British Rail Class 442

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British Rail Class 442 Wessex Electrics
03.09.13 Brighton 442.417 (9676308264).jpg
Gatwick Express 442417 at Brighton in 2013
442410 Standard Class Interior.jpg
The interior of refurbished Standard Class accommodation
In service1988 – 2017
2018 –
ManufacturerBritish Rail Engineering Limited
Order no.
  • 31030 (DTFsoL)
  • 31031 (DTS)
  • 31032 (TS A)
  • 31033 (TS B)
  • 31034 (MBRSM)[1]
Built atDerby Litchurch Lane Works
Family nameMark 3-derived
Replaced
Constructed1987-1989
Entered service1988[1]
Refurbishment2008 - 2009 (Southern)
2017 - 2018 (SWR)
Number built120 carriages (24 sets)
Number in serviceNone until 2018
Formation5 cars per trainset:
DTSO (A)-TSO-MBC-TSOW-DTSO (B)[1]
Diagram
  • ED265 (MBRSM)
  • EE160 (DTFsoL)
  • EE273 (DTS)
  • EH288 (TS A)
  • EH289 (TS B)[2][3]
Design code5-WES
Fleet numbers
  • (44)2401-(44)2424 (sets)
  • 77382-77405 (DTSO A)
  • 71818-71841 (TSO)
  • 62937-62960 (MBC)
  • 71842-71865 (TSOW)
  • 77406-77429 (DTSO B)[1][4]
CapacitySWT: 266 standard, 50 first
GatEx: 322 standard, 24 first
Operator(s)South Western Railway From December 2018
Depot(s)Bournemouth[1]
Stewarts Lane
Line(s) served
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel[3]
Car length
  • 23.15 m (75 ft 11.4 in) (DTS)
  • 23 m (75 ft) (TSO, TSW, MLC)[4]
Width2.74 m (8 ft 11 78 in)[3]
Height3.81 m (12 ft 6 in)[3]
Floor height1.04 m (40.94 in)[3]
DoorsSingle leaf sliding plug[4]
Wheelbase16 m (52 ft 6 in) (bogie centres)[3]
Maximum speed100 mph (160 km/h)[3]
Weight
  • 202.84 t (199.64 long tons; 223.59 short tons) (total)
  • 39.06 t (38.44 long tons; 43.06 short tons) (DTFL)
  • 35.26 t (34.70 long tons; 38.87 short tons) (TSOL A)
  • 54.10 t (53.25 long tons; 59.64 short tons) (MBRSM)
  • 35.36 t (34.80 long tons; 38.98 short tons) (TSOL B)
  • 39.06 t (38.44 long tons; 43.06 short tons) (DTSL)[4]
Traction motorsFour EE546[4]
Power output4 × 300 kW (402.31 hp)
Total: 1,200 kW (1,610 hp)[4]
Train heatingElectric, full air conditioning[3]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail[3]
Current collection methodContact shoe
UIC classification2'2'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+2'2'
Bogies
  • Mk6 (motor car)
  • BREL T4 (trailer cars)[2]
Braking system(s)Air (EP/Auto)[4]
Coupling system
Multiple workingWithin type[1] and Class 33/1 and 73/1 locos[2]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 442 Wessex Electrics are a class of electric multiple-units introduced in 1988 by Network SouthEast on the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo to Weymouth to coincide with the electrification of the line from Bournemouth. Twenty-four five-car units were built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Derby Litchurch Lane Works.

Following the privatisation of British Rail, the fleet was sold to Angel Trains and operated by South West Trains up until February 2007, when replaced by Class 444 and Class 450s. After a period in storage, they were leased to Southern for use on Gatwick Express services from Brighton to Gatwick Airport and London Victoria. The units were withdrawn in 2016 from Gatwick Express services and in March 2017 from peak-time Southern services (Brighton to London Bridge and Eastbourne to London Bridge).

