British Rail Class 85
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85007 at Carlisle
The British Rail Class 85 is an electric locomotive built during the early 1960s, as part of BR's policy to develop a standard electric locomotive. Five prototype classes (81-85) were built and evaluated, which eventually led to the development of the Class 86 locomotive.
Forty of these locomotives were built from 1961-64 by BR at Doncaster Works. The class were used to haul trains on the then newly electrified West Coast Main Line, from Birmingham, to Crewe, Manchester Piccadilly, Liverpool and later Preston. By 1965, electrification had spread south to London Euston.
Under the earlier BR classification, the type was given the designation AL5 (meaning the 5th design of 25 kV AC locomotive), and locomotives were numbered E3056-E3095. In 1968, this was changed to Class 85, when BR introduced the TOPS numbering system. From 1971 onwards, locomotives were progressively renumbered into the 85001-040 series. Fifteen locomotives were converted for freight only use, numbered in the 85/1 series - see table below. These locomotives were restricted to 80 mph.
The locomotives always worked on power provided by overhead catenary energized at 25,000 V AC. However, the main transformer, normally operated with the four windings in series, could be operated at 6250V AC with the transformer windings in parallel. This voltage was initially to be used where limited clearances gave concern over use of the higher voltage.
One locomotive has been preserved, 85101 (having previously numbered E3061 & 85 006) This locomotive is preserved by the AC Locomotive Group, who also have examples of Classes 81-84 and 86. at Barrow Hill Engine Shed. It was named to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Doncaster Works, and is painted in Railfreight Distribution livery, a livery it never carried in service. Their intention is to eventually restore this locomotive to operational condition.
|Class AL5||Class 85/0||Class 85/1|
|E3056||85001||-||1985||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3057||85002||-||1989||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3058||85003||85113||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3059||85004||85111||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3060||85005||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3061||85006||85101||1992||Preserved at Barrow Hill Engine Shed|
|E3062||85007||85112||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3063||85008||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3064||85009||85102||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3065||85010||85103||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3066||85011||85114||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3067||85012||85104||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3068||85013||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3069||85014||-||1989||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3070||85015||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3071||85016||85105||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3072||85017||-||1987||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3073||85018||-||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3074||85019||-||1989||Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow|
Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
|E3076||85021||85106||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3077||85022||-||1989||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3078||85023||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3079||85024||85107||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3080||85025||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow|
|E3081||85026||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow
|E3083||85028||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3084||85029||-||1988[nb 1]||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3085||85030||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3086||85031||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3087||85032||85108||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3088||85033||-||1984||Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow|
|E3089||85034||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3090||85035||85109||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3091||85036||85110||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3092||85037||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3093||85038||-||1990||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3094||85039||-||1987||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
|E3095||85040||-||1991||Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow|
- 85029 was withdrawn at Crewe on 17 May 1988.
- Longhurst 1979, Class AL5–85
- Furness, Ian. "Disposals: Class 85". wnxx. End of the Line: Withdrawn & Stored Locomotives UK. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. (subscription required (. ))
- "Traction Talk: Class 85". RAIL. No. 83. EMAP National Publications. August 1988. p. 58. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
- Longhurst, Roly (1979). Electric Locomotives of the West Coast Main Line. Truro: D. Bradford Barton Ltd. ISBN 0851533558. OCLC 16491712.
- Derrick, Kevin (2014). Looking back at AC Electric Locomotives. Strathwood. ISBN 9781905276516. OCLC 931820979.
- McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948 - 1968. Wirral. Michael McManus.
- "Not the Class 85!". Traction. No. 188. Warners Group Publications. June 2010. ISSN 1354-2680.
- AC Locomotive Group - Owners of preserved locomotive no. 85101 / E3061
- High-Voltage A.C. Locomotives Built by British Railways, Publisher:Associated Electrical Industries Ltd.