British Rail Class 308
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|British Rail Class 308|
|Built at||Holgate Road carriage works|
|Family name||1959 EMU|
|Replaced||Steam locomotives and carriages|
|Number built||45 sets|
|Number preserved||1 driving trailer|
|Number scrapped||44 sets|
|Formation||3 or 4 cars per trainset:|
|Car body construction||Steel|
|Width||9 ft 3 in (2.82 m)|
|Height||12 ft 7 in (3.835 m)|
|Wheelbase||46 ft 6 in (14.17 m) (bogie centres)|
|Maximum speed||75 mph (121 km/h)|
|Traction motors||4 × EE 56A of 143.5 kW (192.4 hp)|
|Power output||574 kW (770 hp)|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Braking system(s)||Air (EP/Auto)|
|Multiple working||Within ER EMU stock, later within class|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The British Rail Class 308 alternating current (AC) electric multiple units (EMU) were built by British Railways' Holgate Road carriage works in three batches between 1959 and 1961. They were initially classified as AM8 units before the introduction of TOPS.
The first batch of 33 units were built in 1959, classified as AM8 and numbered 133–165. This was later changed to Class 308/1 under the TOPS system, and units were renumbered 308133–165. These units were built to operate commuter services on the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML) from London Liverpool Street to Shenfield, Witham, Colchester, Walton-on-the-Naze and Clacton. Each unit was formed of four carriages: two outer driving trailers, an intermediate trailer, and a motor coach.
Electrically the Class 308 stock has the same equipment as the Class 302 stock with a few modifications, some of these are the types of overload, the use of fan cooled rectifier continued until the rectifiers were modified to 8 diode type from 1982, this modified main rectifier was also modified and used on the Class 309 stock due to the problems of fan cooled types suffering from blocked filters causing failures in traffic. The braking system is basically the same as the Class 302 stock with the exception of the motor coach retaining the 16 in (406.4 mm) cylinder rather than the 12 in (304.8 mm) as fitted to Class 302 after replacing the cast Iron brake blocks with composite (Ferodo) type.
From 1981–83, the units were refurbished, which included opening out compartments, fitting of gangways between carriages, and moving first class seating from the intermediate trailer to one of the driving trailers, with the same problems as the Class 302 stock of having First class passengers sitting above the Westinghouse CM38 compressor, however the Gresley bogies being retained. In this modified form, the technical description of the formation was BDTCOL+MBSO+TSOL+DTSO. Individual carriages were numbered as follows:
- 75878-75886 and 75896-75919 - BDTCOL
- 61883-61915 - MBSO
- 70611-70643 - TSOL
- 75887-75895 and 75929-75952 - DTSO
A second batch of nine units, numbered 313–321, were built for boat train services on the London, Tilbury and Southend line in 1959-60, from London Fenchurch Street to Tilbury Riverside. These units were later reclassified as Class 308/2 under TOPS. Each unit was formed of four carriages: two outer driving trailers, an intermediate trailer, and a motor luggage van, with the reduction in luggage some MLV's were converted at Swindon Works with a different seating arrangement to the original passenger vehicles. The technical description of the formation was BDTS+MLV+TC+DTS. Individual carriages were numbered as follows:
- 75920-75928 - BDTS
- 68011-68019 - MLV (68011 - 68014 from units 313-316 converted to MBSO in 1971 and renumbered 62431-62434. Units reclassified as Class 308/4)
- 70644-70652 - TC
- 75953-75961 - DTS
When Tilbury Docks closed as a cruise liner terminal, these units were made redundant and withdrawn from service in 1983. Three units were subsequently rebuilt as Class 308/4 parcels units for Rail Express Systems (see below).
Finally, a third batch of 3-car units were built in 1961 for suburban services from London Liverpool Street to Chingford and Enfield Town. They were numbered 453–455, following on from the Class 305/1 units, which also operated these services (which were numbered in the range 401–452).
These units were later reclassified as Class 308/3, and renumbered 308453–455 under TOPS. Unlike the first batch, these units contained no first-class seating. Each unit was formed of three carriages: two outer driving trailers, and an intermediate motor coach. The technical description of the unit formation was BDTS+MBS+DTS. Individual carriages numbers were as follows:
- 75741-75743 - BDTS
- 61689-61691 - MBS
- 75992-75994 - DTS
These units were withdrawn in the late 1980s.