Eighteen of these units are planned to be introduced on London Waterloo to Portsmouth Harbour services by South Western Railway in December 2018. These 18 units will be refurbished before their use on this service. South Western Railway has awarded Kiepe Electric UK the contract to undertake the £45m refurbishment. Work will include replacing the life-expired DC traction equipment with an AC package incorporating IGBT technology from Kiepe Electric Düsseldorf. New brake controls from Knorr-Bremse Rail Vehicle Systems will permit regenerative braking.[5]

The class holds the world speed record for a third-rail train with 108 mph (174 km/h), attained on 11 April 1988.[6]

Description[edit]

The interior of relocated and refurbished First Class section
442402 at Wool in April 2004, with a South West Trains service from London Waterloo to Weymouth.
442407 at Moreton in April 2006. This unit carries the revised South West Trains livery with differently coloured doors to conform with the Disability Discrimination Act.

The Class 442 is based on the British Rail Mark 3 carriage bodyshell, and has a number of features which distinguish it from the slam-door units it replaced:

  • Vehicle length is 23 m (75 ft), as opposed to 20 m (66 ft).
  • All vehicles are air-conditioned, and have powered internal doors and external plug doors.
  • Units consist of five vehicles, and operate as 5 or 10-car trains, replacing 4-car units which operated as 4, 8 or 12-car trains.
  • Maximum permitted speed is 100 mph (160 km/h).

As was common on the British Rail Southern Region, many electrical components – including traction motors and electrical control gear – were salvaged from the Class 432 units they replaced. For this reason, the older 4REP and 4TC units had to be withdrawn before their replacements were built.

The Class 442 was one of the first types to make extensive use of plastics in construction and earned the nickname among staff and rail enthusiasts of "Pigs" or "Piggies".[7] When they were first introduced the units were plagued by minor technical failures, but they have subsequently become among the most reliable EMUs operating in the UK.[citation needed]

Operations[edit]

Network SouthEast[edit]

The first unit was handed over to Network SouthEast on 18 December 1987.[8][9] The units were initially used solely on the Weymouth line, but through the 1990s began to be used on the London Waterloo to Portsmouth direct line. The increased top speed of the Class 442, combined with timetable changes, resulted in some minor journey time improvements, for example a non-stop service reaching Southampton Airport Parkway from London Waterloo in 58 minutes, over a journey of around 74 miles (119 km).[10]

South West Trains[edit]

As part of the privatisation of British Rail, the 442 class were sold to Angel Trains and leased to South West Trains.[11] Unit 442402 soon had an orange stripe added to its Network SouthEast livery, which looked very similar to Stagecoach's corporate image. From 1998, the units began to receive the new South West Trains livery of white, red and blue as they underwent overhaul at Crewe Works. Unit 442404 was the first to be so treated.[12]

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the fleet continued to operate express services from London to both Weymouth and Portsmouth. However, in 2004, when the Class 444s entered service, the 442s were again used solely on the Weymouth line. In early 2006, the fleet began to receive overhauls, with units emerging in a slightly revised livery which conformed with the Disability Discrimination Act. By January 2007 14 of the 24 units had received overhauls.

Despite their recent overhauls, South West Trains withdrew the entire fleet in 2007. They were replaced by Class 444s, which were, in turn, replaced by Class 450s, spare from the re-introduction of Class 458s.

The last class 442 Weymouth to London Waterloo operation was on 24 January 2007 with the final service on 3 February 2007. The units were moved from Bournemouth Traincare Depot to Eastleigh Works for warm storage.[13]

Southern[edit]

Southern leased 17 to operate the extended Gatwick Express service which began in December 2008. Originally. some units were kept out of service for spare parts.[14][15] In October 2008. unit 442414 became the first unit to be fully refurbished inside and out.[16]

The new extended Gatwick Express service was introduced on 15 December 2008.[17] The new service, operating Monday to Friday, comprised six services in the morning from Brighton and six services to Brighton in the evening with an additional service terminating at Haywards Heath.

