2018 British Columbia electoral reform referendum

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British Columbia electoral reform referendum
Which system should British Columbia use for provincial elections?
LocationBritish Columbia, Canada
DateOctober 22, 2018 (2018-10-22) – December 7, 2018 (2018-12-07)
Results by electoral district
British Columbia Electoral Reform Referendum 2018 - Question 1 Results by Riding.svg
Question 1 results by electoral district (green: FPTP; red: PR)
Results
The current First Past the Post voting system
61.3%
A proportional representation voting system
38.7%

A referendum on electoral reform took place by mail-in ballot between October 22 and December 7, 2018, in the Canadian province of British Columbia. This was British Columbia's third referendum on electoral reform since 2005.

Voters were asked two questions: first, what electoral system should be used to determine election results—the existing first-past-the-post (FPTP) system or a proportional representation (PR) system; and second, what type of proportional voting system should be used if PR is chosen. In the second question, voters were asked to rank three proportional representation voting systems: dual-member proportional representation, mixed-member proportional representation, and rural–urban proportional representation.

The referendum fulfilled an election commitment by the British Columbia New Democratic Party (NDP) during the 2017 election. Their platform promised a referendum and that the government would actively campaign for electoral reform.

Results were released by Elections BC on December 20, 2018. British Columbians voted in favour of maintaining the first-past-the-post voting system rather than switching to a proportional representation voting system.

Background[edit]

BC has a long history of changing its electoral system. For BC's first election in 1871, the majority of ridings were elected using an "at large" system. This is the way city councillors are elected in BC to this day: a voter gets as many votes as there were people to be elected in the riding.[1]

Over its history, BC modified its electoral system at least 15 times without a referendum.[1] It previously used an alternative voting system in the 1952 provincial election before abolishing it and reestablishing the previous mix of "at large" and first-past-the-post.[2]:81-82[3] The first BC election done entirely under first-past-the-post came in 1991, when the last of "at-large" voting districts were abolished.[2]:76[4]

Previous referendums[edit]

Before the 2001 provincial election, the BC Liberal Party committed to appoint a Citizens' Assembly to investigate electoral reform, hold consultations, and prepare a report recommending whether a different electoral system should be adopted.[5] The commitment was driven in part by the anomalous provincial election result in 1996, in which the BC New Democratic Party won reelection as a majority government with 39.5% of the vote and 39 seats, despite gaining a 3% smaller share of the popular vote than the Liberals at 41.8%, which translated into 33 Liberal seats.[2]:90-91 In December 2004, the Assembly released its report recommending that the province adopt BC-STV, a BC-specific variant of the single transferable vote (STV) system.[5] On May 17, 2005, a referendum was held in conjunction with the 2005 general election, in which voters were asked whether the province should adopt the recommendation of the Assembly to replace the first-past-the-post electoral system with BC-STV, or maintain the current system. While 57.7% of the electorate voted in favour of BC-STV, including a majority of voters in 77 of 79 ridings, its support failed to reach the 60% threshold set by the government and it was not adopted.[6]

Following the 2005 referendum, British Columbia held a second referendum on electoral reform in conjunction with the provincial election on May 12, 2009. It was the most recent referendum on electoral reform that has been held in British Columbia. As in 2005, voters in 2009 were asked to provide their opinions on the BC-STV electoral system proposed by the British Columbia Citizen's Assembly on Electoral Reform to ensure more proportional representation in the provincial Legislative Assembly. British Columbians were asked which electoral system should be used to elect legislators: the existing first-past-the-post electoral system or the proposed BC-STV system.

The adoption of BC-STV in the 2009 referendum was defeated, with 60.9% voting against the reform and 39.09% of voters supporting the change.[7]

Intervening federal developments[edit]

During the 2015 federal election, Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party of Canada campaigned on the promise that it would be the last federal election under the first-past-the-post electoral system. The party's platform stated that a Liberal government would form an all-party Parliamentary committee, and introduce legislation within 18 months enacting electoral reform.[8][9] On December 1, 2016, the House of Commons of Canada Special Committee on Electoral Reform released its report recommending Canada hold a referendum to adopt a proportional representation voting system for federal elections.[10] Several months later, the government announced that it was no longer pursuing electoral reform.[11][12]

Origin of third referendum[edit]

During the 2017 provincial election, both the NDP and the Green Party campaigned for PR and included the policy in their election platforms.[13][14][15] On May 29, 2017, approximately three weeks after the election resulted in a BC Liberal minority government, the NDP and Green caucuses signed a supply and confidence agreement.[16] The agreement included a section on PR, in which the parties agreed to put the issue to a referendum and that both parties would actively campaign for PR in the referendum.[17][18] On June 22, 2017, the Liberal government tabled its throne speech, adopting the opposition parties' policy to hold a third referendum on electoral reform.[19][20] On June 29, 2017, the BC Liberal government was defeated in a confidence vote. Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon then invited the NDP to form a minority government with Green support.[21] On November 30, 2017, the Electoral Reform Referendum 2018 Act was passed into law.[22] It required the referendum to be held and authorized Cabinet to make various regulations.[23]

