British Rail Class 700
|British Rail Class 700 Desiro City|
|In service||20 June 2016–present|
|Built at||Krefeld, Germany|
|Family name||Desiro City|
|Constructed||2014 - 2018|
|Number built||115 trainsets|
|Formation||8 or 12 carriages per unit|
|Fleet numbers||700 001 to 700 060 (8 car)|
700 101 to 700 155 (12 car)
|Capacity||427 (52 first, 373 standard) seats, 719 standing (8-car)|
666 (52 first, 614 standard) seats, 1,088 standing (12-car)
|Depot(s)||Hornsey, Three Bridges|
|Train length||162.0 m (531 ft 6 in) (8-car)|
242.6 m (795 ft 11 1⁄8 in) (12-car)
|Car length||20.2 m (66 ft 3 1⁄4 in)|
|Width||2.80 m (9 ft 2 1⁄4 in)|
|Floor height||1.10 m (43.31 in)|
|Wheel diameter||820 to 760 mm (32.28 to 29.92 in) (new/worn)|
|Maximum speed||160 km/h (100 mph)|
|Weight||278 t (274 long tons; 306 short tons) (8-car)|
410 t (400 long tons; 450 short tons) (12-car)
|Power output||3.3 MW (4,400 hp) (8-car, at wheel)|
5.0 MW (6,700 hp) (12-car, at wheel)
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC Catenary|
750 V DC Third rail
|Current collection method||Pantograph (AC)|
Contact shoe (DC)
|UIC classification||8 car: Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+|
12 car: Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+2'2'+
|Safety system(s)||AWS, TPWS, ATO, ETCS|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Sources : Desiro City data sheet|
Except where noted
The British Rail Class 700 Desiro City is an electric multiple-unit passenger train built between 2014 and 2018 for use on the Thameslink network as part of the Thameslink Programme in the United Kingdom.
A fleet of 60 eight-car and 55 twelve-car trains entered service between Spring 2016 and 2018. As of 2021, they are operated by Govia Thameslink Railway. Maintenance depots have been built at Hornsey and Three Bridges.
In 2011, the consortium Cross London Trains (XLT) consisting of Siemens Project Ventures, 3i Infrastructure, and Innisfree was announced as preferred bidder with Siemens Mobility to manufacture the trains. The decision was politically controversial as the trains were to be built in Germany, while the competing consortium led by Bombardier Transportation had a train factory in the UK. Both the procurement process and final close of contract were significantly delayed, resulting in the expected first delivery date moving from 2012 to 2016. The £1.6 billion contract to manufacture and provide service depots for the trains was finalised in June 2013. The first train was delivered in late July 2015.
The Department for Transport began its procurement process (Thameslink Rolling Stock Project, or Thameslink Rolling stock Programme) on 9 April 2008, with the aim of introducing more passenger capacity on Thameslink lines to match expected demand. In addition, the bidders were to provide depots for vehicle maintenance and storage, and finance for the rolling-stock project whereby revenues would be generated from the long-term leasing of rolling stock to the train operating company and associated maintenance payments.
The general specifications included: high reliability, short station dwell times, integrated information technology including passenger information and information for vehicle maintenance, a top speed of 100 mph (160 km/h), and high acceleration and deceleration performance in line with a high-frequency timetable.[note 1] The trains were to be designed for low weight, low track forces, and high energy efficiency. A standard 12-car train was to be about 240 metres (790 ft) long and services using 8-car trains are limited to 162 metres (531 ft).
The passenger accommodation were to include versions for both "metro" and "commuter" trains,[note 2] based around a 2+2 seating arrangement, with fold-up seats and designed for high levels of standing passengers. Ride quality and noise levels were expected to equal or be better than those of current vehicles and climate control (air-conditioning) was to be fitted. The vehicles were to be fitted for driver-only operation, and to include GSM-R communications radio, as well as AWS, TPWS, and ERTMS level 2 safety systems. The ability to be used in 'Automatic train operation' (ATO) mode, where an on-board computer controls the motors and brakes, was also specified.
Vehicles were to operate on 750 V DC and 25 kV AC electrification systems, with regenerative brakes. Maintenance time was to be reduced by the use of modular components, remote diagnostics, and the avoidance of over-complicated systems. The Department for Transport gave a target of 384 tonnes (378 long tons; 423 short tons) when empty for a 243 m (797 ft) train.