In addition. some peak-hour services to/from London Bridge to Brighton and Eastbourne were operated by pairs of Class 442s. In April 2009. Southern took an extra two units from Eastleigh Works to make up for the shortfall in units caused by their use on other services.

When Govia retained the Southern franchise, it was announced that the remaining off-lease 442s would return to service after an overhaul to replace Class 460s. In 2012. the branding on the units was modified to read simply 'Express' rather than 'Gatwick Express' to avoid passenger confusion when used on fast Brighton Main Line services that do not call at Gatwick.

Govia ordered 108 Class 387/2 carriages for the Brighton and Gatwick Express routes. The 387s began to enter service on 29 February 2016, with the Class 442s phased out by the end of 2016, with the exception of the Brighton and Eastbourne peak-time commuter services, which continued to be operated by a pair of 442s until March 2017.[18][19][20][21]

The last passenger service was on 10 March 2017 which was the 17:57 London Bridge to Brighton formed of units 442410 and 442413.[22] A railtour ran on 12 March 2017 by units 442402 and 442408 commemorate the final send off to entire fleet from services on the Brighton Main Line.[23] All were taken to Ely for storage.[24]

South Western Railway[edit]

In March 2017, South Western Railway was awarded the South Western franchise, announcing plans to refurbish and enter 18 Class 442s into service for use on London Waterloo to Portsmouth services.[25][26] These are currently being refurbished at Bournemouth Depot and will release Class 450 Desiro Main Line stock for use elsewhere on the South Western Railway network.[citation needed]

Other proposals[edit]

The Department for Transport gave bidders for the TransPennine Express franchise the option of using Class 442s,[27] however the winning bidder did not take up the option.[28]

In November 2016, Alliance Rail Holdings announced plans to use the 442s on a new intercity express service which would operate on the South West Main Line between London Waterloo and Southampton Central under the Grand Southern brand. The proposal was rejected by the Office of Rail & Road on the 1 August 2018.[29] The services would have operated as intercity services with each 5 car train offering around 300 seats.[30]

Preservation[edit]

In 2016 a driving car was nominated for preservation by the Railway Heritage Designation Advisory Board. This will see one preserved after it is retired.[31]

Accidents and Incidents[edit]

  • On 3 September 1989, unit 2407 ran away at Bournemouth Depot and overran buffers.[32]

Fleet details[edit]

Units are numbered 442401–424 and are formed of two outer driving trailers, two intermediate trailers, and an intermediate motor vehicle. In accordance with Southern Region practice, the units only carried the last four digits of their unit numbers when in service with South West Trains. Units refurbished for Southern now carry the full six digits.

Individual vehicles are numbered as follows:

  • 77382–77405 - DTS - Driving Trailer Standard (formerly DTFo (Driving Trailer First Semi-open) )
  • 71818–71841 - TSO - Trailer Standard Open
  • 62937–62960 - MLC - Motor Luggage Composite (formerly MBLS (Motor Buffet Lounge Standard) )
  • 71842–71865 - TSW - Trailer Standard Wheelchair
  • 77406–77429 - DTS - Driving Trailer Standard
Class 442 in original Network SouthEast livery

The motor buffet vehicles were all modernised in a works programme at Crewe Works in 1997/98. At the same time units were repainted from their original Network SouthEast livery into South West Trains livery. During 2006 Angel Trains sent some units to Bombardier at Ilford, where the livery was modified to make it Disability Discrimination Act friendly; however, not all trains were modified as it was later announced that the trains were to be withdrawn from service. In 2008, units started to go to Wolverton works for refurbishment. The refurbishment included the removal of the buffet from the motor coach, all new seats, and the removal of first class from the front of the train to the motor coach. The description of this formation is DTS+TSO+MLC+TSW+DTS.