Consultation and implementation[edit]

Between November 2017 and February 2018, Attorney General David Eby conducted a public consultation entitled "How We Vote".[24] On May 30, 2018, he released the report on the consultation and recommendations concerning how the referendum process should be conducted.[25][26][27] Cabinet accepted the recommendations shortly thereafter, in early June.[28][29] Later in June, Vote PR BC launched their campaign for proportional representation, canvassing in cities across the province.[30][31]

Elections BC reviewed the referendum questions in June. On June 18, Chief Electoral Officer Anton Boegman wrote to the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly advising that in his view both questions were simple and clear enough for voters to understand. He also made recommendations for small changes to the questions.[32][33] On June 22, 2018, the government released the regulations governing the referendum.[34] The regulations adopted the changes to the question proposed by the Chief Electoral Officer, and set down other rules governing the campaign.[35][36]

ICBA lawsuit[edit]

On June 28, 2018, the Independent Contractors and Business Association (ICBA)—a lobby group for the construction industry— filed a lawsuit seeking an injunction to stop the referendum, or alternatively, to strike down the campaign financing rules governing the referendum.[37][38] The lawsuit contains various complaints about the process, the referendum, and the systems on the ballot.[38] In response, NDP MLA Bob D'Eith called the lawsuit an attempt to stop people from having a choice in their electoral system, and said ICBA does not want "ordinary people to have a stronger voice in the elections and I think they're desperate to hang on to the status quo".[39] The Ministry of the Attorney General is defending the legislation in court.[40] The official campaign began July 1, 2018.[34]

On July 17, 2018, ICBA's court application for an early trial date was dismissed by Justice Miriam Gropper of the British Columbia Supreme Court, in order to allow the government time to respond. Following the hearing, ICBA's lawyer, Peter Gall, told reporters ICBA would be seeking an interim injunction.[41]

On July 24, ICBA filed an application seeking an interim injunction to halt campaign financing rules and prevent ballots from being counted. The application was heard by Justice Gropper on August 7. In her decision handed down several weeks later, she dismissed the application calling ICBA's allegations about the referendum "rhetoric", "conjecture" and "exaggeration".[42][43][44] In mid-September, the ICBA announced that they will be seeking leave to appeal Justice Gropper's ruling on the interim injunction.[45] That same month, the British Columbia Government and Service Employees' Union was granted intervenor status by the court, siding against the ICBA.[46]

The appeal of Justice Gropper's judgement concerning the interim injunction was heard on November 2. Justice Fitch of the British Columbia Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal, finding that there was no merit to the ICBA's argument.[47][48]

Ballot structure and details[edit]

Voters were asked two questions in the referendum. The first revolved around what electoral system should be used to determine election results: the existing first-past-the-post system or a proportional representation system. The second question explored what type of proportional voting system should be used if PR is chosen. This involved voters ranking three proportional representation voting systems: dual-member proportional representation, mixed-member proportional representation, and rural–urban proportional representation.[9][49][50]

  • Question 1: Which system should British Columbia use for provincial elections? (Vote for only one.)
    • The current First Past the Post voting system
    • A proportional representation voting system
  • Question 2: If British Columbia adopts a proportional representation voting system, which of the following voting systems do you prefer? (Rank in order of preference. You may choose to support one, two or all three of the systems.)
    • Dual-member proportional (DMP)
    • Mixed-member proportional (MMP)
    • Rural–urban proportional (RUP)

Proportional voting systems on the ballot[edit]

The referendum asked voters to rank three proportional representation voting systems in order of preference: Voters ranked one, two, or all three systems.[25]

Dual-member proportional (DMP)[edit]

Dual-member proportional is an electoral system designed to produce proportional election results across a region by electing two representatives in each of the region's districts.[51][52] The first seat in every district is awarded to the candidate who receives the most votes, similar to first-past-the-post voting. The second seat is awarded to one of the remaining district candidates so that proportionality is achieved across the region, using a calculation that aims to award parties their seats in the districts where they had their strongest performances.[53]

DMP was invented in 2013 by a University of Alberta mathematics student named Sean Graham.[54] The system was intended as a possible replacement for first-past-the-post voting in Canadian national and provincial elections. Whereas campaigns to adopt MMP representation or the single transferable vote had recently been defeated in a number of Canadian provinces (such as the 2005 and 2009 British Columbia referendums, the 2005 Prince Edward Island referendum, and the 2007 Ontario referendum), the intent behind DMP was to gain broader acceptance by retaining salient features of first-past-the-post voting. These features include a one-vote ballot, relatively small districts (compared with STV), and a single tier of local representatives (in contrast to MMP).[55]

Mixed-member proportional[edit]

Mixed-member proportional is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by candidates in local ridings, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received.[56]

In 2004, MMP was recommended by the Law Commission of Canada to be adopted for federal elections.[57][58] In 2007, Ontario held a provincial referendum to adopt the system, which failed to pass.[58] In 2016, Prince Edward Island (PEI) voted to adopt MMP in a non-binding referendum.[59] PEI will hold another referendum on the issue during the next provincial election.[60]

A form of MMP is used for national elections in New Zealand and Germany, and in the United Kingdom for elections to the devolved parliaments of Scotland and Wales (where the system is referred to as the Additional Member System).[61][62]

Rural–urban proportional (RUP)[edit]

Simplified example of an STV ranked ballot used in an urban or semi-urban area under rural–urban proportional (RUP). RUP is the only system that lets voters rank individual candidates in order of preference.