In July 2008, the Department for Transport shortlisted consortia including Alstom, Bombardier, Hitachi, and Siemens as train builders. The invitations to tender were issued to the four bidders in November 2008.
Hitachi exited the bidding process in April 2009.
In July 2009, Siemens unveiled the Desiro City, a development of design and technology used in its British Desiro range and the Desiro Mainline range. Development of the design began in 2007, with an investment of about £45 million.
In September 2009, Alstom unveiled the "X'trapolis UK, unusually an articulated vehicle, using 15.6 metre (51 ft) cars, with individual carriages proposed to be supported at one end by a bogie and at the opposite end by a linkage to the next carriage. The shorter vehicle allowed a slightly wider design; the smaller number of bogies was to have resulted in a train approximately 40 tonnes lighter than a conventional design. However, the design would have resulted in a higher axle load. The bid was rejected in October 2009.
Contract decision and financial close
The contract for the order was originally planned to be signed in Summer 2009, with the first vehicles in service by February 2012, and squadron service by 2015. The award of the contract was delayed by the 2010 general election, and the subsequent spending review, following which the procurement was announced to be proceeding in late 2010.
On 16 June 2011, Cross London Trains Ltd, a consortium formed by Siemens Project Ventures GmbH, Innisfree Ltd., and 3i Infrastructure Ltd., was named preferred bidder for the PFI contract, and the targeted entry of trains into service was rescheduled to 2015–2018. The vehicles would be manufactured at Siemens' plant in Krefeld, Germany, and maintenance depots were to be built at Hornsey (London) and Three Bridges (Sussex).
The contract was significantly delayed: initially Siemens had hoped to reach agreement in early 2012; by late 2012 commercial close was hoped for by the end of the year, and financial close in early 2013. Key aspects of the commercial contract were reported to have been finalised by December 2012.
As a result of the delays to the procurement, in late 2012, train operating company Southern began procurement of 116 dual-voltage Class 387 EMUs from Bombardier that would be used temporarily on the Thameslink route until 2015; the order contract was finalised in July 2013.
The £1.6 billion contract to finance, supply, and maintain a 1,140-carriage fleet of passenger rolling stock was eventually finalised between the DfT, the supplier Siemens, and the Cross London Trains consortium on 14 June 2013.
To finance the work, loans were arranged with nineteen banks, with Lloyds, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, KfW and BTMU acting as mandated lead arrangers; the European Investment Bank also provided a debt facility. Loans for the construction of the rolling-stock depots were through Siemens Financial Services.
In addition to the Thameslink fleet, Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) announced upon winning the franchise that it would seek to replace the existing Class 313 units in use on services on the Northern City Line, with up to 25 six-car units intended to be procured. In December 2015, GTR announced that it had selected Siemens to provide this new fleet as a follow-on order to the Class 700, with entry into service expected from 2018. The order was finalised in February 2016. These are known as the Class 717.
Design and manufacturing
Development of a new bogie type began in 2007; the design was intended specifically for the UK market as a replacement for the SF5000 bogie. To reduce energy consumption and track access charges, a key feature of the design was reduced weight: weight-saving design elements included short wheelbase, inboard frames, a bolsterless bogie design, and hollow axles. Total bogie weight is 6.3 tonnes (powered) and 4.4 tonnes (trailer), a reduction of around one third from the SF5000 design.
The primary suspension system uses layered rubber, with pneumatic secondary suspension. The bogie wheel base is 2,200 mm (87 in) (motor bogie) with 820 mm (32 in) wheels. Braking is by tread brakes, and regenerative braking on power bogies and two axle-mounted disc brakes per axle on trailer bogies.
Manufacture of pre-series production trainsets began before formal financial close of the project in mid-2013.
Introduction into service
The first train in service was unit 700 108 forming the 1002 Brighton to London Bridge service on 20 June 2016. All units were accepted by Thameslink by summer 2018, and by the end of 2019 all were in passenger service.
Class 700s have now replaced all Class 319and 387 units on the Thameslink route, making them the only units serving it. Class 700s are still due to enter service on a planned new service between Cambridge and Maidstone East but a date for this has not yet been confirmed.
Thameslink Class 700s have started on the Great Northern route with the first, 700 125, introduced on the Peterborough to London Kings Cross route. Class 700s have replaced 19 Class 365s on this route.
