British Rail Class 414
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|British Rail Class 414|
|Manufacturer||BR Eastleigh Works|
|Formation||2 cars per trainset:|
|Design code||2 HAP|
|Line(s) served||Southern Region|
|Car body construction||Steel|
|Width||9 ft 3 in (2.819 m)|
|Entry||BR: 3 ft 9 in (1.14 m)|
|Maximum speed||BR: 90 mph (140 km/h)|
|Traction motors||Two EE507 |
|Power output||2 x 250 hp (186 kW)|
500 hp (373 kW)
|Electric system(s)||750/850 V DC third rail|
|Current collection method||Contact shoe|
|Braking system(s)||Air (EP/Auto)|
|Multiple working||1951, 1957, 1963, 1966 SR Emus|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The class formed part of the Southern Region's express fleet, and were fitted with the standard 90 mph (140 km/h) express gear ratio, for such units. This was primarily because a number of their duties, involved working in multiple with the 4 CEP Express fleet, also of 90 mph maximum speed. Three batches (209 units) were built.
The first batch of thirty-six units were built on the reclaimed underframes of older 2 NOL units, to the old SR-style Bulleid design and numbered in the range 5601–5636. These units had the formation Driving Motor Brake Open Second (DMBSO) + Driving Trailer Composite with lavatory (DTCK). In 1969, the first class seating in 12 units was downgraded in the DTCKL, becoming DTSK. The units were then reclassified as 2-SAP. First class was restored in 1970 and they regained their former identities. All were withdrawn by 1982, with the DMBSO getting refurbished and integrated into the class 415 refurbishment programme. The DTSKs were scrapped.
The second and third batches of units, numbered 6001–6042 and 6043–6173 respectively, were formed DMBSO + DTCsoL, as opposed to the earlier DTCK, and were built to the newer standard Mark 1 coach profile. The DMBSO vehicles were to Diagram 400, the same as in the BR-designed Southern Region 2 EPB units, and orders in the second batch consisted of vehicles for both unit types. From 1974, 51 units had their first class accommodation downgraded to second class. They were also reclassified as 2-SAP and renumbered 5901–5951. They were converted back to their original configuration in 1980 (with the exception of one disbanded in 1978 due to accident damage) when many of these two later batches of units were reformed to class 413/2 and 413/3 4-CAP units. 5951 was again converted back to a 2-SAP in 1982.
With the introduction of yellow warning panels from late 1963 the motor coaches of all Southern Region 2 and 3-car units were equipped with an inverted black triangle in order to provide an early visual indication to station staff that there was no brake van at the other end of the unit. As units such the 4 CAP stock had a brake van at each end of the unit they were not so equipped.
In compliance with the TOPS numbering system, surviving units from the range 6001–6042 were renumbered into the 42xx series (class 414/2); the surviving units of 6043–6173 became 43xx (class 414/3).
Withdrawals of the class began in 1982 and modernisation of the units began in 1983, when 10 DMBSO from withdrawn units were converted for use on the Gatwick Express service in conjunction with converted loco-hauled Open First (FO) and Open Second (SO) vehicles and class 73 locomotives. These vehicles were classified as Class 489 with "units" numbered 9101–9110 and individual carriage numbers 68500–68509.
Accidents and incidents
- On 16 November 1970, a unit of the class was derailed at London Bridge.
- On 26 February 1971, a train formed by five units of the class overran the buffers at Sheerness-on-Sea, Kent. One person was killed and ten were injured.
Two complete units have been preserved; (with a further four driving motor coaches, see Class 489):
(current in bold)
|4311||-||-||61287||75407||1958 Eastleigh||Network South East||Darley Dale, Peak Rail, Derbyshire|
|4308||-||-||61275||75395||1958 Eastleigh||Network South East on one side, BR Blue on the other.||National Railway Museum|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Rail Class 414.|
- Longworth 2015, pp. 58–59, 127–128, 132, 137, 147–148, 177–178, 182, 187, 200–201
- "Class 414". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Fox 1987, pp. 82–83
- "Vehicle Diagram Book No.210 for Electrical Multiple Units (including A.P.T.)" (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. BRB Residuary Ltd. EB269, EB270, EE361. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "British Rail's Southern Region 2 EPB Units (British Rail Type)". Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- Moody 1979, p. 212.
- "BR (Southern) 2-HAP - Principle Data". Suburban Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- "2-car units for semi-fast and stopping services (2Hap, 2Sap and 4Cap)". Southern Electric Group. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580.
- Longworth, Hugh (2015). British Railways Electric Multiple Units to 1975. Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860936688. OCLC 923205678.
- Marsden, Colin J. (1983). Southern Electric Multiple-Units 1948–1983. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited. ISBN 0-7110-1314-4.
- Moody, G. T. (1979) . Southern Electric 1909-1979 (Fifth ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 0-7110-0924-4.