British Forces Germany
|British Forces Germany|
|Branch|| Royal Navy
Royal Air Force
|Part of||UK Ministry of Defence|
|Brigadier Ian Bell|
British Forces Germany (BFG), is the name for British Armed Forces service personnel and civilians based in Germany. It was first established following the Second World War as the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).
Although much smaller than BAOR, it is still the largest concentration of British armed forces permanently stationed outside the United Kingdom. With the end of the Cold War and the Options for Change defence review in the early 1990s, BFG has been considerably reduced. Since the 1990s, the British presence has centred on the 1st Armoured Division, and supporting elements. With restructuring under the Army 2020 change programme and with units rebasing, the majority of the remaining British service personnel in Germany are part of 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade.
First established following the Second World War, the forces grew during the Cold War, consisting by the early 1980s of I (BR) Corps made up of four divisions; 1st Armoured Division, 2nd Armoured Division, 3rd Armoured Division and the 4th Armoured Division.
Disbandment of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) and Royal Air Force Germany (RAFG) in 1994, following the end of the Cold War and the Options for Change defence review in the early 1990s, reduced the personnel strength of the British Armed Forces in Germany by almost 30,000 with just one division (1st Armoured Division) remaining. The British presence was estimated to have been contributing 1.5 billion Euros annually to the German economy in 2004. Following a further spending review, one brigade was withdrawn and Osnabrück Garrison closed in 2009.
Administrative support for British service personnel in Germany and across Continental Europe was delegated to United Kingdom Support Command (Germany). The four Army garrisons in Germany were under the direct administrative control of UKSC. The General Officer Commanding UKSC also functioned as head of the British Forces Liaison Organisation (Germany), which is responsible for liaising and maintaining relations with German civil authorities. HQ British Forces Germany was formed in January 2012 replacing the United Kingdom Support Command (Germany) (UKSC(G)) and the Germany Support Group (GSG).
Rhine Garrison, which principally comprised HQ British Forces Germany in the Rheindahlen Military Complex and Elmpt Station, also reduced in size; the HQ moved to Bielefeld in July 2013 and other units returned to the UK. The two central garrisons - Gütersloh and Paderborn - combined to form a single "super garrison" called Westfalen Garrison in April 2014.
With the departure of Major General John Henderson in March 2015, the Commanding Officer of British Forces Germany become a brigadier's post, with Brigadier Ian Bell assuming command.
In summer 2015, a further brigade was withdrawn and Bergen-Hohne Garrison closed leaving a minimal presence in the state of Lower Saxony and just one brigade (20th Armoured Infantry Brigade) in North Rhine-Westphalia.
British Forces Germany is concentrated in North Rhine-Westphalia. The HQ is located at Bielefeld and 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade is located at Westfalen Garrison. The 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade is currently equipped with Challenger 2 MBTs, Warrior IFVs, AS-90 howitzers, Multiple Launch Rocket Systems, armoured personnel carriers, Gazelle and Lynx helicopters.
Off duty life
During the height of "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the IRA targeted personnel in Germany between 1988 and 1990. The attacks resulted in the deaths of 9 people, including three civilians, and many wounded. As a result, vehicles owned by personnel ceased to have distinct registration plates, which had made them easily identifiable.
Major units as of 2015
Major units included:
- 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade Headquarters
- The Royal Dragoon Guards (Formation Reconnaissance)
- The Queen's Royal Hussars (Queen's Own and Royal Irish) (Armoured)
- 4th Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Scotland (The Highlanders - 4 SCOTS) (Protective Mobility)
- 1st Battalion, The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires) (Armoured Infantry)
- 5th Battalion, The Rifles (Armoured Infantry)
Commanders have included:
General Officer Commanding United Kingdom Support Command (Germany)
- 1994-1995 Major-General Scott Grant
- 1995-1997 Major-General Christopher Drewry
- 1997-2001 Major-General Christopher Elliott
- 2001-2003 Major-General John Moore-Bick
- 2003-2006 Major-General David Bill
- 2006-2009 Major-General Mungo Melvin
- 2009-2012 Major-General Nicholas Caplin
General Officer Commanding British Forces Germany
- 2012-2015 Major-General John Henderson
Commander British Forces Germany
- 2015–Present Brigadier Ian Bell
- "British Forces Germany" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Chandler (2003), The Oxford History of the British Army, p. 360
- "British Army troops leaving Germany after 70 years". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "British Orders of Battle & TO&Es 1980-1989" (PDF). Battlefront: Modern. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "From occupiers and protectors to guests". BBC News. 20 July 2004. Retrieved 11 February 2006.
- "Osnabrück picks up the pieces after British withdrawal". DW.com. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- United Kingdom Support Command
- HQ British Forces Germany website
- Long goodbye almost over
- "Farewell to the 1st Westfalen Garrison Commander". 16 June 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "A Queen's birthday reception was held in Germany". 11 June 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "The British Army in Germany". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "All British army bases in Germany to close by 2019 with 20,000 troops returning to UK". Metro. 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Defence review ends Iraq-sized ventures". Ft.com. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- In West Germany: Military Networks Spreading Pop, Billboard, Billboard - 27 Mar 1982
- British Army (Germany) Rugby ARU website, accessed: 29 March 2010
- Secret squad sent in to track down IRA killers, Glasgow Herald, 3 May 1988
- Army commands
- Durie, William (2012). The British Garrison Berlin 1945-1994: nowhere to go. Berlin, Vergangenheitsverl. ISBN 978-3-86408-068-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Forces Germany.|
- HQ British Forces Germany - on British Army official website
- BBC News: Army to scale down Germany troops, 2006-07-24
- BBC News: From occupiers and protectors to guests, 2004-07-20
- British Forces Germany (BFGNET website)