Rural–urban proportional is a hybrid-proportional system designed by Fair Vote Canada to meet the challenges of Canada's geography.[63][10] As put forward for the BC referendum, it would use mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) in rural areas and the single transferable vote (STV) in urban and semi-urban areas.[50][64][65] Sweden, Denmark and Iceland use voting models with similar hybrid approaches. In Canada from the 1920s to the 1950s, the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba used a hybrid rural–urban system where STV was used in large cities and the alternative vote was used in single-member rural districts.[2]:81-82[63][66]

The hybrid approach taken by rural–urban proportional reflects lessons learned from previous attempts to pass electoral reform.[67] A major advantage of rural–urban proportional as designed is that it requires creating far fewer top-up seats to achieve proportionality than MMP. Under rural–urban PR, no more than 10–15% of seats – versus 40% of seats under MMP – would need to be set aside as top-up seats to achieve proportionality, because the results from the urban and semi-urban areas would already be proportional owing to their voting having been conducted using STV.

For rural areas, rural–urban proportional is advantageous because existing first-past-the-post rural ridings need to grow only 15% larger to facilitate extra regional top-up seats under it, compared to 67% larger if MMP was chosen or double in size if DMP was chosen.[63]

RUP is the only PR system of the three that lets voters rank individual candidates in order by preference. The use of STV ranked ballots means that all candidates must compete with one another for a voter's coveted first place ranking, including candidates running for the same party. Voters can rank long-shot independent candidates or candidates from unpopular parties first without fear of wasting their vote, because votes for badly performing candidates will be transferred during counting—based on each voter's preferences—to candidates who have yet to be eliminated, until all seats are won.

In its scorecard of proportional voting systems, Fair Voting BC gave rural–urban proportional its highest ranking.[68] During the Canadian government's 2016 consultation on electoral reform at the federal level,[10] both the New Democratic Party of Canada and Green Party of Canada recommended Canada adopt either RUP or MMP.[69]

Campaign[edit]

The official campaign began July 1, 2018.[34] Groups had until July 6 to apply to Elections BC to be named the official proponent or opponent groups and receive $500,000 in public funding.[70] On July 12, Elections BC announced that Vote PR BC would be the official proponent group and No BC Proportional Representation Society would be the official opponent group.[71][72] Other individuals, groups and political parties are permitted to register as referendum advertisers with Elections BC, but are not eligible for public funds.[34]

The NDP and Green Party are campaigning for proportional representation. Sonia Furstenau, a Green MLA, held town halls about electoral reform in cities across the province in July and August.[73][74][75] BC Premier John Horgan launched the NDP's referendum campaign in early September, saying "Proportional representation means exactly what it says. Whatever proportion, or share, of the vote a party wins, they get that many seats in government."[76] Andrew Wilkinson, BC Liberal leader, is opposing the referendum and a change to a proportional representation system.[77]

Elections BC mailed a referendum information card to every household in the province between September 10 and 28, and a voter's guide between October 15 and 26.[78][79] Voters receive their referendum voting package in the mail between October 22 and November 2.[79] In early September, the members of the Canadian Union of Postal Workers voted in favour of job action. The strike resulted in Elections BC extending the voting deadline by a week.[80]

In early November, Horgan announced that he had cast his ballot for proportional representation, and that his first choice was MMP.[81] Vote PR BC, the official proponent group, flew Andrew Coyne to Vancouver to give a talk endorsing PR, where Coyne announced he supports Rural–Urban Proportional.[82][83]

Debate[edit]

In late September, Andrew Wilkinson challenged John Horgan to a debate concerning the referendum, a challenge which Horgan accepted. The debate took place on November 8 at 7:00 pm. It was broadcast on CBC News and Global News.[84]

Official campaign organizations[edit]

Official campaign organizations include the official proponent and opponent groups along with referendum advertising sponsors.[85]

Official proponent and opponent groups[edit]

  • Proponent: Vote PR BC
  • Opponent: No BC Proportional Representation Society

Referendum advertising sponsors[edit]

Voting period extension[edit]

On November 23, 2018, due to a postal strike, Elections BC extended the voting period deadline by a week – from November 30, 2018, to December 7, 2018.[80] The deadline to register to vote remained midnight on November 23, 2018. Voters who were sent a voting package but did not receive it, or who need a replacement voting package, could request a replacement package up to December 7. All ballots must have been received by Elections BC by 4:30 pm on December 7.[86] In response to a question from a constituent on Twitter, Elections BC clarified that ballots received by Elections BC's Referendum Service Offices or Service BC Centres up to and including 4:30 pm on December 7, 2018, but which had not been physically transferred to Elections BC's counting centre, would be accepted and counted as valid ballots.[87]