Thameslink Class 700s have also started on peak-time services from London Bridge to Littlehampton and on weekday-only services from London Bridge to Horsham which have been taken over from Southern on 11 December 2017 as part of the new Southern timetable. The Littlehampton service now starts from Bedford instead of London Bridge according to the new timetable.
From 26 February 2018, Peterborough and Cambridge joined the Thameslink route with six off-peak trains being operated from Horsham to Peterborough via Finsbury Park and Brighton to Cambridge. This service is now being operated half-hourly using the same rolling stock.
From 21 May 2018, Class 700s also entered service on the new Rainham to Luton service, having replaced the Class 465s from Gillingham to London Charing Cross. The Class 465s are now being used to enhance capacity on other routes.
Because the trains were to be built outside the UK, the decision to award the contract to Siemens proved controversial: there was widespread criticism of the UK government's bidding process and perceived lack of support for British manufacturing, which in turn led to a review of governmental procurement mechanisms. Additionally, the decision to procure a train with a new bogie design untested in the UK was challenged by several observers at a parliamentary investigation into the train procurement; rival bidder Bombardier already had a proven low-weight bogie.
In 2014, the NAO reported on the Department for Transport's handling of Intercity Express and Thameslink rolling-stock procurement projects. The report questioned the DfT's attempt to take leadership in the project, contrary to general policy, without any prior experience of large-scale rolling stock procurement; the NAO also said the DfT had handled communications with bidders poorly, increasing the likelihood of a legal challenge to its decisions.
The Class 700 units have been criticised for having fewer seats than those they replace. There are 666 seats on the twelve-car versions of the new trains, compared to 714 on a twelve-car formation of a Thameslink Class 377/5 and 807 on a twelve car formation of a Great Northern Class 365. The reduction in the number of seats is intended to provide more standing room on busy trains into Central London, but has been criticised by those who use the trains for longer journeys. There will, however, be more seats overall, as the services will run more frequently.
Additionally, the seats themselves have been criticised for being an uncomfortable shape and having insufficient padding. They are also narrow and positioned close together - another design intended to increase standing space. These poor levels of comfort, along with their tall, thin, tapered appearance, have led them to sometimes be nicknamed "ironing boards"; they have also been likened to sitting on concrete.
Thameslink have claimed that the lack of padding was required to meet fire regulations; however, the Rail Safety and Standards Board have claimed that this is untrue, and that it was simply a measure by the DfT to reduce costs.
Fleet and formation details
The rolling stock was given the TOPS code 'Class 700' in 2013. This was divided into Class 700/0 for eight-car units and Class 700/1 for twelve-car units. The Class 700/0 units are, using the British Rail coach designations code, formed of DMCO-PTSO-MSO-TSO-TSO-MSO-PTSO-DMCO, and the Class 700/1 units of DMCO-PTSO-MSO-MSO-TSO-TSO-TSO-TSO-MSO-MSO-PTSO-DMCO.
There are 60 eight-car units and 55 twelve-car units. Each is a fixed length continuously gangwayed vehicle. The initial livery is "light grey with pastel blue doors and a white diagonal flash at the carriage ends".
As of April 2020, unit 700 111, alongside Southern unit 377 111 and Great Northern unit 717 011, has been painted with a special NHS appreciation livery to show support for the NHS and the 200,000 essential commuters travelling on Govia Thameslink Railway's network each week during the nationwide lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
|Class||Operator||No. built||Year built||Cars per unit||Unit nos.|
|Class 700/0||Thameslink||60||2014–2018||8||700 001–700 060|
|Class 700/1||55||12||700 101–700 155|
In 2008, the Department for Transport commissioned a study into the location of depots for the future Thameslink rolling stock: Network Rail preferred two depots based on an expectation that at times the central area of the Thameslink route would be closed for maintenance outside commercial operational hours, with no workable alternative electrified routes available; as a result, depots on either side of the central Thameslink area were required, enabling trains to reach a depot on a nightly basis without passing through central London. A single-depot solution was also investigated, but no suitably large sites were identified for such a facility. Sites were considered at: Wellingborough;[note 3] Hornsey;[note 4] Cricklewood;[note 5] Selhurst;[note 6] Three Bridges;[note 7] and Tonbridge. By late 2008, the sites had been narrowed to Hornsey, Three Bridges and Tonbridge; finally Hornsey and Three Bridges were selected as a two-depot solution.
