British Rail Class 385

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British Rail Class 385 AT200
385008 at Gourock station buffers.jpg
385008 at Gourock on the Inverclyde Line
Class 385 Standard Class Interior.jpg
Standard class interior
In service24 July 2018 – 4 October 2018[1]
13 October 2018 – present
ManufacturerHitachi Rail
Built atKasado Works, Japan
Newton Aycliffe, England
Family nameA-Train
ReplacedClass 156
Class 158
Class 170
Class 314
Constructed2015 – 2019
Number built70 units
Formation46 x 3-carriage (385/0)
24 x 4-carriage (385/1)
Capacity385/0: 206 seats
385/1: 273 seats (20 first class, 253 standard)[2]
Operator(s)Abellio ScotRail
Line(s) servedGlasgow to Edinburgh via Falkirk Line
Stirling / Alloa / Dunblane Lines
Shotts Line
Carstairs Line
North Berwick Line
Cathcart Circle Lines
Cumbernauld Line
Inverclyde Line
Glasgow Central to Lanark
Edinburgh Waverley to Dunbar
Car body constructionAluminum double-skin[3]
Car length23 m (75 ft 5 12 in)[2]
Maximum speed100 mph (161 km/h)[2]
Traction system250 kW (335 hp) tandem motor with an IGBT converter/inverter[3]
Acceleration0.84 m/s2 (3.0 km/(h⋅s); 1.9 mph/s)[3]
Decelerationnormal: 1 m/s2 (3.6 km/(h⋅s); 2.2 mph/s)
emergency: 1.2 m/s2 (4.3 km/(h⋅s); 2.7 mph/s)[3]
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead
Current collection methodPantograph
Braking system(s)Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes[3]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Sources : Rolling Stock overview
Except where noted

The British Rail Class 385 AT200[4] is a type of electric multiple unit built by Hitachi Rail for Abellio ScotRail. A total of 70 units have been built, divided into 46 three-car and 24 four-car sets. Based on the design of the Hitachi A-train, they are part of the Hitachi AT200 product family.[5][6]

The trains were built to operate services on newly electrified lines in the Central Belt on a mixture of both suburban and inter-urban routes. They first entered service in July 2018.


A Class 385 bodyshell being built by Hitachi

In October 2014, immediately after being awarded the ScotRail franchise, Abellio ScotRail announced it had concluded an agreement with the Japanese manufacturer Hitachi Rail to procure 234 new EMU carriages from its A-Train family for use on routes in Scotland that were being electrified.[7] The trains, which are formed into a mix of three and four-car units, were intended to operate along the main Glasgow to Edinburgh via Falkirk Line from December 2017,[8] and across Central Scotland.[9][needs update] The electrification programme, and purchase of new EMUs to operate services, will allow a subsequent cascade of the diesel multiple units currently used elsewhere on the network.

The order for the new EMUs was the first operator-based purchase of a Hitachi product for use in the UK following the IEP procurement, and its subsequent construction of its new Hitachi Newton Aycliffe facility at Newton Aycliffe, England. The bulk of the new fleet will be constructed there, with the first seven units being built at Hitachi's Kasado Works factory in Kudamatsu, Japan.[10] Construction of the first units began in November 2015 and the first units were delivered in December 2016.[11][5][12][13]

An additional ten 3-car units were to be purchased if Transport Scotland exercised an option to extend Abellio ScotRail's contract from seven to 10 years. These were to have entered service in 2023.[14] The option was not taken up.[15]

It was reported in February 2018 that during testing, problems had been found with the visibility and curvature of the driver windows, which are smaller than usual, leading to drivers seeing "two or three signals", when only one exists.[16][17][18] It was also reported in March 2018 that there were software issues with the trains, causing the entry into service to be further deferred to December 2018. However, following progress to resolve the windscreen issue, the trains entered service on 24 July 2018.[19] Due to a critical brake failure involving the brakes being locked off and isolated[citation needed], all units were withdrawn on 4 October 2018,[20] but the units re-entered service on 13 October 2018. Due to delays with the Class 385 entering service, ScotRail hired ten Class 365 as an interim measure between 2018 and 2019, until sufficient new Class 385 units had entered service.


All 70 Class 385 units are now in service as of December 2019.

The new trains now operate on the newly electrified Croy, Dunblane and Shotts lines as well as replacing existing stock on the currently electrified Carstairs, Cathcart Circle Lines, Inverclyde Line plus Edinburgh to North Berwick[21] and Glasgow Central to Lanark services. This has allowed the replacement of ScotRail's Class 314 fleet, and the cascading of a number of Class 156, Class 158 and Class 170 units.[22][23]


The trains are provided to Abellio Scotrail through a leasing arrangement. The ownership resides with Caledonian Rail Leasing Ltd., a subsidiary company of Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation.[24]


  1. ^ "Brand new ScotRail trains withdrawn over defective brakes".
  2. ^ a b c Milne, Andy. "Building ScotRail's 385s".
  3. ^ a b c d e "Class 385". Hitachi. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  4. ^ Clinnick, Richard (30 October 2015). "Hitachi's new Scottish EMU construction starts next month". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  5. ^ a b "AT200 for Scotland: 70 new trains for the upcoming ScotRail franchise". Hitachi Rail Europe. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  6. ^ "Class 385 for Scotland | Hitachi Rail EU". Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  7. ^ "Hitachi to build ScotRail EMUs". Railway Gazette. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  8. ^ "ScotRail punctuality on the rise – but row over free travel".
  9. ^ "Electrification programme". Transport Scotland. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  10. ^ "Kasado Works, Railway Systems Business Unit, Hitachi, Ltd.: Environmental Activities: Hitachi".
  11. ^ "ScotRail takes delivery of first new electric train". BBC News. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  12. ^ "ScotRail on Twitter".
  13. ^ "ScotRail's delayed new trains not now expected until March".
  14. ^ "Scotrail Franchise Agreement" (PDF). Transport Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  15. ^ ScotRail franchise to end in 2022 Railway Gazette International 19 December 2019
  16. ^ "Safety worry over new ScotRail trains". BBC News. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  17. ^ "Drivers of new ScotRail trains 'can't see signals'". Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  18. ^ "Fish bowl vision problem scuppers plans for new trains". Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  19. ^ Strachan, Graeme. ""Deeply disappointing" delay to introduction of new hourly rail service for Broughty Ferry and Angus".
  20. ^ "New ScotRail trains taken out of service". 5 October 2018 – via
  21. ^ The Railway Observer March 2020 (no. 1093, volume 90) p.171
  22. ^ "Scotrail unveil £475m improvement plan". BBC News. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  23. ^ "BRAND New Trains To Feature In Inverclyde As 40-Year-Old Units Sidelined". Inverclyde Now. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019. from 19 May, Class 314 units – which have attracted complaints from passengers over reliability and lack of facilities – are only scheduled to run on three early morning, Monday to Friday Gourock services ... New Class 385 trains will operate on some Gourock services.
  24. ^ "Abellio and Hitachi sign ScotRail train contract". Railway Gazette. 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.