Post-referendum plans[edit]

The government had plans for the required next steps had proportional representation passed. However, as it did not pass, the government will not implement any of these steps. Had a proportional system been adopted, the independent BC Electoral Boundaries Commission would have determined the number and location of new electoral districts. A legislative committee would have been tasked with determining whether the number of members of the Legislative Assembly should increase, and if so by how many (to a maximum of an additional eight). Some other aspects of how the new system would have worked would have also needed to be determined by a legislative committee.[88]

If a form of proportional representation had been adopted, the government had also committed to holding a further confirming referendum after two general elections.[25][28] Voters in that future referendum would have had the option of maintaining the form of proportional representation adopted or switching back to the first-past-the-post electoral system.[26][89] On October 2, 2018, the government introduced legislation to enact the requirement for this second referendum into law. If a change from the first-past-the-post system had been adopted in 2018, the bill would have required a second referendum on electoral reform to occur within 13 months of the second provincial general election held under the chosen proportional representation voting system (no later than November 30, 2026). As voters decided to keep the existing first-past-the-post system, this second referendum will not take place.[90][91]

Opinion polls[edit]

Question 1[edit]

Referendum-style binary question
Question: "Based on what you know, please indicate which of these two broad options you prefer for BC"

Polling firm Last date of polling A new system of proportional representation The current first past the post system Ref.
Angus Reid June 20, 2017 59% 41% [92]
Angus Reid Sept 26, 2017 65% 35% [93]
Angus Reid December 31, 2017 57% 43% [94]
Angus Reid May 9, 2018 57% 43% [95]
Angus Reid September 17, 2018 57% 43% [96][97]
Mainstreet November 8, 2018 49.5% 50.5% [98]

Multiple choice question allowing undecideds and opt-outs (options 3–5 will not be present on ballot)
Question: "Based on how you feel right now, if you were to receive a voting package, which way would you vote on the first question?"

Polling firm Last date of polling The current First Past the Post voting system A proportional representation voting system Undecided / Not sure Would not vote on this particular question Would ignore the voting package altogether Ref.
Angus Reid September 18, 2018 31% 33% 33% 1% 2% [99][100]
Google Survey November 6, 2018 19.7% 19.8% 43.5% n/a 17.1 [101]

Question 2[edit]

Polling firm Last date of polling Mixed-Member Proportional Rural–Urban Proportional Dual Member Proportional Notes Ref.
Angus Reid September 28, 2018 49% 26% 24% Percentage breakdown shows preference among decided voters; 54% of people polled report being undecided on which system to choose. [102]
Mainstreet Research November 8, 2018 44.8% 38.2% 17% RUP has large lead in interior BC. MMP and RUP tied on Vancouver Island. MMP leading in Metro Vancouver. [98]

Results[edit]

On December 20, 2018, Elections BC announced that 61.3% of ballots were cast to maintain the First Past the Post voting system.[103][104][105][106][107]

A total of 1,391,423 ballots were considered. There were 1,378,753 valid votes for Question 1, and 831,760 valid votes for Question 2. 2,461 ballots were rejected.[103][104]

Question 1[edit]

The current First Past the Post voting system received a majority of votes with 61.30% (845,235) of the valid votes for Question 1.[103][104]

Question 1: Which system should British Columbia use for provincial elections?

System Votes %
The current First Past the Post voting system 845,235 61.30%
A proportional representation voting system 533,518 38.70%
Total valid votes 1,378,753 100.0%
Invalid votes 10,209
Rejected ballots 2,461
Total ballots 1,391,423

Question 2[edit]

Per the Electoral Reform Referendum 2018 Regulation, a second round of counting was required for Question 2 because no system won a majority of first preferences. RUP had the fewest first preferences, so it was eliminated and its votes were transferred to their second preferences.[103][104] After the second round, the mixed-member proportional voting system was the system with the most support on Question 2.[103][104]

Question 2: If British Columbia adopts a proportional representation voting system, which of the following voting systems do you prefer?

