British Rail Class 414

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British Rail Class 414
2 HAP
2 hap emu.jpg
2 HAP unit 6023 at Seaford in 1979
In service1956-1995
ManufacturerBR Eastleigh Works
Order no.
  • BR: 30314 (DMBSO, 65393-65396)
  • 30316 (DTCsoL, 77115-77118)
  • 30319 (DMBSO, 65397-65403)
  • 30320 (DTCsoL, 77119-77125)
  • 30388 (DMBSO, 65404-65434)
  • 30389 (DTCsoL, 77126-77156)
  • 30452 (DMBSO, 61241-61303)
  • 30453 (DTCsoL, 75361-75423)
  • 30617 (DMBSO, 61648-61688)
  • 30618 (DTCsoL, 75700-75740)
  • 30711 (DMBSO, 61962-61988)
  • 30712 (DTCsoL, 75995-76021)[1][2]
ReplacedClass 402[1]
Constructed1956-1963[1][3]
Entered service1957
Number built209
Formation2 cars per trainset:
DMBSO+DTCsoL
Diagram
  • BR: EB269 or BR400 (DMBSO)
  • EB270 or BR400 (DMBSO)
  • EB279 (65405, refurbished)
  • EE361 or BR441 (DTCsoL)[1][4]
Design code2 HAP
Fleet numbers
  • SR design: 5601-5636 (414/1, sets)
  • BR design: 6001-6042, later 42xx (414/2, sets)
  • 6043-6173, later 43xx (414/3, sets)
  • 14521-14556, 61241-61303, 61648-61688, 61962-61988, 65393-65434 (DMBS)
  • 16001-16036, 75361-75423, 75700-75740, 75995-76021, 77115-77156 (DTC)[2]
Capacity
  • SR: 18F/122S (total)
  • 84S (DMBS)
  • 18F/38S (DTC)[2]
  • BR: 19F/134S (total)
  • 84S (DMBS)
  • 19F/50S (DTC)[2]
Operator(s)Southern Region of British Rail
Depot(s)
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel[4]
Train length
  • SR: 129 ft 6 in (39.47 m)
  • BR: 132 ft 8 12 in (40.450 m) [2]
Car length
  • SR: 62 ft 6 in (19.05 m)
  • BR: 63 ft 11 12 in (19.495 m)[4]
Width9 ft 3 in (2.819 m)[4]
Height
  • SR: 12 ft 9 12 in (3.899 m)
  • BR: 12 ft 9 14 in (3.893 m)[2]
EntryBR: 3 ft 9 in (1.14 m)[4]
DoorsSlam[2]
Wheelbase
  • BR: 46 ft 6 in (14.17 m) (bogie centres)
  • 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m) (motor bogie)
  • 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) (others)[4]
Maximum speedBR: 90 mph (140 km/h)[3]
Weight
  • SR: 40 t (39 long tons; 44 short tons) (DMBSO)
  • 32 t (31 long tons; 35 short tons)[2]
  • BR: 42 t (41 long tons; 46 short tons) (DMBSO)
  • 32.5 t (32.0 long tons; 35.8 short tons) (DTCsoL)[3]
Traction motorsTwo EE507 [4][2]
Power output2 x 250 hp (186 kW)
500 hp (373 kW)[2]
Train heatingElectric[4]
Electric system(s)750/850 V DC third rail[4]
Current collection methodContact shoe
UIC classificationBo′2′+2′2′
Bogies
  • SR: SR
  • BR: Commonwealth (inner), mk3 (outer) (sets, 6112-6141)
  • Mk4 (others)[3]
Braking system(s)Air (EP/Auto)[2]
Coupling system
Multiple working1951, 1957, 1963, 1966 SR Emus[2]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 414 (or 2 HAP) were 2-car electric multiple units that were built between 1956 and 1963. They were withdrawn in 1995.

