davies, Serena (10 December 2005). "A cable car named desire". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- Wood, James (19 May 2014). "The World As We Know It: Zia Haider Rahman's dazzling début". The New Yorker. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Asthana, Anushka (5 May 2007). "A true Islamic voice". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Taylor, Rebecca (1 May 2007). "Islamic extremists in the East End". Time Out London. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Miller, Norman (17 September 2003). "Ali's 'refreshingly' simple tale". BBC News. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "Tower Hamlets Council - Committee and Member Services". Sps2ksrv.towerhamlets.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Trehan, Dev (2 September 2019). "Hamza Choudhury can be first British South Asian to play for England, says Michael Chopra". Sky Sports.
- "Uddin is new Sporting Bengal boss". East London Advertiser. London. 8 May 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "Anwar Uddin appointed manager of Sporting Bengal United". Kick It Out. 8 May 2015. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "Anwar Uddin named Sporting Bengal manager". Desiballers. 11 May 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Ahmed, Nizam (30 July 2012). "Bangladesh has contribution in organising London Olympics". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Bangladeshis in east London: from secular politics to Islam". Delwar Hussain – openDemocracy: free thinking for the world. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- Rafique, Ahmed (2012). "Shaheed Minar". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Julian Kossoff (30 August 1998). "East London's Bangladeshi street gangs agree to truce". Independent (The London). Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- Walker, Christopher (6 February 2003). "Blood spilt for sake of honour and territory". Times Online. London. Retrieved 6 February 2003.
- Rosemary Behan (30 August 2005). "Muslims must follow the Irish example". Telegraph. London. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- Shirin Aguiar (21 September 2003). "Focus: 'My gun drives fear into people – once you got money and a gun, you got power' ". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- Paul, Lashmar (21 September 2003). "Focus: Gun Culture: Gun gangs of the capital". The Independent.
- "Surviving Brick Lane – This is London". Evening Standard (by Tasha Kosvinar). Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2003.
- Myska, Sangita (16 January 2007). "Why are British Asians turning to drugs?". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- Walker, Christopher (27 February 2003). "Butchers knives' and samurai swords: 'All cops are targets'". Times Online. London. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- Spinks, Rosie (9 July 2015). "Curry on cooking: how long will the UK's adopted national dish survive?". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Witts, Sophie (24 July 2015). "Chef shortage causing crisis for UK curry restaurants". Big Hospitality. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "British Curry Awards 2008". British Curry Awards. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- "Bangladesh Caterers Association – Curry industry Trade magazine, Spice Business Magazine establish 1999 UK founded by Enam Ali MBE". Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- "Official UK tourism | Places to go in England, Scotland, Wales & NI". Visitbritain.ca. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Brick Lane Food Revival". Time Out London. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- Dan Jones (4 November 2008). "London's best markets". Time Out London. Archived from the original on 7 November 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "Air Sylhet". Air Sylhet PLC. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
- "Millions lost as firm goes bust". BBC News. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- "First Solution's Last Stand". BBC London. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- Howard, Bob (10 November 2007). "Money Box – First Solution". BBC News. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
- "UK's appetite for Prawns is Fed by Brutality Abroad". The Observer. 27 April 2004. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "Seamark Group – History". Seamark. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- Jenni Muir and Charmaine Mok (23 October 2007). "London's best food shops". Time Out Group Ltd. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- "Bangladeshi work visas criticised". BBC News. 5 August 2004. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Curry houses under threat". Newbury Today. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
- "Restaurants in migrants protest". BBC News. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
- "Curry houses closing as new generation turns back on the kitchen". South West Business. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "Curry houses closing as new generation turns back on the kitchen". The Daily Telegraph. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Brexit curries no favour with South Asian chefs in Britain". The National. 23 March 2017.
- Haider, Mahtab; Smith, David (15 October 2006). "The Asian bride who died a lonely death in Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "Migrants fuel luxury home boom in Sylhet". The Daily Star. Agence France-Presse. 11 April 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- Al-mahmood, Syed Zain (28 November 2008). "Bondor Bazar to Brick Lane". Star Weekend Magazine. The Daily Star. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Foster, Peter (2 December 2006). "Britain's Bengalis stage great curry takeaway". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Wage Earners Remittance inflows: Selected Country wise". Bangladesh Bank. 4 April 2020.
- Sylheti is generally viewed as a dialect of Bengali, but is also considered as a distinct language by some others
- Figures excluding Northern Ireland