British Columbia Highway 99

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Highway 99 shield

Highway 99
Vancouver-Blaine Freeway
Fraser Delta Thruway
Sea to Sky Highway
Duffey Lake Road
A map of southwestern British Columbia with Hwy 99 highlighted in red
Route information
Length 377 km[1] (234 mi)
Existed 1942 – present
Major junctions
South end I-5 at Canada–United States border in Surrey
  Hwy 91 in Delta
Hwy 17 in Delta
Hwy 17A in Delta
Hwy 91 in Richmond
Hwy 7 in Vancouver
Hwy 1 (TCH) in West Vancouver
Hwy 12 in Lillooet
North end Hwy 97 near Cache Creek
Location
Districts Delta, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Squamish, Whistler, Lillooet
Major cities Surrey, Richmond, Vancouver
Villages Lions Bay, Pemberton
Highway system

British Columbia provincial highways

Hwy 97DHwy 101

Highway 99, also known as the Fraser Delta Thruway south of Vancouver, and the Sea to Sky Highway, the Squamish Highway, or Whistler Highway north of Vancouver, is the major north–south artery running through the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia from the U.S. border, up Howe Sound through the Sea to Sky Country to Lillooet, and connecting to Highway 97 just north of Cache Creek. The number of this highway is derived from the old U.S. Route 99, with which the highway originally connected. The highway currently connects with Interstate 5 at the international border.

The total length of Highway 99 from the U.S. border to the Highway 97 junction is 409 kilometres (254 mi). In 2006 the UK's The Guardian newspaper listed the Sea to Sky as the fifth best road trip worldwide.[2]

Route description[edit]

South Surrey to Richmond[edit]

Highway 99 in Metro Vancouver, highlighted in red

In the south, Highway 99 begins at the British Columbia – Washington State border crossing at Douglas, on the Canadian side of Peace Arch Park, as a continuation of Interstate 5. The highway begins with a four-lane freeway configuration. Highway 99 travels through Surrey 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) due northwest from the border, through four interchanges, and then turns west for 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) before reaching the junction with Highway 91, marking the highway's entry into the Corporation of Delta. Four km (2½ mi) west, Highway 99 reaches its junction with Ladner Trunk Road (formerly Highway 10). Eight km (5 mi) north, Highway 99 reaches a junction with Highway 17A. Another 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) northwest, Highway 99 crosses into Richmond through the George Massey Tunnel, also known as the Deas Tunnel or Deas Island Tunnel. From Surrey to Delta, the speed limit is 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).

Through Richmond, Highway 99 travels 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north from the Steveston Highway interchange, at the north mouth of the tunnel, to a junction which connects to the Westminster Highway, Knight Street, and western end of Highway 91. Another 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) northwest, the southern freeway section of Highway 99 ends as the highway crosses the North Arm of the Fraser River, over the Oak Street Bridge, into Vancouver.

Vancouver[edit]

Highway 99, looking north (towards Vancouver) from the Steveston Highway overpass, just north of the George Massey Tunnel
The Lions' Gate Bridge carries Highway 99 between Vancouver and North Vancouver.

The 30-kilometre (19 mi) long route through Vancouver's city streets starts off going north on Oak Street to the intersection with West 70th Avenue. Highway 99 then goes west on West 70th Avenue,[i] and then north along Granville Street for 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), 41st Avenue is used as an alternate signed connection between Granville and Oak Streets. It crosses over False Creek (via the Granville Street Bridge) into the downtown core. Highway 99 north goes through the downtown area by way of Seymour Street (southbound it uses Howe Street) and Georgia Street, through Stanley Park, and over the Lions Gate Bridge into West Vancouver at Marine Drive.

Trans-Canada Highway/Upper Levels Highway[edit]

In West Vancouver, Highway 99 goes west on Marine Drive and north on Taylor Way, to Highway 1. Highway 99 shares the Upper Levels Highway with Highway 1 for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west, diverging from Highway 1 near the BC Ferries terminal at Horseshoe Bay.

