British Rail Class 365
|British Rail Class 365|
|In service||9 December 1996 – 15 May 2021|
|Built at||Holgate Road carriage works|
|Constructed||1994 – 1995|
|Refurbished||2013 – 2016|
Bombardier Transportation Ilford
|Number built||41 sets|
|Number scrapped||1 set|
|Formation||4 cars per set|
|Fleet numbers||365501 – 365541|
|Car length||20.89 m (68 ft 6+1⁄2 in) (DMOC)|
20.06 m (65 ft 9+3⁄4 in) (Other vehicles)
|Width||2.81 m (9 ft 2+5⁄8 in)|
|Height||3.77 m (12 ft 4+3⁄8 in)|
|Maximum speed||100 mph (161 km/h)|
|Weight||151.62 t (149.23 long tons; 167.13 short tons)|
|Traction system||GTO-VVVF (GEC Alsthom)|
|Traction motors||G354CX 3-phase AC induction motor (GEC Alsthom)|
|Power output||1,256 kW (1,684 hp)|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead|
750 V DC Contact shoe (removed)
|Current collection method||Pantograph (AC)|
Contact shoe (DC) (removed)
|Safety system(s)||AWS, TPWS|
|Multiple working||Within class|
(Class 319 for assistance only)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The British Rail Class 365 Networker Express are dual-voltage (25 kV AC and 750 V DC) electric multiple-unit passenger trains built by ABB at Holgate Road carriage works in 1994/95 to operate services in South East England and the Great Northern Route. These were the last trains to be built at the Holgate Road carriage works before its closure. Due to the refurbished front end resembling a face the trains have been nicknamed and branded as "Happy trains" by Abellio ScotRail and enthusiasts.
In the early 1990s, the Networker family was entering large-scale service in the Network SouthEast sector – both third-rail 'Networker' EMUs (Class 465/Class 466) and 'Network Turbo' DMUs (Class 165/Class 166) were in service, with proposals for others, including a so-called "Universal Networker", intended as Class 371 and 381, that would have dual-voltage capability. However, by 1992, no work had been done in the development of these due to a lack of funding, so a replacement plan was required. For this, the Class 465 was modified for longer-distance services – a prototype was converted from an existing unit (designated as Class 465/3) to determine suitability, before funding was authorised for the purchase of 41 dual-voltage EMUs, each of four cars. These became the Class 365.
Although specified as a dual-voltage unit, Class 365s have never operated with this capability since they were built with only one system of traction current pickup. The first 16 (365501 to 365516), which worked briefly for Network SouthEast before the South Eastern franchise was awarded to Connex South Eastern, were originally supplied only with DC shoe gear for use on the 750 V third-rail system During testing and commissioning, 365502 ran briefly on the AC network and was the main reason for this unit being chosen as the one subleased from Connex South Eastern to WAGN to bolster unit availability in the aftermath of the Potters Bar accident in 2002). In this configuration the maximum speed was 90 mph (145 km/h).
When they transferred to West Anglia Great Northern for use with 25 kV AC overhead line traction supply, the shoes and associated equipment were removed and a Brecknell Willis high speed pantograph was installed, along with other operator and voltage-specific modifications and testing by Bombardier Transportation at its Doncaster Works.
However, the 365s retain the original 750 V DC bus, meaning that when on 25 kV overhead lines the current is collected as AC, rectified to DC for the onboard systems, and then inverted back to AC for the 3-phase traction motors. For running on overhead lines the maximum speed was raised to 100 mph (161 km/h).
Basic equipment consists of:
- DMOC A – 4x Three-phase AC traction motors, traction inverter, sander
- TOSL – Compressor, auxiliary converter, universal access toilet
- PTOSL – Pantograph, transformer, auxiliary converter, small toilet
- DMOC B – 4x Three-phase AC traction motors, traction inverter, sander
Dynamic (rheostatic) braking on the two Driving Motor coaches is available in addition to disc brakes, via a system of brake blending.
In common with the whole Networker fleet, wheel slide protection (WSP) operates on every axle. Under braking conditions a blowdown valve releases air from the brake cylinder of any axle if the rotational speed varies significantly from the average axle speed on the train.
In the lead up to the privatisation of British Rail, responsibility for the Class 365s passed to Eversholt Rail Group. However, because the British Railways Board had leased rather than purchased the Class 365s, under a clause in the original procurement contract, ownership of the remaining 40 sets passed to the Department for Transport in August 2019 after it was obliged to pay out the leases to the Royal Bank of Scotland in the event that the trains were not wanted.
The first 16 units were fitted for use on the 750 V DC lines. The first was delivered in November 1994, with testing commencing on 15 June 1995. Their first use in service occurred on 13 October 1996, however problems in obtaining a safety case, meant they did not enter full service with Connex South Eastern until 16 June 1997. Before it entered service, 365513 was damaged in a shunting incident at Chart Leacon TMD and forwarded to Doncaster Works in November 1996.