History[edit]

The class formed part of the Southern Region's express fleet, and were fitted with the standard 90 mph (140 km/h) express gear ratio, for such units. This was primarily because a number of their duties, involved working in multiple with the 4 CEP Express fleet, also of 90 mph maximum speed. Three batches (209 units) were built.

The first batch of thirty-six units were built on the reclaimed underframes of older 2 NOL units, to the old SR-style Bulleid design and numbered in the range 5601–5636. These units had the formation Driving Motor Brake Open Second (DMBSO) + Driving Trailer Composite with lavatory (DTCK). In 1969, the first class seating in 12 units was downgraded in the DTCKL, becoming DTSK. The units were then reclassified as 2-SAP. First class was restored in 1970 and they regained their former identities. All were withdrawn by 1982, with the DMBSO getting refurbished and integrated into the class 415 refurbishment programme. The DTSKs were scrapped.

The second and third batches of units, numbered 6001–6042 and 6043–6173 respectively, were formed DMBSO + DTCsoL, as opposed to the earlier DTCK, and were built to the newer standard Mark 1 coach profile. The DMBSO vehicles were to Diagram 400, the same as in the BR-designed Southern Region 2 EPB units, and orders in the second batch consisted of vehicles for both unit types.[5] From 1974, 51 units had their first class accommodation downgraded to second class. They were also reclassified as 2-SAP and renumbered 5901–5951. They were converted back to their original configuration in 1980 (with the exception of one disbanded in 1978 due to accident damage) when many of these two later batches of units were reformed to class 413/2 and 413/3 4-CAP units. 5951 was again converted back to a 2-SAP in 1982.

With the introduction of yellow warning panels from late 1963 the motor coaches of all Southern Region 2 and 3-car units were equipped with an inverted black triangle in order to provide an early visual indication to station staff that there was no brake van at the other end of the unit. As units such the 4 CAP stock had a brake van at each end of the unit they were not so equipped.

In compliance with the TOPS numbering system, surviving units from the range 6001–6042 got renumbered into the 42xx series (class 414/2); the surviving units of 6043–6173 became 43xx (class 414/3).

Withdrawals of the class began in 1982 and modernisation of the units began in 1983, when 10 DMBSO from withdrawn units were converted for use on the Gatwick Express service in conjunction with converted loco-hauled Open First (FO) and Open Second (SO) vehicles and class 73 locomotives. These vehicles were classified as 489 with "units" numbered 9101–9110 and individual carriage numbers 68500–68509.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 16 November 1970, a unit of the class was derailed at London Bridge.[6]
  • On 26 February 1971, a train formed by five units of the class overran the buffers at Sheerness-on-Sea, Kent. One person was killed and ten were injured.[6]

Preservation[edit]

Two units have been preserved:

Table of preserved units
Unit number
(current in bold)
DMBSO DTCso Built Livery Location
4311 - - 61287 75407 1958 Eastleigh Network South East Electric Railway Museum, Warwickshire
4308 - - 61275 75395 1958 Eastleigh Network South East on one side, BR Blue on the other. National Railway Museum

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Longworth 2015, pp. 58–59, 127–128, 132, 137, 147–148, 177–178, 182, 187, 200–201
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Class 414". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e Fox 1987, pp. 82–83
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Vehicle Diagram Book No.210 for Electrical Multiple Units (including A.P.T.)" (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. BRB Residuary Ltd. EB269, EB270, EE361. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  5. ^ "British Rail's Southern Region 2 EPB Units (British Rail Type)". Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  6. ^ a b Moody 1979, p. 212.

Sources[edit]

  • Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580.
  • Longworth, Hugh (2015). British Railways Electric Multiple Units to 1975. Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860936688. OCLC 923205678.
  • Marsden, Colin J. (1983). Southern Electric Multiple-Units 1948–1983. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited. ISBN 0-7110-1314-4.
  • Moody, G. T. (1979) [1957]. Southern Electric 1909-1979 (Fifth ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 0 7110 0924 4.