Sea to Sky Highway and Duffey Lake Road[edit]

Highway 99 north of Squamish

The "Sea to Sky Highway" is the name given to the section of Highway 99 from Horseshoe Bay to Pemberton. From Horseshoe Bay, the highway travels along the coast of Howe Sound. It continues for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to Lions Bay, north for another 21 kilometres (13 mi), crossing into the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District en route to Britannia Beach, and north for 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to Squamish, at the head of Howe Sound. From Squamish, it continues north for another 58 kilometres (36 mi) to Whistler, and then to Pemberton 32 kilometres (20 mi) later, where the Sea-to-Sky Highway ends and Duffey Lake Road begins. After going for almost 100 winding kilometres in very steep mountains where sometimes the speed limit is 30 km/h, (99 km) (62 mi) northeast, Highway 99 reaches the junction with Highway 12 at Lillooet, and then goes northeast for another 75 kilometres (47 mi) to its northern terminus at its junction with Highway 97, just north of Cache Creek and just south of Clinton. The speed limit of the Sea-to-Sky Highway ranges from 80 to 100 kilometres per hour (50 to 62 mph) with 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph) sections in Lions Bay, Britannia Beach and parts of Squamish.

History[edit]

This highway received the "99" designation, matching U.S. Route 99, in 1942 after completion of the King George VI Highway (1940) to the U.S. border. It originally shared an alignment with Highway 1 from Surrey to Vancouver via the Pattullo Bridge and Kingsway.[citation needed] The current freeway alignment of Highway 99 between 8th Avenue in South Surrey and the North Arm of the Fraser River opened in 1962 as Hwy. 99 and was called the Deas (Island) Throughway. Between 1964 and 1973, the freeway alignment of Highway 99 was designated Highway 499. The Oak Street Bridge was built in 1957 to cross the North Arm Fraser River, and the Deas Island Tunnel was built 1957–59 (renamed the George Massey Tunnel in 1967) to cross the Fraser River. Tolls were collected at the crossings until April 1, 1963.[3] A freeway between the tunnel and the American border was later completed in the early 1960s.[4]

In 1957, the northern end of Highway 99 was moved from downtown Vancouver, across the Lions Gate Bridge and west to the village of Horseshoe Bay, following Marine Drive through West Vancouver. Highway 99 was re-aligned via Taylor Way, just east of the Park Royal Shopping Centre, to the Upper Levels Highway and extended to Britannia Beach one year later, extending to Squamish in 1959, and to Pemberton in 1966. Finally, in 1992, the just-paved Duffey Lake Road between Pemberton and Lillooet was made part of Highway 99, and the section of Highway 12 between Lillooet and Highway 97 was re-numbered 99. The portion of the highway between Lillooet and Pavilion was part of the route of the Old Cariboo Road.[citation needed]

Olympics upgrades[edit]

The Sea to Sky Highway section of Highway 99 has a checkered history. Built on a steep cliff overlooking Howe Sound, it was a two-lane undivided highway with no outside barrier. Many motorists have lost their lives on it due to inclement weather, poor visibility, speeding, passing slower vehicles, or drunk driving.[citation needed]

As part of the 2010 Winter Olympics bid, the British Columbia provincial government authorized an upgrade of the highway to accommodate greater traffic loads, widening the highway and adding a concrete divider. Starting in 2002 a large section was upgraded between Squamish and Whistler that had already seen major improvements during the 1980s. The Sea to Sky is a freeway from the interchange with Highway 1 to the at-grade intersection with Lawrence Way. After that, there are sporadic interchanges and at-grade intersections. It is mostly a divided highway all the way to Lions Bay and through Squamish.[citation needed]

On-site protests delayed part of the construction. Protesters claimed that a tunnel under Eagleridge Bluffs was a safer and environmentally friendlier alternative. A court injunction and police were used to remove the protestors, one of whom, Harriet Nahanee, a respected Squamish elder, died soon after in the Surrey Pre-Trial Centre from health complications alleged to be related to her arrest and incarceration.[5][6]

Major intersections[edit]

From south to north:

