British Rail Class 345
|British Rail Class 345 Aventra|
TfL Rail Class 345 at Shenfield
Class 345 interior
|In service||22 June 2017|
|Built at||Derby Litchurch Lane Works|
|Replaced||Class 315 |
|Number built||70 trainsets|
|Number in service||15|
|Formation||9 carriages per trainset (7 from 2017-2019)|
|Capacity||450 seated, 4 wheelchair, 1,500 people total|
|Depot(s)||Old Oak Common TMD|
Ilford EMU Depot
|Line(s) served||Great Eastern Main Line|
(Liverpool Street to Shenfield)
Great Western Main Line
(Paddington to Reading/Hayes & Harlington)
Elizabeth line (future)
|Train length||205 m (673 ft)|
|Doors||Plug, 6 sets of doors per carriage|
|Maximum speed||90 mph (140 km/h)|
|Weight||264.21 tonnes (260 long tons; 291 short tons)|
|Acceleration||up to 1 m/s²|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead lines|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Safety system(s)||AWS, TPWS, CBTC, ETCS|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The British Rail Class 345 is a type of electric multiple unit passenger train being built by Bombardier Transportation for use on London's Crossrail. Part of the Aventra family, 70 nine-car trains are being manufactured at a cost of over £1 billion, with each train able to reach 140 km/h (90 mph) and carry 1,500 passengers. The contract was awarded to Bombardier in February 2014 and the first train entered service on 22 June 2017. Initial deliveries are of seven-car sets, which will be extended to nine-car sets at a later date.
Background and specifications
In 2008, the British government's rolling stock plan stated a requirement for around 610 carriages for Crossrail, expected to be similar in design to the Thameslink rolling stock, to meet the design improvement requirements of the 2007 "Rail Technical Strategy" (RTS), including in-cab signalling/communication with satellite and European Train Control System level 3 technologies, regenerative braking, low cost of operation and high reliability, with low weight and high acceleration.
The publicly released specifications included a passenger capacity of 1,500, with 450 seated, in a fully air-conditioned train no longer than 205 m (673 ft) with a top speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), and an energy efficiency as good as 24 kW·h per train-kilometre. Integration with platform screen doors is also expected. The capital value of the contract, which included construction of a depot at Old Oak Common, was estimated at around £1bn, the total value may be greater due to the winning bidder expected to undertake maintenance of the trains for three decades, the estimated lifespan of the fleet.
The procurement programme was launched in December 2010. The package valued at approximately £1bn was for 70 ten-carriage trains with a capacity of about 1,500 passengers and construction of maintenance depots.
Bidding process and funding
In March 2011, Crossrail announced that Alstom, Bombardier, CAF, Hitachi and Siemens had been shortlisted. The initial bidding process was expected to start in late 2011, with a contract decision in 2013.
In August 2011, the invitation to tender was delayed by one year to 2012 and the contract decision to 2014, with the introduction of trains on the Great Eastern Main Line expected from May 2017 (previously December 2016), with a correspondingly shortened production schedule. The delay was a cost-saving measure to avoid new vehicles being unused whilst Crossrail tunnelling was completed; it also postponed bidding until after a review of governmental procurement processes. Alstom withdrew from the bidding process in August 2011, stating it lacked a suitable developed product. Concerns about taxpayer value for money on PFI funded projects led to Transport for London (TfL) seeking to purchase the trains outright. In December 2011 the request to raise the debt ceiling at TfL to allow the acquisition with public funds was refused by the Department for Transport.
In February 2012, an invitation to negotiate was issued, which included clauses on 'responsible procurement' relating to UK supply chain sourcing and training opportunities; the procurement became politicised after Bombardier failed to win the Thameslink rolling stock programme, and said it may have to close its UK assembly plant (Derby Litchurch Lane) if it did not win the Crossrail contract.
Formal bids were expected in mid-2012, with a decision in early 2014, based on the proposed product meeting the design requirements, and on value for money. Procurement was expected to be partly public and partly privately financed. In September 2012, the government announced that it would underwrite a further £240 million of the project cost under its 'UK Guarantees' infrastructure credit funding scheme, in addition to the 30 per cent of the project being government funded.
Siemens withdrew from the tendering process in July 2013, citing a likelihood of insufficient production capacity in the production timeframe. In December 2013, the European Investment Bank (EIB) agreed to provide loans to Transport for London for the rolling stock of up to £500M. On 6 February 2014, it was announced that Canada's Bombardier had been awarded a £1bn contract to supply 66 trains, with an option for 18 more. In July 2017 an option for four more units was exercised taking the order to 70 units.
A total of 70 units, totalling 630 carriages, are to be built.
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit nos.|
|Class 345||TfL Rail||70||2015–2019||9||345001–345070|
The first train entered service on 22 June 2017 on the current TfL Rail route between London Liverpool Street and Shenfield as a seven-carriage unit, since, until the platforms can be lengthened there, the nine-car sets cannot be accommodated at Liverpool Street. The new units will also replace the Class 315s presently used on TfL Rail. Units introduced from May 2018 between London Paddington and Heathrow Airport will be full nine-carriage trains, with those initially delivered in seven-car formation converted by the end of 2019. The trains will have free Wi-Fi and 4G available, as well as being fully accessible for wheelchair users. The trains will operate from 25 kV AC OHLE, across the whole route, including the new tunnels.
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- Smith, Rebecca (13 July 2017). "Crossrail goes bigger: TfL doubles some Elizabeth Line services". cityam.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Clinnick, Richard (22 December 2015). "A major achievement for Liverpool Street". Rail. Bauer Media (789): 81–85. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Clinnick, Richard (22 December 2015). "Crossrail reveals design of "future-packed" Aventras". Rail. Bauer Media (789): 28–29.
- "Crossrail: New trains".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Rail Class 345.|
- "Rolling Stock Plan : Crossrail". www.dft.gov.uk. Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011.
- Trains Information from crossrail.co.uk
- Technical drawings
- Data sheet