British Rail Class 305

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British Rail Class 305
305-plat-8-broken-down-Stratford.jpg
British Rail Class 305 at Stratford
In service1959–2001
ManufacturerBritish Rail
Order no.
  • 30566 (BDTSOL, 305/2, as built)
  • 30567 (MBSO, 305/2)
  • 30568 (TSOL, 305/2)
  • 30569 (DTSO, 305/2)
  • 30570 (BDTSO, 305/1)
  • 30571 (MBSO, 305/1)
  • 30572 (DTSO, 305/1)[1][2]
Built at
Family nameBR First Generation EMU
ReplacedSteam locomotives and carriages
Constructed1959–1960
Refurbished1983–1984 (305/2 facelift)[4]
Number built71
Number scrapped71
SuccessorClass 322
Class 323
FormationClass 305/1
BDTSO+MBS+DTSO
Class 305/2 As Built
BDTSOL+MBSO+TCsoL+DTS
Class 305/2 Facelifted
BDTCOL+MBS+TSOL+DTSO
Class 305/3
BDTSO+MBS+TCsoL+DTSO [5][6]
DiagramAs Built
Class 305/1
  • 413 MBSO
  • 436 BDTSO, DTSO

Class 305/2
  • 405 MBSO
  • 437 DTS
  • 438 BDTSOL
  • 455 TCsoL

TOPS Codes
Class 305/1
  • E204.0A MBSO
  • EE209.1B DTSO
  • EF205.0A

Class 305/2
As Built
  • ED205.1B MBS
  • EE210.0A DTS
  • EF206.0A BDTSOL
  • EH302.1B TCsoL

Refurbished
  • ED216.0A MBSO
  • EE220.0A DTS
  • EF304.0A BDTSOL
  • EH223.0A TSOL
[7][8][2] [9]
Design codeAM5
Fleet numbersClass 305/1
  • 305401-305452
  • 75462-75513 BDTSO
  • 61429-61480 MBS
  • 75514-75565 DTSO

Class 305/2
  • 305501-305519
  • 75424-75442 BDTSOL later BDTCOL
  • 61410-61428 MBS later MBSO
  • 70356-70374 TCsoL later TSOL
  • 75443-75461 DTS later DTSO [2]
Capacity272 seats (305/1),
344 2nd + 19 1st (305/2) [2]
Operator(s)
Depot(s)
Specifications
Car body constructionWelded steel and spayed asbestos
Train length199 ft 6 in (60.81 m) (305/1)
265 ft 8+12 in (80.99 m) (305/2)
Car length63 ft 6+12 in (19.37 m) [9]
Width9 ft (2.74 m) [9]
Height12 ft 7 in (3.835 m) [9]
DoorsSlam Door
Articulated sections3 or 4
Wheelbase
  • 46 ft 6 in (14.173 m) (bogie centres)
  • 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) (bogies) [9]
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)[11]
Weight
Traction motors4 × GEC WT380 of 153 kW (205 hp)[1]
Auxiliaries240 V from the tertiary winding of the main transformer for heating and for a Westinghouse charger feeding 110 V dc for lighting and battery charging[3]
Power supplyMercury-arc rectifiers[3] (later replaced with silicon diode)
HVACElectric
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead
(and 6.25 kV until 1983)
Current collector(s)Pantograph
Bogies
  • Gresley ED5 (MBS)
  • Gresley ET8 (DTS)
  • Gresley ET5 (BDTS, BTDC, TS[9]
  • compound bolster[3]
Braking system(s)Westinghouse EP air[3]
Safety system(s)AWS[9]
Coupling systemDrophead[9]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 305 was an alternating current (AC) electric multiple unit (EMU). Under the pre-1973 British Rail numbering system, the class was known as AM5. When TOPS was introduced, the class became Class 305.

Subclasses[edit]

Class 305 had three subclasses:

  • 305/1 3-car units, standard class accommodation only, 52 units built in 1960
  • 305/2 4-car units, first and standard class accommodation, 19 units built in 1959
  • 305/3 4-car units, first and standard class accommodation, 8 units converted from 305/1 in 1988 by adding a TC from Class 302 units[12]
  • 305/9 3-car unit, non-passenger departmental conversion, converted 1984

Operations[edit]

305/1 units were generally deployed on inner suburban services on the Lea Valley lines out of London Liverpool Street to Chingford, Enfield Town and Hertford East. They mainly worked the Chingford and Enfield branches, where their average scheduled speed was 22 mph (35 km/h).[3] However, they were also used on the Great Eastern lines out of London Liverpool Street and occasionally worked out of their ‘normal’ operating area when coupled to a 305/2 unit or any of the compatible EMUs in use at the time. These units were distinguished by their lower backed seating. 305/1 units were replaced from 1980 onwards by British Rail Class 315 units. They were not generally used elsewhere, but a small number of units, are believed to have operated around Manchester for a brief period in the mid 1990s.[citation needed] All examples of the subclass were scrapped.

305/2 units were generally deployed on outer suburban services on the Lea Valley Line out of London Liverpool Street to Bishops Stortford (the extent of electrification until 1987), where their average scheduled speed was 34 mph (55 km/h).[3] Like the 305/1 units, they could occasionally be seen on other services out of Liverpool Street and were sometimes coupled to other compatible EMUs for multiple workingScotRail .

Class 305 at Edinburgh Waverley in September 2001

One unit was converted in 1984 for use as a mobile classroom in connection with the East Coast Main Line electrification project, becoming unit 305935, painted in InterCity livery. One of the driving vehicles contained blue asbestos and was subsequently replaced with a driving vehicle from a withdrawn Class 302 set, forming a hybrid set but retaining the same unit number (305935).[13] The unit was later used in East Anglia as part of the Great Eastern electrification and was deployed at Ipswich, Harwich and Cambridge.[14]

The 305/2s were refurbished in the mid-late 1980s. As with the 308s, this involved moving first class to a driving trailer, new interior panels, new seats and fluorescent lights.

The 305/2s were initially replaced on the Lea Valley Line by British Rail Class 310 units during the late 1980s/early 1990s. Most of the 305/2s were overhauled at Doncaster, painted in Regional Railways livery and shortened to 3-car sets, before moving to the Manchester area, taking over services previously diagrammed by Class 304 units.

A handful were further repainted into Greater Manchester PTE livery, some regaining their TSO trailer and receiving additional luggage racks dedicated to the new Manchester Airport services. Once Class 323 units were in service, the 305s were gradually withdrawn, but a few retained on Hadfield services until track alignment was performed in 1997, allowing the longer bodied Class 323s to negotiate the sharp curves at Dinting station. The surviving units also occasionally turned up on other local services around Manchester, with the last 305 to work out of Stoke-on-Trent believed to be 305506 on 22 May 2000 on the 20:57 to Manchester.[citation needed]

5 305/5s (305501-502, 508, 517 and 519) moved to Glasgow Shields depot retaining their 4-car configuration, finishing their working lives running the route from Edinburgh Waverley to North Berwick. The last unit in service, 305517, ran its final service on 25 January 2002, operating the 17:15 North Berwick to Edinburgh Waverley, before going to scrap on 31 January 2002, along with 305501 and 305519.[citation needed]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 14 February 1990, an empty stock train formed of a Class 305 and a Class 308 unit was derailed at East Ham.[15]

Preservation attempts[edit]

AC EMU Group aimed to save a Class 305 driving trailer, but by the time funding was found, they had all been scrapped, so a Class 308 driving trailer was saved instead.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Fox 1994, pp. 10–11
  2. ^ a b c d Longworth 2015, pp. 129–130, 134–135, 158, 178–180
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Railway Magazine January 1961 pp. 11-13 Multiple-Unit Stock for New Great Eastern Electric Services
  4. ^ Bowles, L.J. (1985). British Rail Coaching Stock 1985. Shepperton,Surry,UK. p. 121. ISBN 9780711014558.
  5. ^ Longworth 2015, pp. 70–71
  6. ^ British Rail Motive Power Combined Volume 1989. Shepperton, Surry, UK: Ian Allen. 1989. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0711018499.
  7. ^ British Rail Coaching Stock 1983/84. Shepperton, Surry, UK: Ian Allen. 1989. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0711013527.
  8. ^ British Rail Motive Power Combined Volume 1989. Shepperton, Surry, UK: Ian Allen. 1989. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0711018499.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Diagram Book 1986, ED204, ED205, ED216, EE209, EE210, EE220, EF205, EF206, EF304, EH223, EH302.
  10. ^ Fox 1987, pp. 51–52
  11. ^ Marsden, Colin (1982). Motive Power Recognition 2 EMUs. Shepperton,Surrey,UK: Ian Allen. p. 16. ISBN 0711011656.
  12. ^ Wood, Roger (1989). British Rail Motive Power Combined Volume 1989. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan. Multiple Units, p. 82. ISBN 0711018499.
  13. ^ SWAIN, A. (1990) British Rail Fleet Survey 11, Overhead Line Electric Multiple-Units. Surrey: Ian Allan Ltd.
  14. ^ Cowley 1987, p. 42
  15. ^ McCrickard, John P (6 October 2016). "January 1990 to December 1990". Network South East Railway Society. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]