Regional districtLocationkm[7][1]miExit[8]DestinationsNotes
Metro VancouverSurrey0.000.00 I-5 south – Bellingham, SeattleContinues into Washington
Canada – United States border at Peace Arch Border Crossing
South end of Vancouver-Blaine Freeway and Fraser-Delta Thruway
0.600.371Beach RoadAt-grade intersection
1.600.992 8th Avenue (Hwy 914:3186 east) to Hwy 1 / Hwy 15 / SR 543 – USA Border, Pacific X-ing, White Rock, HopeSigned as exits 2A (east) and 2B (west) southbound; former Hwy 99A north; Hwy 914:3186 is unsigned
3.412.12416th Avenue
7.274.528A152nd Street southSouthbound exit only
7.664.768B32nd Avenue, 152nd Street northSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
9.635.9810King George Boulevard – Surrey City CentreNo access to Hwy 99 southbound from King George northbound; former Hwy 99A King George BLVD heads into Surrey Newton, city centre, and North Surrey and then crosses Patullo Bridge into New Westminster.
Delta15.569.6716 Hwy 91 north – North Delta, New WestminsterMarks official entry into Delta. Hwy 91 into North Delta and New Westminister. Alt route for Richmond, YVR, Burnaby and Vancouver. Access to Hwy 17 east to hwy 1.
20.3612.6520Ladner Trunk Road – South DeltaNorthbound access to Boundary Bay Airport; former Hwy 10
23.6114.672380th StreetSouthbound exit only; access to Boundary Bay Airport
25.3715.7626 Hwy 17 (South Fraser Perimeter Road) to Hwy 1 east – Tsawwassen, Victoria, Nanaimo, HopeHwy 17 exit 13; no direct access from Hwy 99 north to Hwy 17 east; Victoria and Nanaimo are via BC Ferries
27.8617.3128 Hwy 17A south / River Road – Ladner
28.6017.7729River Road southSouthbound exit only
↑ / ↓29.55–
30.41
18.36–
18.90
George Massey Tunnel under the South Arm Fraser River
Richmond31.5919.6332Steveston Highway
35.6822.1736Westminster HighwayNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
36.7122.8137 Hwy 91 east – North Delta, SurreyNo access to Alderbridge Way
37.3323.2038Shell RoadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
38.3123.8039BNo. 4 RoadSouthbound exit only
38.9124.1839A Sea Island Way (Hwy 911:2923 east) – Airport (YVR)No northbound exit; Hwy 911:2923 is unsigned
39 Bridgeport Road – Airport (YVR)Northbound exit and entrance
↑ / ↓38.91–
40.69
24.18–
25.28
Oak Street Bridge over the North Arm Fraser River
Vancouver40.6925.2841Marine DriveSigned as 41A (Marine Drive east) and 41B (Marine Drive west) northbound; no exit number southbound
North end of freeway • North end of Vancouver-Blaine Freeway and Fraser-Delta Thruway
40.8625.3970th Avenue[i]
Oak Street
Hwy 99 branches west onto 70th Avenue (officially); left turns prohibited; Hwy 99 north signed to 41st Avenue
South end of City of Vancouver jurisdiction
41.625.8Granville Street
Marine Drive
Hwy 99 branches north onto Granville Street
43.727.249th Avenue
44.527.741st Avenue[ii]Signed Hwy 99 north connection between Oak Street and Granville Street
46.128.6King Edward Avenue
47.429.512th Avenue
47.729.6 Broadway (Hwy 7 east)
48.230.04th Avenue, Fir Street southHwy 99 turns northeast
Interchange; 4th Avenue is southbound exit and northbound entrance; Fir Street is southbound exit only
48.2–
49.1
30.0–
30.5
Granville Street Bridge over False Creek
49.130.5Seymour Street, Howe Street
Granville Street
One-way transition; northbound Hwy 99 follows Seymour Street, southbound Hwy 99 followes Howe Street; left exit to Granville Street
49.931.0Nelson StreetOne-way, southeast-bound; provides access to the Cambie Bridge
50.131.1Smithe StreetOne-way, northwest-bound; provides access from the Cambie Bridge
50.331.3Robson Street
50.431.3Georgia Street
Seymour Street, Howe Street
Former Hwy 1A / Hwy 99A; Hwy 99 branches northwest; south end of former Hwy 1A concurrency
50.831.6Burrard StreetProvides access to the Burrard Bridge
52.4032.56North end of City of Vancouver jurisdiction
52.7132.75North Lagoon DriveInterchange; no southbound exit
54.3833.79Stanley Park DriveClosed during peak hours; no southbound entrance
↑ / ↓54.70–
56.23
33.99–
34.94
Lions Gate Bridge over Burrard Inlet
North Vancouver (district)56.5235.12 Marine Drive, Capilano Road to Hwy 1 (TCH)Interchange; Hwy 99 branches west onto Marine Drive
↑ / ↓56.6835.22Capilano Bridge over the Capilano River