Converted postal units
In 1983, three former Class 308/2 units (nos. 314/319/321) were converted into Class 308/4 postal units by the Parcels sector, with the removal of the intermediate trailer, and renumbered 308991–993. These units were replaced by three converted Class 302/9 parcels units in 1992.
By the early 1990s, only the Class 308/1 units were still in service. These were gradually replaced on GEML services by the new Class 321s. Some of the displaced units were transferred to the London, Tilbury and Southend line (LTS), whilst others were transferred to the West Midlands to work Cross-City Line services pending the introduction of new Class 323s. The LTS units were later displaced by Class 312s, but two were retained and converted to Class 937 sandite units. These sandite units were originally fitted with a small cement mixer that was used to mix the sandite and then loaded into the hoppers whilst the vehicle was in motion. Later, premixed sandite was loaded prior to use with the easing of the physical work by the staff.
In 1994–95, electrification spread north from Leeds to Bradford, Skipton and Ilkley. As no new stock had been ordered, Regional Railways overhauled Class 308 units for use on these services. The work was carried out at Doncaster Works and involved reducing the unit length to three carriages, with the removal of the intermediate trailers, which were scrapped. The trains were also painted in West Yorkshire Metro crimson and cream livery.
In 1996, with the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 308 fleet passed into the ownership of Angel Trains and were leased to the Regional Railways North East franchise. This was originally operated as Northern Spirit, but the franchise was later taken over by Arriva and operated as Arriva Trains Northern.
By the late 1990s, it was clear that the elderly Class 308 units needed replacing. Due to their age, they were increasingly unreliable and expensive to maintain. They were replaced by sixteen new 3-car Class 333 units, which were introduced from 2001, all 16 Class 333 units were later lengthened to 4-car sets. The Class 308 units were withdrawn and sent for storage at MoD Shoeburyness. The final three units, nos. 308138/157/158, were withdrawn in late 2001, and were sent for scrap at Immingham. Since then, the stored units have slowly been scrapped at various locations, with the final vehicles disposed of in 2004. However, one driving trailer was saved for preservation.
Accidents and incidents
- On 14 February 1990, an empty stock train formed of a Class 305 and a Class 308 unit was derailed at East Ham.
One driving trailer from unit 308136 has been saved for preservation.
- 75881 - Colne Valley Railway . Restoration ongoing.
The carriage has been stripped of asbestos, and the full internal rebuild was abandoned in favour of housing the salvaged parts of the London Underground Victoria Line Cobourg Street signalling centre, and much of the former Brixton interlocking machine room equipment. The Cobourg Street equipment is now partially working, with work ongoing to allow simulated train movements to be displayed.
|Class||Route||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit Nos.||Withdrawn|
|Class 308/1||Great Eastern||33||1959||4||133–165||308133–165||2001|
|Class 308/3||Great Eastern||3||1961||3||453–455||308453–455||late-1980s|
|Class 308/4||Postal Units (ex-Class 308/2)||3||Rebuilt 1983||3||(ex-314/319/321)||308991–993||1992|
- Longworth 2015, pp. 23–25, 132, 134–135, 148–149, 161, 182–185, 187
- "Class 308". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Fox 1987, p. 53
- "Vehicle Diagram Book No.210 for Electrical Multiple Units (including A.P.T.)" (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. BRB Residuary Ltd. ED216, EE209, EE220, EF205, EF208, EF302, EF304, EH223, EW501, EY501. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Motive power miscellany". Railway World. Vol. 32 no. 376. Shepperton: Ian Allan. September 1971. p. 417.
- Mallaband, P; Bowles, L J. the coaching stock of British Railways 1976. Oxford: RCTS/OPC. p. 115. ISBN 0-901115-39-8.
- Intelligence Railway Gazette International August 1993 page 528
- McCrickard, John P (6 October 2016). "January 1990 to December 1990". Network South East Railway Society. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580.
- Longworth, Hugh (2015). British Railways Electric Multiple Units to 1975. Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860936688. OCLC 923205678.
- Marsden, Colin J. (1982). EMUs. Motive Power Recognition. 2. Ian Allan. pp. 28–31. ISBN 9780711011656. OCLC 16537600.
- "Crisis point for West Yorks Class 308". Rail Express. No. 1. Foursight Publications Ltd. June 1996. p. 8. ISSN 1362-234X. OCLC 498432844.
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