British Rail Class 385

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British Rail Class 385 AT200
385003 at Linlithgow.jpg
385003 at Linlithgow with a service to Edinburgh Waverley
Class 385 Standard Class Interior.jpg
Standard class interior
In service24 July 2018 – 4 October 2018[1]
13 October 2018 – present
ManufacturerHitachi Rail
Built atKasado Works, Japan
Newton Aycliffe, UK
Family nameA-Train
ReplacedClass 156
Class 158
Class 170
Class 314
Constructed2015 – present
Number under construction70 units to be built
10 unit optional follow up order after 2020
Formation46 x 3-carriage (385/0)
24 x 4-carriage (385/1)
Capacity385/0: 206 seats
385/1: 273 seats (20 first class, 253 standard)[2]
Operator(s)Abellio ScotRail
Line(s) servedGlasgow to Edinburgh via Falkirk Line
Stirling / Alloa / Dunblane Lines
Shotts Line
Carstairs Line
North Berwick Line
Cathcart Circle Lines
Cumbernauld Line
Inverclyde Line
Car body constructionAluminum double-skin[3]
Car length23 m (75 ft 6 in)[2]
Maximum speed100 mph (161 km/h)[2]
Traction system250 kW (335 hp) tandem motor with an IGBT converter/inverter[3]
Acceleration0.84 m/s/s (3.0 km/(h⋅s); 1.9 mph/s)[3]
Decelerationnormal: 1 m/s/s (3.6 km/(h⋅s); 2.2 mph/s)
emergency: 1.2 m/s/s (4.3 km/(h⋅s); 2.7 mph/s)[3]
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead
Current collection methodPantograph
Braking system(s)Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes[3]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Sources : Rolling Stock overview
Except where noted

The Class 385[4] is an electric multiple unit built by Hitachi Rail for Abellio ScotRail. A total of 70 units have been built, divided into 46 three-car and 24 four-car sets.[5] The new trains were bought to operate services on newly electrified lines in the Central Belt on a mixture of both suburban and inter-urban routes and entered service in July 2018.


A Class 385 bodyshell being built by Hitachi

In October 2014, immediately after being awarded the ScotRail franchise, Abellio, a subsidiary of the Dutch national rail operator Nederlandse Spoorwegen, announced that it had concluded an agreement with the Japanese manufacturer Hitachi Rail to procure 234 new EMU carriages from its AT-200 product series for use on routes in Scotland that were being electrified.[6] The trains, which are formed into a mix of three and four-car units, were intended to operate along the main Glasgow to Edinburgh via Falkirk Line from December 2017,[7] and across Central Scotland.[8][needs update] The electrification programme, and purchase of new EMUs to operate services, will allow a subsequent cascade of the diesel multiple units currently used elsewhere on the network.

The order for the new EMUs was the first operator-based purchase of a Hitachi product for use in the UK following the IEP procurement, and its subsequent construction of its new Hitachi Newton Aycliffe facility at Newton Aycliffe, England. The bulk of the new fleet will be constructed there, with the first seven units being built at Hitachi's Kasado Works factory in Kudamatsu, Japan.[9] Construction of the first units began in November 2015 and the first units were delivered in December 2016.[10][5][11][12]

An additional ten 3-car units will be purchased by Abellio if Transport Scotland exercise the option to extend the Scotrail contract from 7 to 10 years. These units would enter service in 2023.[13]

It was reported in February 2018 that during testing, problems had been found with the visibility and curvature of the driver windows, which are smaller than usual, leading to drivers seeing "two or three signals", when only one exists.[14][15][16] It was also reported in March 2018 that there were software issues with the trains, causing the entry into service to be further deferred to December 2018. However, following progress to resolve the windscreen issue, the trains entered service on 24 July 2018.[17] Due to a critical brake failure involving the brakes being locked off and isolated, all units were withdrawn on 4 October 2018,[18] but the units re-entered service on 13 October 2018. Due to delays with the Class 385 entering service, ScotRail hired ten Class 365 as an interim measure between 2018 and 2019, until sufficient new Class 385 units had entered service.


As of 16 May 2019, fifty-seven Class 385 units are now in service.

The new trains will also operate on the newly electrified Croy, Dunblane and Shotts lines as well as replacing existing stock on the currently electrified Carstairs and Cathcart Circle Lines. This will allow for the replacement of ScotRail's Class 314 fleet, and allow for the cascading of a number of Class 156, Class 158 and Class 170 units.[19]


Despite being newly built post-2014, the Class 385 units do not include a wheelchair space in 1st Class, restricting wheelchair users to Standard Class. [20]


The trains are provided to Abellio Scotrail through a leasing arrangement. The ownership resides with Caledonian Rail Leasing Ltd., a subsidiary company of Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation.[21]

Fleet details[edit]

Class Operator No. Built Year Built Cars per Set Unit nos.
Class 385/0 Abellio ScotRail 46 2015-2019 3 385001–385046
10 2022-2023 385047–385056[1]
Class 385/1 24 2015-2019 4 385101–385124

1: ^ Conditional on Abellio ScotRail franchise being extended.[22]


  1. ^ "Brand new ScotRail trains withdrawn over defective brakes".
  2. ^ a b c Milne, Andy. "Building ScotRail's 385s".
  3. ^ a b c d e "Class 385". Hitachi. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  4. ^ Clinnick, Richard (30 October 2015). "Hitachi's new Scottish EMU construction starts next month". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  5. ^ a b "AT200 for Scotland: 70 new trains for the upcoming ScotRail franchise". Hitachi Rail Europe. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  6. ^ "Hitachi to build ScotRail EMUs". Railway Gazette. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  7. ^ "ScotRail punctuality on the rise - but row over free travel".
  8. ^ "Electrification programme". Transport Scotland. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  9. ^ "Kasado Works, Railway Systems Business Unit, Hitachi, Ltd.: Environmental Activities: Hitachi".
  10. ^ "ScotRail takes delivery of first new electric train". BBC News. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  11. ^ "ScotRail on Twitter".
  12. ^ "ScotRail's delayed new trains not now expected until March".
  13. ^ "Scotrail Franchise Agreement" (PDF). Transport Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  14. ^ "Safety worry over new ScotRail trains". BBC News. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Drivers of new ScotRail trains 'can't see signals'". Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  16. ^ "Fish bowl vision problem scuppers plans for new trains". Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  17. ^ Strachan, Graeme. ""Deeply disappointing" delay to introduction of new hourly rail service for Broughty Ferry and Angus".
  18. ^ "New ScotRail trains taken out of service". 5 October 2018 – via
  19. ^ "Scotrail unveil £475m improvement plan". BBC News. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Abellio and Hitachi sign ScotRail train contract". Railway Gazette. 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  22. ^ Pritchard, Robert (March 2016). "Rolling Stock Update". Today's Railways. Platform 5 Publishing (171): 56–60.