British Rail Class 465

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British Rail Class 465 Networker
465001 to Bromley North.jpg
Southeastern 465001 at Bromley North in June 2015
Class 465 metcam interior.jpg
The refreshed interior of a class 465 in 2021
In service13 October 1992 – present[1]
ManufacturerBritish Rail Engineering Limited
ABB Rail
Built atYork Carriage Works (BREL & ABB)
Washwood Heath (Metro-Cammell)
Family nameNetworker
Number built147 sets
SuccessorClass 707
Formation4 cars per set:
Capacity334 seats (465/0, 465/1)
331 seats (465/2)
319 seats (465/9)[3]
Car length
  • 20.89 m (68 ft 6 in) (DMSO, DMCO)
  • 20.06 m (65 ft 10 in) (Other vehicles)[2]
Width2.81 m (9 ft 3 in)[2]
Height3.77 m (12 ft 4 in)
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)[2]
WeightTotal - 136 tonnes (133.9 long tons; 149.9 short tons)
Traction system465/2 and 465/9: GEC Alsthom GTO-VVVF (also used on 465/0 and 465/1 pre-traction upgrade)
465/0 and 465/1: Hitachi IGBT-VVVF (post-traction upgrade)
Traction motors3-phase AC induction motor[4]
465/2 and 465/9: G352AY (GEC Alsthom)
465/0 and 465/1: TIM970 (Brush Traction)
Power output1,608 hp (1,199 kW)
Acceleration0.98 m/s2 (2.2 mph/s)[5]
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
Braking system(s)Disk[2]
Safety system(s)AWS
Coupling systemTightlock
Multiple workingWithin class and with Class 466
(Class 319 for assistance only)[6]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 465 Networker is a class of 147 electric multiple units built by Metro-Cammell, British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL) and ABB Rail between 1991 and 1994, designed for fast acceleration. The units are operated by Southeastern.


Connex South Eastern 465034 in Network SouthEast livery at Waterloo East in July 2003
Connex South Eastern 465020 in Connex livery at Waterloo East in January 2003
South Eastern Trains 465238 at Greenwich in December 2005

The Network SouthEast sector of British Rail began the planning for the development of the Class 465 Networker in 1988, and invited a tender for 710 of the units to be built.[7] The Class 465 was introduced in order to replace the 41-year-old Class 415 (4EPB) slam-door EMUs.[8]

The first was delivered in December 1991 and the last in April 1995.[9][10] As part of the privatisation of British Rail, the 97 465/0 and 465/1s were sold to Eversholt Rail Group and the 50 Class 465/2s to Angel Trains.[11][2]

All trains were originally supplied in Network SouthEast livery and branded "Kent Link Networker".[8] They are mostly used on suburban routes out of London Victoria, Charing Cross, Blackfriars and Cannon Street to destinations in South London and Kent.[12]

Some are scheduled to be replaced by Class 707s,[13] with two hauled to Worksop for store by Harry Needle Railroad Company in June 2021.[14]

Two manufacturers[edit]

The easiest way to tell the two apart: The BREL unit on the right features air vents above the windows whilst the Metro-Cammell unit on the left does not.
465027 at Bromley South

Due to the size of the original order, British Rail approached two separate manufacturers to supply the new rolling stock. The first two sub-classes (designated 465/0 and 465/1) were built by BREL/ABB while the third sub-class (465/2) as well as the two-car (466) units were built by Metro-Cammell. Although built to the same specification and utilised interchangeably, there are subtle differences between the two fleets and they do not share common parts.[7] The maximum speed of a Class 465 is 75 mph (120 km/h)[4] and they are designed only for 750 V DC third rail operation. A Solid State Traction Converter package controls 3-phase AC Traction motors, which allows for Rheostatic or Regenerative Dynamic braking.[4] Primary braking system is electro-pneumatically actuated disc brakes, which is blended with the Dynamic brakes.[4] Tachometers on every axle of the unit provide for Wheel Slip/Slide Protection.[4]

Traction equipment replacement[edit]

Plans were drawn up in 2007 to improve reliability of the BREL and ABB units (Class 465/0 and 465/1) by the installation of new traction equipment.[15] The new package was developed by Hitachi Rail.[16] It was retrofitted across all 97 465/0 and 465/1s trains over the course of 2009/2010.[17] Brush Traction, the supplier/manufacturer of the original traction equipment, worked as consultants to assist in retro-fitting the new equipment.[15][18]


Some Class 465/2 EMUs were given a 'Networker Weald' refresh - one of those treated was 465907 at Ashford International