In August 2009, planning applications for both sites were submitted by Arup acting on behalf of Network Rail. However, in December, the Hornsey application was blocked by Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government John Denham on grounds of its scale. Potential sites for the northern depot were reassessed and possible options reduced to three: a main depot at Coronation Sidings Hornsey; a main depot adjacent to the existing depot at Hornsey; and a site at Chesterton, Cambridge – a depot reduced in size on the site of the original plan was chosen as the best option for Network Rail. In 2011 revised plans were submitted for both the Hornsey and Three Bridges schemes, with the Hornsey scheme reduced in size and the Three Bridges scheme expanded. In mid-2013, VolkerFitzpatrick was awarded the approximately £150 million contract to build the two depots.
The Three Bridges depot is located 1.5 km south of Three Bridges railway station on either side of the Brighton main line.[note 8] The Hornsey depot is located on the east side of the East Coast main line near Hornsey railway station, split between the north-east and the south-east of the station and the A504 road (High Street/Turnpike Lane), the latter being adjacent to the pre-existing depot.[note 9]
Accidents and incidents
Sixty Thameslink Class 700 and 717 trains failed during disturbances to the National Grid on 9 August 2019 during which the grid frequency fell to 48.914 Hz. Govia Thameslink Railway reported that their Class 700 and Class 717 trains that were operating on AC power were affected by the frequency deviation below 49Hz. Half were restarted by the drivers but the others required a technician to come out to the train to restart it. Thousands of passengers had their journeys delayed with 371 trains cancelled, 220 part cancelled, and 873 trains delayed. London St Pancras and King's Cross stations had to close for several hours due to overcrowding.
The DNOs confirmed that no track supplies were lost due to the DNO's Low Frequency Demand Disconnection (LFDD) protection operation. The problem was identified as the recent "Desiro City" software update from Siemens Mobility. Desiro City is the software that enables the train to operate. Siemens Technical Specification for the train states that the train will continue to operate with supply frequency drops down to 48.5Hz for short periods of time, but that the train drives are permitted to disconnected at or below 49Hz. However Siemens also state that all trains should have been recoverable via Battery Reset. Instead a Permanent Lockout on the trains followed the protective shutdown caused by a supply voltage frequency drop. Siemens confirmed this lock out should not have occurred and "This was not the intended behaviour of the train." This permanent lock out was due to the recent software update. The trains where the driver recovered them with a battery restart and thus were not affected by the permanent lock out did not yet have the latest version of the software.
Two large power stations, Hornsea One Ltd (co-owned by Orsted) and Little Barford (operated by RWE) who did not remain connected after the lightning strike have agreed to make a voluntary payment of £4.5 million each into Ofgem's redress fund.
- British Rail Class 707 – a version of the Desiro City platform in service with South Western Railway.
- British Rail Class 717 – a version of the Desiro City platform in service for Great Northern.
- Syntegra – potential Siemens replacement bogie.
- Up to 24 trains per hour in central London.
- The 240 m long trains were expected to be of "outer-suburban" or "commuter" type, while the 162 m trains were expected to have both "metro" and "suburban" passenger accommodation types.
- Including sidings used by GB Railfreight.
- Adjacent to the existing Hornsey EMU depot then operated by First Capital Connect.
- On development land associated with the planned Brent Cross Thameslink railway station.
- On the site of the existing Selhurst Depot used by Southern.
- A split site on either side of the main line.
- Located in the 'fork' between the Brighton main line (L&BR 1841), the Arun Valley line (LB&SCR 1848), and the now-closed Three Bridges–Tunbridge Wells line (EGR 1855), the site had historically been used for railway use, having been unbuilt on prior to railway developments; by 1910 sidings had been built east of the Brighton main line, as well as an engine shed and turntable adjacent west of the site; in 2008 the western development area comprised underused sidings and hardstanding with the site east of the mainline including operation sidings, as well as offices; tenants included English Welsh & Scottish Railway, BAM Nuttall, Colas Rail and Balfour Beatty.
- The northern site, in which the main maintenance building is located, is on rail sidings ('Coronation sidings'/'Hornsey sidings') which had been developed on made embankments from the later 19th century to early 20th century; the southern stabling area was on land that had been extensively developed as railway sidings since the early 20th century.
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