British Rail Class 414

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British Rail Class 414
2 HAP
2 hap emu.jpg
2 HAP unit 6023 at Seaford in 1979
In service 1956-1995
Manufacturer BR Eastleigh Works
Order no.
  • 30316 (DTCsoL, 77115-77118)
  • 30319 (DMBSO, 65397-65403)
  • 30320 (DTCsoL, 77119-77125)
  • 30388 (DMBSO, 65404-65435)
  • 30389 (DTCsoL, 77126-77156)
  • 30452 (DMBSO, 61241-61303)
  • 30453 (DTCsoL, 75361-75423)
  • 30617 (DMBSO, 61648-61688)
  • 30618 (DTCsoL, 75700-75740)
  • 30711 (DMBSO, 61962-61988)
  • 30712 (DTCsoL, 75995-76021)[1]
Replaced Class 402[1]
Constructed 1956-1963[1][2]
Entered service 1957
Number built 209
Formation 2 cars per trainset:
DMBSO+DTCsoL
Diagram
  • EB269 or BR400 (DMBSO)
  • EB270 or BR400 (DMBSO)
  • EB279 (65405, refurbished)
  • EE361 or BR441 (DTCsoL)[1][3]
Design code 2 HAP
Fleet numbers
  • 6001-6042, later 42xx (414/2, sets)
  • 6043-6173, later 43xx (414/3, sets)
  • 61241-61303, 61648-61688, 61962-61988, 65393-65434 (DMBS)
  • 75361-75423, 75700-75740, 75995-76021, 77115-77156 (DTC)[4]
Capacity
  • 19F/134S (total)
  • 84S (DMBS)
  • 19F/50S (DTC)[4]
Operator(s) Southern Region of British Rail
Depot(s)
Specifications
Car body construction Steel[3]
Train length 132 ft 8 12 in (40.450 m)[4]
Car length 63 ft 11 12 in (19.495 m)[3]
Width 9 ft 3 in (2.819 m)[3]
Height 12 ft 8 in (3.86 m) (overall)[3]
Entry 3 ft 9 in (1.14 m)[3]
Doors Slam[4]
Wheelbase
  • 46 ft 6 in (14.17 m) (bogie centres)
  • 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m) (motor bogie)
  • 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) (others)[3]
Maximum speed 90 mph (140 km/h)[2]
Weight
  • 42 t (41 long tons; 46 short tons) (DMBSO)
  • 32.5 t (32.0 long tons; 35.8 short tons) (DTCsoL)[2]
Traction motors Two EE507 [3][4]
Power output 2 x 250 hp (186 kW)
500 hp (373 kW)[4]
Train heating Electric[3]
Electric system(s) 750/850 V DC third rail[3]
Current collection method Contact shoe
UIC classification Bo′2′+2′2′
Bogies
Braking system(s) Air (EP/Auto)[4]
Coupling system
Multiple working 1951, 1957, 1963, 1966 SR Emus[4]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 414 (or 2 HAP) were 2-car electric multiple units that were built between 1956 and 1963. They were withdrawn in 1995.

History[edit]

The class formed part of the Southern Region's express fleet, and were fitted with the standard 90 mph (140 km/h) express gear ratio, for such units. This was primarily because a number of their duties, involved working in multiple with the 4 CEP Express fleet, also of 90mph maximum speed. Three batches (209 units) were built.

The first batch of thirty-six units were built on the reclaimed underframes of older 2 NOL units, to the old SR-style Bulleid design and numbered in the range 5601–5636. These units had the formation Driving Motor Brake Open Second (DMBSO) + Driving Trailer Composite with lavatory (DTCK). In 1969, the first class seating in 12 units was downgraded in the DTCKL, becoming DTSK. The units were then reclassified as 2-SAP. First class was restored in 1970 and they regained their former identities. All were withdrawn by 1982, with the DMBSO getting refurbished and integrated into the class 415 refurbishment programme. The DTSKs were scrapped.

The second and third batches of units, numbered 6001–6049 and 6050–6173 respectively, were formed DMBSO + DTCsoL, as opposed to the earlier DTCK, and were built to the newer standard Mark 1 coach profile. From 1974, 49 of these later units had their first class accommodation downgraded to second class. They were also reclassified as 2-SAP and renumbered 5901–5951. They were converted back to their original configuration in 1980 (with the exception of one scrapped in 1978) when many of these two later batches of units were reformed to class 413/2 and 413/3 4-CAP units. 5951 was again converted back to a 2-SAP in 1982.

With the introduction of yellow warning panels from late 1963 the motor coaches of all Southern Region 2 and 3-car units were equipped with an inverted black triangle in order to provide an early visual indication to station staff that there was no brake van at the other end of the unit. As units such the 4 CAP stock had a brake van at each end of the unit they were not so equipped.

In compliance with the TOPS numbering system, surviving units from the range 6001–6049 got renumbered into the 42xx series (class 414/2); the surviving units of 6050–6173 became 43xx (class 414/3).

Withdrawals of the class began in 1982 and modernisation of the units began in 1983, when 10 DMBSO from withdrawn units were converted for use on the Gatwick Express service in conjunction with converted loco-hauled Open First (FO) and Open Second (SO) vehicles and class 73 locomotives. These vehicles were classified as 489 with "units" numbered 9101–9110 and individual carriage numbers 68500–68509.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 16 November 1970, a unit of the class was derailed at London Bridge.[5]
  • On 26 February 1971, a train formed by five units of the class overran the buffers at Sheerness-on-Sea, Kent. One person was killed and ten were injured.[5]

Preservation[edit]

Two units have been preserved:

Table of preserved units
Unit number
(current in bold)
DMBSO DTCso Built Livery Location
4311 - - 61287 70547 1958 Eastleigh Network South East Electric Railway Museum, Warwickshire
4308 - - 61275 75395 1958 Eastleigh Network South East National Railway Museum

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Longworth 2015, pp. 58-59, 127-128, 132, 137, 147-148, 177-178, 182, 187, 200-201
  2. ^ a b c d e Fox 1987, pp. 82-83
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Vehicle Diagram Book No.210 for Electrical Multiple Units (including A.P.T.)" (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. BRB Residuary Ltd. EB269, EB270, EE361. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Class 414". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Moody 1979, p. 212.

Sources[edit]

  • Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580. 
  • Longworth, Hugh (2015). British Railways Electric Multiple Units to 1975. Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860936688. OCLC 923205678. 
  • Marsden, Colin J. (1983). Southern Electric Multiple-Units 1948–1983. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited. ISBN 0-7110-1314-4. 
  • Moody, G. T. (1979) [1957]. Southern Electric 1909-1979 (Fifth ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 0 7110 0924 4.