West Vancouver56.9135.36Taylor Way
Marine Drive
Hwy 99 branches north onto Taylor Way
58.0936.1013 Hwy 1 (TCH) east – North Vancouver (city), Vancouver
Taylor Way
Interchange; Hwy 99 branches west; north end of former Hwy 1A concurrency; south end of BC 1 concurrency
Hwy 99 exits freeway using Exit 13 • South end of freeway
59.7237.111115th Street, Cross Creek Road
60.6337.671021st Street, Westhill DriveNo southbound exit
61.2838.081022nd StreetSouthbound exit only
62.7238.978Cypress Bowl Road
64.2939.957Wentworth Avenue, Westmount Road
66.9641.614Woodgreen Drive, Headland Drive
68.7642.733 Hwy 1 (TCH) west to Hwy 101 – Horseshoe Bay, Nanaimo, GibsonsEagle Ridge Interchange; northbound exit, southbound entrance
North end of Hwy 1 concurrency; Hwy 101, Nanaimo and Gibsons are via BC Ferries; Hwy 99 turns north
South end of Sea to Sky Highway
69.3743.102Eagleridge Drive, Marine Drive to Hwy 911:2924 northNorthbound exit and southbound entrance; Hwy 911:2924 is unsigned
72.5745.09Horseshoe Bay Drive (Hwy 911:2924 south) to Marine DriveSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; Hwy 911:2924 is unsigned
73.9945.98Seascape Drive, Ansell PlaceU-turn route
North end of freeway
74.6746.40Lawrence WayAt-grade intersection; no northbound entrance
76.4847.52Strachan Point RoadSouthbound right-in and right-out
77.6348.24Ocean Point Drive to Strachan Point RoadSeagull intersection
Lions Bay80.5050.02Kelvin Grove WayInterchange
81.1550.42Lions Bay AvenueInterchange
83.0751.62Brunswick RoadInterchange
Squamish-Lillooet92.2257.30Porteau RoadInterchange; U-turn route
96.4259.91Furry Creek DriveNorthbound right-in/right-out
97.9560.86Furry Creek DriveSouthbound right-in/right-out
Britannia Beach102.2863.55Copper Drive
Squamish113.6770.63Cleveland Avenue, Loggers LaneCleaveland Avenue provides access to Downtown Squamish
116.5572.42Centennial WayInterchange
121.0075.19Depot Road – Brackendale
123.4876.73Squamish Valley Road, Alice Lake Road – Paradise ValleyAlice Lake Road serves Alice Lake Provincial Park
154.5596.03Brandywine Falls Provincial Park
157.7998.05Callaghan Valley Road – Whistler Olympic Park, Callaghan Lake Provincial Park
Whistler166.46103.43Alta Lake Road
167.68104.19Lake Placid RoadProvides access to Creekside Village
171.73106.71Village Gate RoadProvides access to Whistler Village
172.36107.10Lormier RoadProvides access to Upper Village
Pemberton203.56126.49Pemberton Meadows Road, Vine Road
North end of Sea to Sky Highway • South end of Duffey Lake Road
Mount Currie210.50130.80Pemberton Portage Road – D'ArcyHwy 99 branches northeast
Lillooet301.07187.08Seton Lake Road (Hwy 40 west) – Gold BridgeHwy 99 branches east; unofficial Hwy 40 is unsigned
301.58187.39Bridge of the Twenty-Three Camels over the Fraser River
302.31187.85 Hwy 12 south – Lytton, HopeHwy 99 branches north
North end of Duffey Lake Road
377.04234.28 Hwy 97 – Prince George, 100 Mile House, Cache Creek, Kamloops
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b A left turn from Oak Street onto 70th Avenue is not permitted, but a right turn from 70th Avenue onto Oak Street is permitted.
  2. ^ Alternate route of Hwy 99 (unofficial).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Google (January 3, 2017). "Highway 99 in British Columbia" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
  2. ^ "Five Best...Road Trips". The Guardian. London. 1 April 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  3. ^ "The Sun - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  4. ^ "$23,000,000 Fraser River Tunnel to Be Dedicated". The Seattle Times. July 14, 1959. p. 2.
  5. ^ "First Nations elder Harriet Nahanee (1935 - 2007)". Institute for the History of Science. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
  6. ^ Harriet Nahanee Did Not Die in Vain, Rafe Mair, The Tyee, March 5, 2007
  7. ^ Landmark Kilometre Inventory (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (Report). Cypher Consulting. July 2016. pp. 12–14, 515–537.
  8. ^ "Highway Exits & Landmarks". Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Province of British Columbia. Retrieved January 3, 2017.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata