British Rail Class 313
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|British Rail Class 313|
Refreshed interior of a Southern Class 313/2
|In service||1976 - Current|
|Manufacturer||British Rail Engineering Limited|
|Built at||BREL York Works|
|Family name||BREL 1972 "PEP"|
|Constructed||1976 - 1977|
|Entered service||8 November 1976|
|Refurbishment||23 Silverlink sets 1997-2001
41 WAGN sets 1999-2003
19 Southern sets 2010-2011
|Number built||64 sets|
|Formation||3 cars per set
|Capacity||232 seats (as built)
231 seats (Great Northern)
228 seats (Silverlink)
202 seats (London Overground)
194 seats (Southern)
|Operator(s)||GTR (Southern), GTR (Great Northern)|
Brighton Lovers Walk TMD
|Line(s) served||East Coast Main Line
|Train length||60.83 m (199.6 ft)|
|Car length||DMS 20.33 m (66.7 ft)
TS 19.92 m (65.4 ft)
|Width||2.82 m (9.3 ft)|
|Height||3.58 m (11.7 ft)|
75 mph (121 km/h)30 mph (48 km/h) GN units on DC
|Weight||104.5 tonnes (102.8 long tons)|
|Power output||656 kW (880 hp)|
|Current collection method||25 kV AC Overhead
750 V DC 3rd rail
|UIC classification||Bo-Bo + 2-2 + Bo-Bo|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) Standard gauge|
The Class 313 is a type of dual-voltage electric multiple unit (EMU) train built by BREL York Works between February 1976 and April 1977. They were the first second-generation EMUs to be constructed for British Rail and the first British Rail units with both a pantograph for 25 kV AC overhead lines and shoegear for 750 V DC third rail supply. They were the first units in Britain to have multi-function Tightlock couplers, allowing coupling and the connection of control electric and air supplies to be carried out from the cab.
Following the withdrawal of most first-generation stock, they are the oldest EMUs in regular service on National Rail on the British mainland; in 2015 the oldest units are 39 years old.
The Class 313 was developed following extensive trials with the prototype Class 445 "PEP" built in the early 1970s. The 313 is similar to the Class 314 (Glasgow), Class 315 (Anglia suburban — east London), Class 507 (Merseyside) and Class 508 (Merseyside, formerly Southern Region).
Since they were designed for use on Great Northern Suburban Inner Suburban services from Moorgate to Welwyn Garden City or Hertford North, Letchworth Garden City which included a section of 'tube' line built to take standard size trains between Drayton Park and Moorgate, they are built to a slightly smaller loading gauge than conventional trains. They are standard length and width, but the roof is lower, most noticeable due to the lack of a "well" for the Stone Faiveley AMBR pantograph on the centre coach. They have to comply with regulations for underground trains, such as having doors at each end of the train for evacuation onto the tracks, and when on 750 V DC supply the traction supply for each motor coach is separate, whereas on conventional 750 V DC trains each coach in a unit is linked by a 750 V bus line. Due to this, each motor coach has shoe gear on both bogies, whereas normally it would only be on the leading bogie. They are fitted with trip-cocks that are struck by a raised train-stop arm at red signals and will apply the brakes if the train passes one.
The units were originally numbered 313001-064. Each unit is formed of two outer driving motors and an intermediate trailer with a pantograph. This is a reversal of the practice started in the 1960s, where the motors and pantograph were on an intermediate vehicle, with the outer vehicles being driving trailers. Part of the reason was to simplify the equipment to allow dual-voltage operation, and to keep down weight by spreading the heavy transformer and motors between vehicles. The intermediate trailer carries the pantograph and a transformer and rectifier, which on 25 kV AC provides 750 V DC to the motor coaches, each of which has four 110 horsepower (82 kW) GEC G310AZ traction motors, two per bogie. On 750 V DC each motor coach draws its supply directly through its shoe gear.
313s have series-wound DC GEC G310AZ traction motors controlled by a camshaft controlled resistance system with series and parallel motor groupings and weak field steps. Originally the heating in the motor coaches was provided by passing air over the hot traction and braking resistors in addition to conventional heaters, but this feature is no longer in use and the pneumatic dampers have been disabled. Great Northern and Southern units have been retro-fitted with cab air conditioning.
313s have rheostatic braking (which was disabled on London Overground) in addition to conventional three-step air-operated disc braking; during braking if wheelslide is detected by the WSP (WheelSlide Protection) rheostatic braking is disabled and disc-braking comes into effect. Great Northern units have sanding equipment. Unlike some other DMU/EMU classes, additional brake force is not available when the an emergency brake application is initiated and is the equivalent force of a step 3/full service application. WSP is still active when making an emergency application.
In addition to the primary suspension of rubber chevron spring and oil dampers, secondary suspension is provided by two air bellows per bogie - flow into each bellow is controlled independently by a levelling valve and arm assembly that allows the suspension to inflate/deflate when the weight of the coach is increased or decreased by passenger loading. The air suspension is linked to the braking system via a Variable Load Valve (VLV), which increases air brake pressure when the coach is more heavily loaded to compensate for the additional weight.
The DMS A coach has a compressor and main reservoir tank, which provide air to the unit via the main reservoir pipe for friction braking, power doors, secondary suspension and pantograph operation.
The DMS B coach has an MA (Motor Alternator) set that runs on 750 V DC from the AC/DC changeover switch, whereby the transformer and rectifier provide the supply when on 25 kV working and by the shoegear directly when on 3rd rail working. The MA provides power for the following:
- 415 V AC - headlight (lamp supplied through an additional transformer), traction/braking resistor cooling fan, coach heater fans (the heaters run on 750 V DC).
- 240 V AC - cab heater fan, thermostat fans, appliance sockets.
- 110 V DC - control supply, battery charging, train lighting, cab air conditioning, CCTV system.
V vehicles are numbered as follows.
All units have standard class seating only.
As built, the sliding doors were opened by the passengers. Once the driver had stopped the train and the guard had activated the master door release, a passenger could move the door handle gently sideways which operated a switch controlling the individual door opening circuit. Unfortunately many people did not wait for the guard's release and gave the handle a much harder tug, which could open the door even if the train had not stopped. Concerns over passenger safety led to the removal of the handles from March 1977  to be replaced by push-buttons which serve the same purpose as the handles.
Modifications led to renumbering and reclassification. All units originally had shoebeams on the inner bogie of each motor coach, which was sufficient for third-rail duties between Drayton Park and Moorgate. Some units became surplus, and in 1987 four were transferred to the Colchester-Clacton/Walton route, which has no DC sections; they had the shoegear removed, and were renumbered from 313061-4 to 313096-9. Following an accident involving one unit at Walton on the Naze in August 1987, they were replaced by 310s in 1988. 313s had also worked on the Colchester-Walton/Clacton route between 1981 and 1983. 313001-016 had shoegear fitted to the outer bogies in addition, and were transferred to the Euston-Watford DC route where there are long gaps in the 3rd rail. They were not renumbered but reclassified 313/1, the unmodified units becoming 313/0 - prior to this the class had no sub classes.
Following the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 313s were divided between Silverlink and West Anglia Great Northern (WAGN). The entire class initially came under the ownership of leasing company HSBC Rail, which was subsequently renamed Eversholt Rail Group. However, from June 2012, 20 of the fleet including those operated by Southern and departmental 313121 were passed onto newcomers Beacon Rail.
WAGN inherited 41 units operating inner suburban services out of Moorgate and London King's Cross, to Welwyn Garden City, Hertford North, Stevenage and Letchworth Garden City. From 1 April 2006 the Great Northern (GN) franchise merged with Thameslink to form the Thameslink Great Northern franchise, which was won by FirstGroup and became known as First Capital Connect. Three Class 313/1s were transferred to First Capital Connect from London Overground in September 2010 to augment the Class 313/0 fleet. They were repainted into the Urban Lights livery and lightly refreshed internally but retained their original low-backed seating, although the upholstery has been altered to First Capital Connect standard. Despite receiving modifications that have made them mechanically identical to the 313/0s, they have not been renumbered. The units were then transferred to Great Northern on 14 September 2014 when the Thameslink and Great Northern franchise was merged into the Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise. Govia has committed to replacing the 313s on Moorgate services.
Although the majority of the route is 25 kV AC overhead line equipment, the Northern City Line route between Moorgate and Drayton Park is third rail 750 V DC, formerly part of the London Underground's Northern line, and although built to full loading gauge there is insufficient clearance to add catenary.