In 2005, the first 34 465/2 units (465201-465234) were given an extensive refurbishment at Doncaster Works.[1] This included new interior panelling, new flooring, new lighting, new seat moquette (in the same grey and blue design as on the Class 375 Electrostars) and the addition of a new first class seating area at the front and rear of the units, amongst other changes.[1][19][20] This was done to allow them to be transferred to outer-suburban routes alongside the Class 375s. They would be replaced on inner suburban services by Class 376s. They were reclassified as a separate sub-fleet designated 465/9 (465901–465934) and replaced the remaining Class 423 slam-door stock.[1][21] The last in Network SouthEast livery was repainted in September 2007.[22]

Between 2010 and 2012, all Class 465/0 and 465/1s had an overhaul by RailCare of door systems, air systems, couplings and trailer bogies.[23]

Fleet details[edit]

Production and numbering[edit]

Class Operator No. Built Year Built Cars per Set Manufacturer Unit nos. Notes
Class 465/0 Southeastern 50 1991–93 4 BREL/ABB 465001–050
Class 465/1 47 1993–94 ABB 465151–197
Class 465/2 16 1991–93 Metro-Cammell 465235–250 Stored[24]
Class 465/3 1 1992 ABB 465301 Demonstrator for Universal Networker (Class 365),
renumbered 465037 after use as a demonstrator
Class 465/9 34 1991–93 Metro-Cammell 465901–934 Converted from 465/2 units (465201–234)

Detailed specifications[edit]

 Specification   Sub-class / related class 
 465/0   465/1   465/2   465/9 
Currently owned by Eversholt Rail Group[11] Eversholt Rail Group[11] Angel Trains[2] Angel Trains[2]
Routes used on Metro & Outer Suburban Metro & Outer Suburban Metro & Outer Suburban Outer Suburban
Built 1991–93 by BREL/ABB York 1993–94 by ABB York 1991–93 by Metro-Cammell 1991–93 by Metro-Cammell
Refurbished 2005 by Wabtec, Doncaster Works
Improvement works for better toilets & disabled access 2016–17
Electrical Equipment Hitachi IGBT inverter technology GEC-Alsthom Solid state Traction Converter using GTO inverters. Solid state Auxiliary Converter. Wheel Slip/Slide protection
Traction motors Four Brush TIM970 three-phase induction motors of 280 kW (380 hp) GEC-Alsthom G352AY three-phase induction motors of 280 kW (380 hp)
Bogies BREL P3/T3 SRP BP62/BT52


  1. ^ a b c d "Class 465/466: Kent Link Networker Page". Kent Rail. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Class 465 - South Eastern". Angel Trains. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017.
  3. ^ "South Eastern Franchise Invitation to Tender" (PDF). Department for Transport. November 2017. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 January 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. (Unit information) January 1998.
  5. ^ "CLASS 465". Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  6. ^ Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.6 (Unit information) January 1998.
  7. ^ a b "Classes 465 and 466". Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Class 465/466: Kent Link Networker Page 1". Kent Rail. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  9. ^ "Networker: Dawn of a New Era". The Railway Magazine. No. 1090. February 1992. p. 18.
  10. ^ "Last Networker". Rail. No. 252. 10 May 1995. p. 4.
  11. ^ a b c "Class 465". Eversholt Rail Group. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021.
  12. ^ "Our trains". Southeastern. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Southeastern to take Class 707s". Rail Express. No. 289. June 2020. p. 9.
  14. ^ "Class 465 & 466 Networker units put into store". Rail Express. No. 303. August 2021. p. 30.
  15. ^ a b "Networkers get a traction transplant". Railway Gazette International. 24 January 2008.[dead link]
  16. ^ "Networkers to get Hitachi traction package". The Railway Magazine. No. 1275. July 2007. p. 77.
  17. ^ "Class 465 traction upgrade in full flow". The Railway Magazine. No. 1304. December 2009. p. 79.
  18. ^ "Class 465 Trains With New Hitachi Traction Drive Handed Back to Southeastern as Scheduled". Hitachi Rail. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009.
  19. ^ "SET launches refurbished 465/9s". Entrain. No. 43. July 2005. p. 56.
  20. ^ "New look for South Eastern Networkers". The Railway Magazine. No. 1251. July 2005. p. 75.
  21. ^ "Refreshing the 465s". Rail. No. 520. 17 August 2005. pp. 40–43.
  22. ^ "After 21 years, no more NSE". Rail. No. 575. 26 September 2007. p. 9.
  23. ^ "Eversholt Rail Group Completes Class 465/0 and 465/1 Fleet Refurbishment". Eversholt Rail. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021.
  24. ^ "'465/2' 'Networkers' Stopped". Rail Express. No. December 2021. p. 28.

External links[edit]

Media related to British Rail Class 465 at Wikimedia Commons