Round 1 Round 2
System Votes % Transfers Votes %
Dual-Member Proportional (DMP) 244,973 29.45% +43,095 288,068 36.95%
Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP) 343,038 41.24% +148,592 491,630 63.05%
Rural–Urban Proportional (RUP) 243,749 29.31% -243,749
Total continuing ballots 831,760 100.00% -52,062 779,698 100.00%
Exhausted ballots 52,062
Total valid votes 831,760 831,760
Invalid votes 557,202 557,202
Rejected ballots 2,461 2,461
Total ballots considered 1,391,423 1,391,423

By Riding[edit]

Voting results by electoral district[108]
Riding Question 1 Question 2 - Round 1 votes (first preferences) Question 2 - Round 2 votes (after second-preference transfers)
FPTP votes FPTP % PR votes PR % Total valid votes Invalid votes DMP votes DMP % MMP votes MMP % RUP votes RUP % Total valid votes Invalid votes DMP votes DMP % MMP votes MMP % Continuing ballots Exhausted ballots
Abbotsford-Mission ABM 13,329 73.75 4,743 26.25 18,072 94 3,141 32.96 3,701 38.84 2,687 28.20 9,529 8,637 3,667 41.62 5,144 58.38 8,811 718
Abbotsford South ABS 11,476 76.80 3,467 23.20 14,943 118 2,515 33.54 2,886 38.49 2,098 27.98 7,499 7,562 2,853 41.47 4,026 58.53 6,879 620
Abbotsford West ABW 11,102 79.29 2,899 20.71 14,001 114 2,272 36.68 2,295 37.05 1,627 26.27 6,194 7,921 2,588 44.88 3,178 55.12 5,766 428
Boundary-Similkameen BDS 10,838 68.68 4,943 31.32 15,781 183 2,459 27.96 2,962 33.67 3,375 38.37 8,796 7,168 3,032 38.84 4,774 61.16 7,806 990
Burnaby-Deer Lake BND 7,821 62.59 4,675 37.41 12,496 94 2,628 33.96 3,413 44.11 1,697 21.93 7,738 4,852 2,966 39.89 4,470 60.11 7,436 302
Burnaby-Edmonds BNE 7,724 60.35 5,075 39.65 12,799 103 2,841 33.75 3,713 44.10 1,865 22.15 8,419 4,483 3,201 39.34 4,936 60.66 8,137 282
Burnaby-Lougheed BNL 8,648 57.89 6,291 42.11 14,939 109 3,025 31.22 4,239 43.75 2,425 25.03 9,689 5,359 3,495 37.48 5,831 62.52 9,326 363
Burnaby North BNN 9,364 59.77 6,304 40.23 15,668 140 3,256 32.61 4,308 43.14 2,422 24.25 9,986 5,822 3,731 38.73 5,902 61.27 9,633 353
Cariboo-Chilcotin CBC 8,002 76.48 2,461 23.52 10,463 82 1,353 26.20 1,607 31.12 2,204 42.68 5,164 5,381 1,712 38.37 2,750 61.63 4,462 702
Cariboo North CBN 6,456 75.23 2,126 24.77 8,582 90 1,217 26.90 1,376 30.42 1,931 42.68 4,524 4,148 1,555 39.79 2,353 60.21 3,908 616
Chilliwack CHC 9,908 74.55 3,383 25.45 13,291 102 2,377 34.71 2,468 36.04 2,003 29.25 6,848 6,545 2,691 42.88 3,585 57.12 6,276 572
Chilliwack-Kent CHK 12,576 74.98 4,197 25.02 16,773 87 2,923 33.37 3,254 37.15 2,583 29.49 8,760 8,100 3,390 41.96 4,690 58.04 8,080 680
Columbia River-Revelstoke CLR 6,052 57.13 4,541 42.87 10,593 87 1,644 24.39 2,476 36.74 2,620 38.87 6,740 3,940 2,073 34.04 4,017 65.96 6,090 650
Coquitlam-Burke Mountain CQB 10,257 65.67 5,363 34.33 15,620 99 3,234 34.18 4,224 44.64 2,005 21.19 9,463 6,256 3,649 39.99 5,475 60.01 9,124 339
Coquitlam-Maillardville CQM 9,135 63.24 5,310 36.76 14,445 111 3,050 34.05 3,926 43.83 1,981 22.12 8,957 5,599 3,413 39.77 5,168 60.23 8,581 376
Courtenay-Comox CRC 12,607 55.16 10,249 44.84 22,856 156 3,900 27.08 5,440 37.77 5,064 35.16 14,404 8,608 4,707 35.53 8,542 64.47 13,249 1,155
Cowichan Valley CWV 11,175 52.82 9,982 47.18 21,157 172 3,844 28.11 5,521 40.38 4,308 31.51 13,673 7,656 4,607 36.24 8,106 63.76 12,713 960