Trains bound for Moorgate approach Drayton Park on a falling gradient, drawing power via the pantograph until a trackside Automatic Power Control (APC) magnet opens the Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) on the roof of the train, cutting off power. This prevents the driver from powering into the tunnel with the pantograph raised. After coasting to a stand the driver lowers the pantograph and changes over to DC. On journeys from Moorgate traction power is maintained into Drayton Park for the rising gradient, since if the driver forgets to change to AC no damage will occur to the train. Once the train is at a stand the driver selects AC traction and raises the pantograph.
Great Northern 313s are electrically limited to 30 mph in DC mode, the maximum line speed on the Northern City Line.
Nineteen 313s displaced by Class 378 Capitalstars on London Overground have been transferred to Southern, replacing the newer Class 377/3 Electrostars on East and West Coastway services from Brighton. They operate primarily local services from Brighton to Hove, West Worthing, Portsmouth Harbour, Lewes and Seaford. In addition, they work the Littlehampton to Bognor Regis and Portsmouth & Southsea services. During peak times, they can also be seen operating as far as Eastbourne and Ore.
These units were repainted at Wolverton works. The full refurbishment began in June 2010 at Wabtec Doncaster and included new flooring and carpet, new seating, improved disabled and cycle space and the fitting of a Passenger Information System. Additional modifications were carried out at Stewarts Lane TMD including the installation of cab air-conditioning, sanding equipment, a 750 V busline, shore supply sockets and the removal of inboard shoegear. Recommissioning exams began in February 2010 taking place at Stewarts Lane, which included the removal of tripcocks. The Southern 313s also had their pantographs removed as they were for use on DC-only lines which rendered the AC traction equipment redundant.
From January 2010 313101, 313108 and 313109 provided driver training in rotation as a six-car formation, with single units leaving for Stewarts Lane TMD as required for scheduled maintenance. They were joined by Southern-liveried 313203 from March. The first three 313s in Southern livery were released from Wolverton Works in February 2010 and were berthed at Stewarts Lane TMD awaiting recommissioning and modifications. These units are being renumbered into the 313/2 series as they are expected to have their AC overhead equipment removed. Unit 313206, released from Wolverton on 14 April 2010, was the first to boast Coastway branding, promoting the lines the 313s were to run on as "Your local links along the South Coast", with local pictures and a list of destinations. It was joined in the same livery by 313214 and 313216 during May 2010.
The 313s commenced operations with Southern on 23 May 2010, providing a two-trains-per-hour service between Brighton and Seaford, and some trains between Brighton and Lewes, Hove, West Worthing and Littlehampton. From 13 December 2010, their operation expanded to stopping services from Brighton to Portsmouth Harbour and the Littlehampton to Bognor Regis shuttle.
The decision to use 313s on the Coastway lines has been controversial, as they are much older than the 377s and have fewer on-board passenger facilities.
The rail union RMT criticised the move and many publications including the BBC have questioned the introduction of 35-year-old trains with no lavatories in place of much newer units. These trains are deployed on services that operate predominantly over short distances, such as Brighton to Hove and Brighton to Seaford, and some longer (but stopping) services that provide predominantly local links that run alongside 377s on faster services. The economic justification of operating new 100 mph air-conditioned 377s on routes like the Hove to Brighton shuttle was always questionable, and many local train services operating over short (or even medium) distances do not have toilets (e.g. London Underground Metropolitan line), Class 455 (Southern/SWT), Class 508 (Merseyrail).
The introduction of 313s on the Coastway routes facilitated the delivery of additional capacity on high-demand suburban routes in South London, where 10-car trains services are to be introduced combined with platform lengthening.
The Class 313s currently operated by Southern will be retained when it becomes part of Govia Thameslink Railway.
Silverlink inherited 23 units, mainly operated as Silverlink Metro on the North London, West London and Watford DC Lines, and they were regulars on the St Albans Abbey–Watford Junction branch line between 1988 and 2007, when the Silverlink franchise ended.
In 2007 they were used on services transferred to London Overground, which replaced Silverlink Metro. London Overground branding was added, and some seats were removed to provide additional standing room. They were replaced by Class 378 trains, with longitudinal seating to improve standing room.