From August 2002 until January 2003, 365502 was sublet to WAGN to provide cover after 365526 was involved in the Potters Bar accident. All passed with the franchise to South Eastern Trains in November 2003. All were transferred to West Anglia Great Northern in 2004.
Twenty-five Class 365s (365517 to 365541) were delivered to Hornsey TMD to operate services on the East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Peterborough and King's Lynn. The first entered service with Network SouthEast on 9 December 1996. All were included in the transfer of the franchise to West Anglia Great Northern in January 1997. The last was delivered in July 1998.
As part of a project to fit driver's cab air-conditioning, all received new fronts in 2001/02. In May 2002, 365526 was involved in the Potters Bar accident, it was subsequently written off. From August 2002 until January 2003, 365502 was sublet from Connex South Eastern to provide cover. In 2004, all 16 of Connex South Eastern examples (365501 to 365516) were transferred to West Anglia Great Northern to release Class 317s for use on the Thameslink route.
The remaining 40 sets passed with the franchise to First Capital Connect in April 2006. A refurbishment program at Ilford EMU Depot commenced in January 2014. All passed with the Thameslink, Southern & Great Northern franchise to Govia Thameslink Railway in September 2014.
In 2017, the Class 365 fleet were relegated to peak-hour services after Class 387s and 700s entered service. It was proposed that some would be transferred to operate services on the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to Newbury and Oxford, but this was aborted with new Class 387s purchased instead.
Great Northern retained 21 sets to operate limited stop peak-time services between London King's Cross-Peterborough and London King's Cross-Royston. The remaining sets were placed in store in Ely.
In June 2018, ten were transferred to Abellio ScotRail to operate services from Edinburgh to Glasgow and Stirling. The other nine moved from Ely to King's Heath TMD, Northampton for further storage before moving to Crewe in September 2018.
The last day of service for the 365s on Great Northern was on 15 May 2021.
In April 2018 ten Class 365s (509, 513, 517, 519, 521, 523, 525, 529, 533 and 537) were leased to Abellio ScotRail in response to a rolling stock shortage which was caused by the delayed entry to service of the new Class 385s and the imminent transfer of a number of DMUs to Arriva Rail North. They entered service on 23 June 2018 on Glasgow to Edinburgh and Stirling services after modifications and driver training. The ScotRail units were withdrawn in March 2019 and moved to Crewe where they are kept in warm store by Rail Operations Group.
- 365526 – DMOC B and PTOSL were damaged in the Potters Bar rail crash in 2002. After being stored at Crewe Works and later Wolverton Works until the Rail Accident Investigation Branch had completed its investigations, two carriages were used for target practice at RAF Spadeadam, while one was taken to Ilford EMU Depot for stripping of spare parts.
- 365531 – DMOC A was damaged in a fatal collision with a tractor at Black Horse Drove crossing in October 2005.
- 365532 – DMOC A was damaged in a collision with a tractor at Hatson's User-Worked Crossing in September 2011
- 365512 – DMOC B was damaged in a fatal collision with a car at Pleasants crossing in July 2012.
- A Class 365 unit collided at low speed with another it was due to couple onto at Cambridge station on 30 May 2015. Three passengers sustained slight injuries.
- 365520 – DMOC B was damaged in a collision with a Land Rover at Nairns User-Worked Crossing in August 2016
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit nos.|
|Class 365||Stored||40||1994-1995||4||365501–525, 365527–541|
Some were named. 365505 and 365515 were named by Connex South Eastern, and have subsequently been removed. Vinyl nameplates with a pink backing were applied to the driving vehicles, behind the cab doors, by First Capital Connect. Following a repaint into Great Northern colours most were removed, however several have since been reapplied in the same style but with a light blue backing.
- 365505 – Spirit of Ramsgate
- 365506 – The Royston Express
- 365513 – Hornsey Depot
- 365514 – Captain George Vancouver
- 365515 – Spirit of Dover
- 365517 – Supporting Red Balloon
- 365518 – The Fenman
- 365519 – Peterborough - Environment City
- 365521 – Steven
- 365527 – Passengers' Champion
- 365530 – The Interlink Partnership
- 365531 – Nelson's County - Norfolk
- 365533 – Max Appeal
- 365536 – Rufus Barnes – Chief Executive of London TravelWatch for 25 years
- 365537 – Daniel Edwards – Cambridge Driver 1974–2010
- "👋 Today we bid farewell to our Class 365s". Great Northern. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- "Class 365 Electric Multiple Unit". Eversholt Rail Group.
- Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. (Unit information) January 1998.
- Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.6 (Unit information) January 1998.
- "FROM THE ARCHIVES: 'Happy Trains' are award-winning trains". Rail. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
- Future Secured for ABB York The Railway Magazine issue 1112 December 1993 page 8
- Class 365 Networker Express Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine Kent Rail
- Class 365 Networker Express Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Southern E-Group. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Class 365 Networker Express Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine TheRailwayCentre.Com. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.9 (Class 365 Unit Formation) Connex South Eastern January 1998
- Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.6 (Unit information) Connex South Eastern January 1998
- GN gets to grips with exiled 365s The Railway Magazine issue 1240 August 2004 page 66
- Class 365 Drivers' Guide p.3 (General information & differences between 313’s, 315’s, 317’s & 365’s) First Capital Connect 2009
- The Class 365 Drivers' Guide. First Capital Connect. 2009.