During the years of Network SouthEast and South West Trains, various units have received names. Most of these were towns or places along the routes that they worked, but a few were for publicity purposes. When the South West Trains lease expired all nameplates were removed.

The complete fleet list is shown below, with details of vehicle numbers, former names and livery.

Unit number Former name
(Removed after the South
West Trains lease expired)
Livery Individual coach numbers Date withdrawn
(SWT)
Date withdrawn
(GX)[33]
Notes
DTS TSO MLC TSW DTS
442401 Beaulieu Gatwick Express 77382 71818 62937 71842 77406 22 January 2007 7 May 2016 Stored
442402 County of Hampshire Gatwick Express 77383 71819 62938 71843 77407 16 February 2007 13 March 2017 -
442403 The New Forest Gatwick Express 77384 71820 62941 71844 77408 17 January 2007 ? -
442404 Borough of Woking South Western Railway 77385 71821 62939 71845 77409 15 January 2007 24 May 2016 Refurbished
442405 City of Portsmouth Gatwick Express 77386 71822 62944 71846 77410 15 February 2007 ? -
442406 Victory Gatwick Express 77389 71823 62942 71847 77411 15 January 2007 ? -
442407 Thomas Hardy Gatwick Express 77388 71824 62943 71848 77412 22 January 2007 ? -
442408 County of Dorset Gatwick Express 77387 71825 62945 71849 77413 17 January 2007 13 March 2017 -
442409 Bournemouth Orchestras Gatwick Express 77390 71826 62946 71850 77414 12 January 2007 7 May 2016 Stored
442410 Meridian Tonight Gatwick Express 77391 71827 62948 71851 77415 24 January 2007 11 March 2017 -
442411 The Railway Children Gatwick Express 77392 71828 62940 71858 77422 29 January 2007 ? -
442412 Special Olympics Gatwick Express 77393 71829 62947 71853 77417 12 February 2007 ? -
442413 Gatwick Express 77394 71830 62949 71854 77418[nb 1] 2 February 2007 11 March 2017 -
442414 South Western Railway 77395 71831 62950 71855 77419 24 January 2007 ? Refurbished
442415 Mary Rose Gatwick Express 77396 71832 62951 71856 77420 10 November 2006 5 July 2016 Stored
442416 Mum in a Million 1997 - Doreen Scanlon Gatwick Express 77397 71833 62952 71857 77421 31 December 2006 ? -
442417 Woking Homes Gatwick Express 77398 71834 62953 71852 77416 19 January 2007 ? -
442418 Wessex Cancer Trust Gatwick Express 77399 71835 62954 71859 77423 24 January 2007 20 May 2016 Stored
442419 BBC South Today[nb 2] South Western Railway 77400 71836 62955 71860 77424 12 February 2007 ? Refurbished
442420 City of Southampton South Western Railway 77401 71837 62956 71861 77425 12 January 2007 ? Refurbished
442421 Gatwick Express 77402 71838 62957 71862 77426 26 January 2007 ? -
442422 Operation Overlord Gatwick Express 77403 71839 62958 71863 77427 11 January 2007 8 April 2016 Stored
442423 County of Surrey Gatwick Express 77404 71840 62959 71864 77428 18 April 2007 7 July 2016 Stored
442424 Gerry Newson Gatwick Express 77405 71841 62960 71865 77429 22 January 2007 20 May 2016 Stored

Livery Diagrams[edit]

Class 442 in Network Southeast livery, 1988 - 1996
Class 442 in original South West Trains livery, 1996 - 1998
Class 442 in South West Trains livery, 1998 - 2007
Class 442 in Gatwick Express livery, 2008 - 2017

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a short while the DTS vehicles from units 442413 and 442418 were swapped following problems with these units. The DTS from 442413 had a broken windscreen, and the motor coach in 442418 had suffered a failure. A complete working unit, numbered 442413, was thus created. The four coaches from the original 442413 carried the new livery, having just undergone overhaul, while the DTS (still numbered 2418) carried the old livery.
  2. ^ De-named by Sally Taylor (BBC South Today Presenter) on 9 January 2007