Delta North DLN 9,923 69.71 4,312 30.29 14,235 81 2,679 33.18 3,599 44.57 1,797 22.25 8,075 6,241 3,040 39.37 4,682 60.63 7,722 353
Delta South DLS 12,765 70.58 5,320 29.42 18,085 106 3,166 32.67 4,089 42.19 2,436 25.14 9,691 8,500 3,574 39.03 5,584 60.97 9,158 533
Esquimalt-Metchosin ESM 8,772 47.30 9,773 52.70 18,545 130 3,576 27.80 5,603 43.56 3,683 28.63 12,862 5,813 4,214 34.60 7,965 65.40 12,179 683
Fraser-Nicola FRN 7,259 73.94 2,558 26.06 9,817 90 1,447 28.88 1,536 30.65 2,028 40.47 5,011 4,896 1,805 41.38 2,557 58.62 4,362 649
Kamloops-North Thompson KAN 11,814 68.73 5,375 31.27 17,189 149 3,014 31.44 3,392 35.38 3,182 33.19 9,588 7,750 3,530 40.68 5,148 59.32 8,678 910
Kamloops-South Thompson KAS 13,921 66.02 7,166 33.98 21,087 111 3,217 27.88 4,636 40.17 3,687 31.95 11,540 9,658 3,879 36.40 6,778 63.60 10,657 883
Kelowna-Lake Country KLA 14,254 71.04 5,812 28.96 20,066 138 3,533 32.38 4,370 40.05 3,007 27.56 10,910 9,294 4,093 40.27 6,070 59.73 10,163 747
Kelowna-Mission KLM 14,827 70.52 6,199 29.48 21,026 162 3,578 32.92 4,478 41.20 2,813 25.88 10,869 10,319 4,074 40.16 6,071 59.84 10,145 724
Kelowna West KLW 14,355 69.96 6,164 30.04 20,519 186 3,493 32.42 4,427 41.09 2,855 26.50 10,775 9,930 3,998 39.38 6,154 60.62 10,152 623
Kootenay East KOE 9,023 71.80 3,544 28.20 12,567 111 1,769 28.00 2,274 36.00 2,274 36.00 6,317 6,361 2,158 38.01 3,519 61.99 5,677 640
Kootenay West KOW 6,656 48.74 7,000 51.26 13,656 132 2,312 24.18 3,289 34.40 3,960 41.42 9,561 4,227 2,933 33.81 5,743 66.19 8,676 885
Langford-Juan de Fuca LJF 8,960 49.14 9,274 50.86 18,234 140 3,531 27.82 5,548 43.71 3,614 28.47 12,693 5,681 4,176 34.79 7,827 65.21 12,003 690
Langley LLY 11,685 72.29 4,478 27.71 16,163 131 3,171 35.16 3,493 38.73 2,355 26.11 9,019 7,275 3,584 42.29 4,890 57.71 8,474 545
Langley East LYE 15,777 73.55 5,675 26.45 21,452 118 3,603 31.34 4,912 42.72 2,983 25.94 11,498 10,072 4,152 38.93 6,512 61.07 10,664 834
Maple Ridge-Mission MAM 11,321 68.57 5,188 31.43 16,509 141 3,263 33.70 3,782 39.06 2,638 27.24 9,683 6,967 3,790 41.67 5,305 58.33 9,095 588
Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows MAP 11,564 68.30 5,367 31.70 16,931 138 3,405 34.07 4,026 40.29 2,562 25.64 9,993 7,076 3,882 41.22 5,536 58.78 9,418 575
Mid Island-Pacific Rim MPR 9,581 51.57 8,999 48.43 18,580 193 3,166 25.74 4,524 36.77 4,612 37.49 12,302 6,471 3,944 35.12 7,286 64.88 11,230 1,072
Nanaimo NAN 10,785 54.09 9,153 45.91 19,938 205 3,793 29.56 5,532 43.12 3,505 27.32 12,830 7,313 4,420 36.29 7,759 63.71 12,179 651
Nanaimo-North Cowichan NCW 9,644 50.39 9,494 49.61 19,138 214 3,452 26.90 4,903 38.20 4,480 34.90 12,835 6,517 4,195 35.72 7,548 64.28 11,743 1,092
Nechako Lakes NEC 4,848 77.65 1,395 22.35 6,243 74 869 26.66 908 27.85 1,483 45.49 3,260 3,057 1,121 41.38 1,588 58.62 2,709 551
Nelson-Creston NEL 6,147 42.95 8,165 57.05 14,312 132 1,924 18.96 3,583 35.31 4,640 45.73 10,147 4,297 2,537 27.93 6,548 72.07 9,085 1,062
New Westminster NEW 9,236 49.04 9,596 50.96 18,832 191 3,925 29.03 6,113 45.21 3,484 25.77 13,522 5,501 4,589 35.33 8,399 64.67 12,988 534
North Coast NOC 2,282 52.70 2,048 47.30 4,330 60 659 22.38 914 31.05 1,371 46.57 2,944 1,446 856 33.63 1,689 66.37 2,545 399
North Island NOI 10,232 56.78 7,790 43.22 18,022 204 3,033 26.90 4,377 38.81 3,867 34.29 11,277 6,949 3,679 35.88 6,576 64.12 10,255 1,022