- 25 Years of ROSCOs Rail Express issue 281 October 2019 page 20
- Government takes ownership of Class 365 fleet The Railway Magazine issue 1422 September 2019 page 105
- DfT takes ownership of Class 365 fleet Today's Railways UK issue 214 October 2019 page 69
- ABB delivers first lease-financed Networker Express Railway Gazette International December 1994 page 817
- Networker Express testing begins Rail issue 256 5 July 1995 page 63
- Networker debut for Connex Rail issue 295 1 January 1997 page 55
- East Kent's first new commuter trains in 40 years Rail issue 308 2 July 1997 page 7
- Class 365s enter service on Connex SE The Railway Magazine issue 1157 September 1997 page 62
- Unlucky Network Express Rail issue 293 4 December 1996
- Connex 365 replaces WAGN's Potter Bar EMU Rail issue 443 4 September 2002 page 5
- WAGN returns Connex Class 365 Rail issue 454 18 February 2003 page 55
- SET releases 365s to WAGN Rail issue 485 14 April 2004 page 26
- Class 365s finish with SET Entrain issue 30 June 2004 page 29
- Class 365 electric units finally put into action on selected WAGN services Rail issue 296 15 January 1997 page 50
- Class 365s go live on WAGN The Railway Magazine issue 1150 February 1997 page 49
- WAGN formally accepts final 365s Rail issue 336 29 July 1998 page 8
- Air-conditioned smile for WAGN's Networkers Rail issue 419 3 October 2001 page 12
- New face for 365s The Railway Magazine issue 1208 December 2001 page 81
- Potters Bar Class 365 finally written-off Rail issue 489 9 June 2004 page 23
- GN gets to grips with exiled 365s The Railway Magazine issue 1240 August 2004 page 66
- New-look train enters service on Great Northern route First Capital Connect 16 January 2014
- First Great Western plans AT300s to Cornwall Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine Railway Gazette International 23 March 2015
- Class 365 and 387/1 units for Great Western Rail Express issue 228 May 2015 page 10
- Replacement Anglia Fleets Modern Railways issue 816 September 2016 page 15
- "Rolling Stock Perspective" (PDF). Department for Transport. May 2016. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Improvement Factsheet: Great Northern Outer Services". GTR. p. 2. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Class 365s taken for storage at Ely Rail issue 847 28 February 2018 page 20
- First Class 365s sent for secure storage in East Anglia The Railway Magazine issue 1404 March 2018 page 99
- Stopgap Class 365s join ScotRail fleet Railways Illustrated issue 185 July 2018 page 10
- Networkers enter service with ScotRail Rail Express issue 267 August 2018 page 96
- ScotRail Introduces 365s on E&G Modern Railways issue 839 August 2018 page 100
- Stored 365s on the move again Today's Railways UK issue 262 October 2018 page 69
- Stored Class 365s moved Railways Illustrated issue 189 November 2018 page 17
- "Great Northern - Future-changes-to-trains-on-Great-Northern-routes". www.greatnorthernrail.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- Stand down for GTR 365s Railways Illustrated May 2021 page 10
- Clinnick, Richard. "ScotRail hires in Class 365s for Glasgow-Edinburgh route". RAIL Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Dalton, Alastair. "New ScotRail trains to ease crush on Edinburgh-Glasgow line". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- ScotRail withdraws its Class 365 fleet Rail Express issue 276 May 2019 page 98
- Class 365s to be stored at Crewe Rail issue 880 5 June 2019 page 27
- Office of Rail Regulation Archived 4 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine – ORR: Accident & Incident Investigation – Potters Bar. Retrieved 13 February 2011
- 365 526 disposal Today's Railways UK issue 133 January 2013 page 66
- EMU Rail Express issue 239 April 2016 page 91
- Black Horse Drove Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine Rail Accident Investigation Branch
- Hatson's Crossing Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine Rail Accident Investigation Branch
- Driver killed in crash with train on 'user operated' level-crossing Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine Evening Standard 12 July 2012
- George, Martin (30 May 2015). "Low-speed train crash injures three people at Cambridge Station". Eastern Daily Press. Norwich. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Probe after train hits Land Rover on track Archived 24 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine BBC News 12 August 2016
- "GTR begins withdrawal of Class 365s". Rail. No. 928. 7 April 2021. p. 31.
- "Ownership of '365s' to Eversholt". Rail. No. 930. 5 May 2021. p. 30.
- Train named for town at special ceremony Archived 2 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Royston Crow 5 February 2011
- WAGN's final picture train Rail issue 529 21 December 2005 page 51
- One joins Trafalgar namings along with WAGN at King Lynn Rail issue 524 12 October 2005 page 13
- NXEA to name Class 90 Rail issue 589 9 April 2008 page 59
Media related to British Rail Class 365 at Wikimedia Commons