The final day of scheduled 313 operation on the North and West London Lines was 19 February 2010, although units were used ad hoc substituting for unavailable 378/0s. By August 2010 only 313121 and 313123 were still in service with London Overground, as the 378/2 Capitalstars were by then in use on the Watford DC Line.
The final day of Class 313 use on London Overground was Monday 13 September 2010, the last passenger working being the 19.06 Clapham Junction - Willesden Junction. 313121 and 313123 moved from Willesden to Wolverton on Friday 17 September for repainting, ending 313 operation with London Overground.
By 15 December 2010 313121 had not been accepted by a new operator and was at Wolverton works. It was the last 313 to retain Silverlink livery.
Network Rail is leasing Beacon Rail-owned unit 313121 as a test vehicle for European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) on the Hertford Loop. The project involved resignalling a 5.5-mile section of the double-track route to allow services to use one line, freeing the other for ERTMS tests.
The unit was repainted into Network Rail's yellow house colours and internally refurbished at Alstom's Wembley works to include a new driving desk, technician's workstation, kitchen and toilet facilities and the necessary ERTMS equipment. The work was completed in June 2013 and the unit was tested for the first time on Friday 5 July 2013 between Wembley and Bletchley. It commenced testing on the Hertford Loop later that month.
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit nos.|
|Class 313/0||Great Northern||41||1976–1977||3||313018
313024 - 313033
313035 - 313064
|Class 313/1||3||313122 - 313123
|Class 313/2||Southern||19||313201 - 313217
313219 - 313220
- 313020 - Parliament Hill (denamed)
- 313054 - Captain William Leefe Robinson V.C.
- 313101 - Silvertown (denamed)
- 313109 - Arnold Leah (denamed)
- 313111 - London TravelWatch (denamed)
- 313116 - Nikola Tesla (denamed)
- 313122 - Eric Roberts 1946 - 2012 "The Flying Nottsman"
- 313134 - The Hackney Empire (denamed); City of London
313020 at London Kings Cross. 313s were occasionally used for parcel services out of hours, January 1982
WAGN unit 313064 at London Kings Cross in a white livery advertising London's Family Travelcard, February 2003
- "Class 313". Retrieved 4 February 2010.
- Haresnape & Swain 1989, p. 82.
- Pritchard, Fox & Hall 2009, pp. 262–3.
- Haresnape & Swain 1989, p. 83.
- Haresnape & Swain 1989, pp. 83–84.
- Haresnape & Swain 1989, p. 84.
- Modern Railways. February 2010. Missing or empty
- "Govia chosen for new Thameslink contract". Railnews. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Govia wins TSGN franchise, beating FirstGroup". Rail Technology Magazine (Cognitive Publishing). 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014. External link in
- "Over 6,500 more seats added to London commuter routes". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- "Different trains coming soon : Southern". Retrieved 18 May 2010.
- "Southern 313214 at Acton Lane". Retrieved 18 May 2010.
- "313216 2010-05-17 Apsley". Retrieved 18 May 2010.
- Turner, Lynda (2010-02-25). "Rail group slams Southern's old trains for new proposals". Hastings and St. Leonards Observer. Retrieved 2010-03-22.
- "Southern Railway to axe toilets from new train fleet - BBC News". 20 September 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "YouTube - 313123 leaving Willesden Junction, and shunting around in the low level". Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "313121 and 313123 pass Bletchley forming 5Z49 Willesden TMD to Wolverton". Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "LocoScene". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- "Railway Industry Association: Update #52 page 6" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- Rail Magazine 664. 22 February – 8 March 2011. Missing or empty
- "The Encyclopaedia of Modern Traction Names". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- "AbRail Rail Databases - Electric Multiple Units".
- Haresnape, Brian; Swain, Alec (1989). 10: Third Rail DC Electric Multiple-Units. British Rail Fleet Survey. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1760-3.
- Pritchard, Robert; Fox, Peter; Hall, Peter (2009). British Railways Locomotives & Coaching Stock 2009. Sheffield: Platform 5 Publishing. ISBN 1-902336-70-4.
- Vaughan, Adrian (September 2003). "Class 313". Railway Blunders. Hersham: Ian Allan. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0-7110-2836-2. 0309/B3.
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