North Vancouver-Lonsdale NVL 10,297 55.89 8,128 44.11 18,425 144 3,669 30.28 5,472 45.17 2,974 24.55 12,115 6,454 4,220 36.46 7,354 63.54 11,574 541
North Vancouver-Seymour NVS 12,491 59.81 8,394 40.19 20,885 80 3,669 28.31 6,106 47.11 3,187 24.59 12,962 8,003 4,279 34.64 8,073 65.36 12,352 610
Oak Bay-Gordon Head OBG 10,625 46.53 12,210 53.47 22,835 113 3,877 25.41 7,212 47.28 4,166 27.31 15,255 7,693 4,606 31.83 9,866 68.17 14,472 783
Parksville-Qualicum PAQ 17,272 66.63 8,651 33.37 25,923 164 4,410 32.57 5,497 40.60 3,632 26.83 13,539 12,548 5,004 39.57 7,642 60.43 12,646 893
Peace River North PCN 8,759 86.42 1,376 13.58 10,135 41 999 26.39 1,201 31.72 1,586 41.89 3,786 6,390 1,262 39.25 1,953 60.75 3,215 571
Peace River South PCS 5,555 84.87 990 15.13 6,545 36 732 28.94 760 30.05 1,037 41.00 2,529 4,052 911 41.71 1,273 58.29 2,184 345
Penticton PEN 13,186 63.17 7,687 36.83 20,873 172 3,650 31.21 4,730 40.45 3,314 28.34 11,694 9,351 4,263 39.11 6,636 60.89 10,899 795
Port Coquitlam POC 10,029 61.67 6,234 38.33 16,263 139 3,519 33.28 4,656 44.03 2,400 22.70 10,575 5,827 4,002 39.38 6,160 60.62 10,162 413
Port Moody-Coquitlam POM 9,989 59.73 6,735 40.27 16,724 84 3,207 29.81 4,781 44.45 2,769 25.74 10,757 6,051 3,772 36.66 6,518 63.34 10,290 467
Powell River-Sunshine Coast POR 9,242 46.12 10,799 53.88 20,041 186 3,217 23.81 5,376 39.80 4,916 36.39 13,509 6,718 3,988 32.06 8,450 67.94 12,438 1,071
Prince George-Mackenzie PRM 9,367 71.30 3,771 28.70 13,138 78 1,824 25.19 2,749 37.96 2,669 36.85 7,242 5,974 2,217 34.31 4,245 65.69 6,462 780
Prince George-Valemount PRV 9,581 70.87 3,939 29.13 13,520 95 2,034 27.43 2,759 37.21 2,622 35.36 7,415 6,200 2,439 36.67 4,213 63.33 6,652 763
Richmond North Centre RNC 8,702 73.35 3,161 26.65 11,863 61 2,098 34.86 2,607 43.32 1,313 21.82 6,018 5,906 2,381 40.94 3,435 59.06 5,816 202
Richmond-Queensborough RQE 8,787 69.93 3,779 30.07 12,566 97 2,664 36.80 3,036 41.93 1,540 21.27 7,240 5,423 2,969 42.47 4,022 57.53 6,991 249
Richmond South Centre RSC 7,663 74.29 2,652 25.71 10,315 54 1,971 36.91 2,329 43.61 1,040 19.48 5,340 5,029 2,170 42.03 2,993 57.97 5,163 177
Richmond-Steveston RST 11,034 71.26 4,450 28.74 15,484 82 2,776 33.62 3,679 44.55 1,803 21.83 8,258 7,308 3,153 39.86 4,758 60.14 7,911 347
Saanich North and the Islands SAN 13,540 48.62 14,309 51.38 27,849 179 4,501 25.14 7,466 41.70 5,936 33.16 17,903 10,125 5,466 32.81 11,195 67.19 16,661 1,242
Saanich South SAS 11,220 54.72 9,284 45.28 20,504 85 3,657 28.54 5,782 45.12 3,375 26.34 12,814 7,775 4,286 35.28 7,861 64.72 12,147 667
Shuswap SHU 14,404 69.86 6,213 30.14 20,617 159 3,106 28.71 3,722 34.41 3,990 36.88 10,818 9,958 3,749 39.02 5,858 60.98 9,607 1,211
Skeena SKE 4,863 66.83 2,414 33.17 7,277 57 1,092 26.22 1,345 32.29 1,728 41.49 4,165 3,169 1,370 37.21 2,312 62.79 3,682 483
Stikine SKN 3,142 60.03 2,092 39.97 5,234 47 715 21.81 1,064 32.45 1,500 45.75 3,279 2,002 940 32.37 1,964 67.63 2,904 375
Surrey-Cloverdale SRC 11,461 72.82 4,278 27.18 15,739 84 3,238 36.68 3,624 41.06 1,965 22.26 8,827 6,996 3,614 42.74 4,842 57.26 8,456 371
Surrey-Fleetwood SRF 8,165 72.24 3,138 27.76 11,303 103 2,480 39.21 2,600 41.11 1,245 19.68 6,325 5,081 2,752 45.43 3,306 54.57 6,058 267
Surrey-Green Timbers SRG 5,548 72.65 2,089 27.35 7,637 90 1,736 40.76 1,672 39.26 851 19.98 4,259 3,468 1,923 46.78 2,188 53.22 4,111 148