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Marsden 2011, p. 240
  2. ^ a b c Fox 1994, pp. 49–50
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Vehicle Diagram Book No.210 for Electrical Multiple Units (including A.P.T.)" (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. BRB Residuary Ltd. ED265, EE160, EE273, EH288, EH289. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Class 442". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  5. ^ UK, DVV Media. "South Western Railway awards Class 442 refurbishment contract". Railway Gazette. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  6. ^ "Third_rail". uktra.in. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  7. ^ Hentis-rail - Tribute to the Wessex Electrics Archived 27 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "Network rolls out Wessex Electrics" Railway Gazette International page 113
  9. ^ "First Wessex Electric handed-over" The Railway Magazine issue 1043 March 1988 page 143
  10. ^ "Network's flagship: The Class 442 (Wessex Electric) EMUs" Rail Magazine issue 89 February 1989 pages 26-33
  11. ^ Angel Trains Class 442 Department for Transport
  12. ^ "First new-look 'Wessex Electric' completed by Adtranz] Rail Magazine issue 328 8 April 1998 page 12
  13. ^ "Class 442s bow out with SWT" Today's Railways issue 64 April 2007 page 66
  14. ^ "More trains arriving on busy rail routes" (Press release). Department for Transport. 4 April 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Extra carriages for the service will be provided by Southern probably leasing some of the class 442 fleet which is currently not in use.
  15. ^ "Southern confirms plans to refresh Class 442 EMUs" Rail Magazine issue 575 26 September 2007 page 70
  16. ^ "Class 442s receive an extensive internal refit before joining Gatwick Express" Rail Magazine issue 606 3 December 2008 page 14
  17. ^ "Gatwick service benefits Brighton" BBC News 14 December 2008
  18. ^ "New rail franchising deal set to transform passenger services across London and south east" (Press release). Department for Transport (DfT). 23 May 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Late-February debut for Gatwick Express Class 387/2s".
  20. ^ "Southern to retain six 442s" Today's Railways issue 171 March 2016 page 69
  21. ^ "First GatEx 442 sent off lease" Rail Magazine issue 798 13 April 2016 page 30
  22. ^ "The final 442 scheduled service". SEG. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  23. ^ "Society Tours, Trips and Visits". Branch Line society. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  24. ^ "Nine GTR Class 442s now removed from traffic" Rail Magazine issue 804 6 July 2016 page 31
  25. ^ "Statement re South Western rail franchise award". First. 27 March 2017.
  26. ^ First.MTR joint venture wins South Western franchise Railway Gazette International 27 March 2017
  27. ^ "TransPennine Express Invitation to Tender Clause 5.4.2.24 iv" (PDF). Department for Transport. 27 February 2015. p. 93.
  28. ^ "FirstGroup awarded TransPennine Express franchise". Rail Technology Magazine. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  29. ^ Southampton - London open access proposal rejected Railway Gazette International 1 August 2018
  30. ^ "Competition proposed on Southampton – London rail services from December 2017". Alliance Rail Holdings. 8 November 2016. Archived from the original on 17 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Class 442 car claimed for National Collection" Rail Express issue 238 March 2016 page 75
  32. ^ McCrickard, John P (6 October 2016). "January 1989 to December 1989". Network South East Railway Society. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  33. ^ Class 442 Units Into Store - Southern Electric Group. Retrieved 2016-08-13 Archived 2 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

  • Fox, Peter (1994). Electric Multiple Units. British Railways Pocket Book No.4 (7th ed.). Platform 5. ISBN 9781872524603.
  • Marsden, Colin J. (2011). Traction Recognition (2nd ed.). Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711034945.

External links[edit]

Media related to British Rail Class 442 at Wikimedia Commons