Surrey-Guildford SUG 7,314 69.11 3,269 30.89 10,583 97 2,369 37.09 2,634 41.23 1,385 21.68 6,388 4,292 2,637 43.12 3,479 56.88 6,116 272
Surrey-Newton SUN 6,237 73.20 2,284 26.80 8,521 98 1,938 41.78 1,826 39.36 875 18.86 4,639 3,980 2,108 46.93 2,384 53.07 4,492 147
Surrey-Panorama SUP 9,742 74.50 3,334 25.50 13,076 73 2,742 38.51 2,930 41.15 1,449 20.35 7,121 6,028 3,046 44.54 3,793 55.46 6,839 282
Surrey South SUS 13,604 74.49 4,658 25.51 18,262 74 3,314 33.83 4,204 42.92 2,277 23.25 9,795 8,541 3,800 40.94 5,481 59.06 9,281 514
Surrey-Whalley SWH 5,919 63.41 3,415 36.59 9,334 87 2,175 36.88 2,358 39.98 1,365 23.14 5,898 3,523 2,429 43.04 3,214 56.96 5,643 255
Surrey-White Rock SWR 14,510 70.69 6,017 29.31 20,527 138 3,665 33.83 4,626 42.70 2,542 23.47 10,833 9,832 4,122 40.21 6,128 59.79 10,250 583
Vancouver-Fairview VFA 8,801 42.38 11,968 57.62 20,769 87 3,393 22.41 6,877 45.42 4,870 32.17 15,140 5,716 4,247 29.36 10,217 70.64 14,464 676
Vancouver-False Creek VFC 8,129 48.67 8,572 51.33 16,701 69 3,131 26.18 5,239 43.81 3,588 30.01 11,958 4,812 3,770 33.07 7,629 66.93 11,399 559
Vancouver-Fraserview VFV 10,182 67.33 4,940 32.67 15,122 126 3,022 35.27 3,724 43.47 1,821 21.26 8,567 6,681 3,395 41.13 4,860 58.87 8,255 312
Vancouver-Hastings VHA 6,337 38.37 10,178 61.63 16,515 141 3,096 24.50 5,389 42.65 4,150 32.85 12,635 4,021 3,788 31.30 8,315 68.70 12,103 532
Vancouver-Kensington VKE 7,688 51.42 7,262 48.58 14,950 159 3,183 30.74 4,308 41.60 2,864 27.66 10,355 4,754 3,706 37.23 6,248 62.77 9,954 401
Vancouver-Kingsway VKI 7,485 56.75 5,705 43.25 13,190 151 2,844 32.63 3,602 41.33 2,270 26.04 8,716 4,625 3,350 39.91 5,043 60.09 8,393 323
Vancouver-Langara VLA 9,925 67.88 4,696 32.12 14,621 88 2,542 31.80 3,459 43.27 1,993 24.93 7,994 6,715 2,932 38.28 4,727 61.72 7,659 335
Vancouver-Mount Pleasant VMP 4,131 25.74 11,916 74.26 16,047 140 2,647 19.54 5,873 43.36 5,025 37.10 13,545 2,642 3,536 27.16 9,485 72.84 13,021 524
Vancouver-Point Grey VNP 8,533 47.11 9,579 52.89 18,112 81 2,764 22.20 5,859 47.05 3,830 30.76 12,453 5,740 3,437 28.97 8,428 71.03 11,865 588
Vancouver-Quilchena VNQ 12,795 70.30 5,405 29.70 18,200 76 2,604 28.11 4,270 46.09 2,390 25.80 9,264 9,012 3,042 34.47 5,782 65.53 8,824 440
Vancouver-West End VNW 5,645 38.55 8,999 61.45 14,644 99 2,702 24.04 5,065 45.07 3,471 30.89 11,238 3,505 3,355 31.18 7,405 68.82 10,760 478
Vernon-Monashee VRM 14,375 65.55 7,556 34.45 21,931 194 3,787 29.81 4,962 39.06 3,954 31.13 12,703 9,422 4,452 38.10 7,233 61.90 11,685 1,018
Victoria-Beacon Hill VTB 7,778 33.65 15,333 66.35 23,111 168 3,935 22.43 7,995 45.58 5,612 31.99 17,542 5,737 4,850 29.11 11,809 70.89 16,659 883
Victoria-Swan Lake VTS 6,389 34.96 11,885 65.04 18,274 148 3,415 24.33 6,165 43.92 4,458 31.76 14,038 4,384 4,232 31.47 9,214 68.53 13,446 592
West Vancouver-Capilano WVC 13,788 71.38 5,527 28.62 19,315 110 3,004 31.23 4,419 45.95 2,195 22.82 9,618 9,807 3,392 37.41 5,676 62.59 9,068 550
West Vancouver-Sea to Sky WVS 8,905 51.48 8,393 48.52 17,298 97 2,603 23.43 4,912 44.21 3,596 32.36 11,111 6,284 3,153 30.22 7,282 69.78 10,435 676
Provincial total 845,235 61.30 533,518 38.70 1,378,753 10,209 244,973 29.45 343,038 41.24 243,749 29.31 831,760 557,202 288,068 36.95 491,630 63.05 779,698 52,062

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