British Rail Class 86
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|British Rail Class 86|
The British Rail Class 86 is the standard electric locomotive built during the 1960s. One hundred of these locomotives were built from 1965 to 1966 by either English Electric at Vulcan Foundry, Newton-le-Willows, or British Rail (BR) at their Doncaster works. The class was built to haul trains on the then newly electrified West Coast Main Line, from London Euston, to Birmingham, Crewe, Manchester Piccadilly, Liverpool and later Preston and Glasgow. They helped to replace steam locomotives, which were finally withdrawn by BR in 1968.
Under the earlier BR classification system, the type was given the designation AL6 (meaning the sixth design of AC Locomotive), and locomotives were numbered E3101-E3200. In 1968, this was changed to Class 86, when BR introduced the TOPS classification system.
- 1 Development
- 2 British Rail service
- 3 Former operators
- 4 Current operators
- 5 Preservation
- 6 Fleet details
- 7 Accidents
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The class was developed as a result of experience with the earlier prototype classes 81, 82, 83, 84 and 85, which had been produced by different manufacturers, in the early days of the WCML electrification, as testbeds for locomotive development.
The AL6 featured design elements pioneered on the earlier classes, such as the general construction of the bodies and bogies, and control systems. However, some design features were unique, such as the squarer front ends, as opposed to the raked back noses of the earlier designs. Another difference was the lack of a second pantograph. The cooling fans on the AL6 were also specially designed to produce less noise than the earlier locos.
British Rail service
The Class was officially introduced into service in August 1965. The entire fleet was delivered into service within 24 months of that date. In the early years the locomotives became notorious for track damage, being fitted with axle-hung traction motors, in place of the bogie-frame-mounted motors of the earlier designs. This additional unsprung mass was causing damage at high speeds. In 1969 number E3173, was fitted experimentally with the large helical 'flexicoil' springs which can be seen on present day versions, giving it the nickname "Zebedee" (after a character in The Magic Roundabout). Trials carried out under the direction of the British Rail Research Division proved successful and the modification was applied gradually to the whole fleet.
As a result, a batch of locomotives was modified with improved suspension and modified wheels and from 1971 onwards, locomotives were progressively renumbered into the 86 001-048 (unmodified design, restricted to 80 mph or 129 km/h) and 86 204-252 series (improved suspension, 100 mph or 161 km/h). Within a short time a further batch was modified to the new specification: 86 040-048 were renumbered 86 253-261.
At the same time three locomotives were converted into 5,000 brake horsepower (3,728 kW) test-bed locomotives for development of the Class 87, initially numbered nos. 86 201-86 203, refitted with BP9 bogies, and quickly renumbered 86 101-86 103. These locomotives are capable of 110 mph (177 km/h) running. The most obvious visual difference between the classes is that the Class 86 has a windscreen with three windows whereas the Class 87 only has two; likewise Class 86 was fitted with headcode boxes (later plated over) while Class 87 was built without them.
Throughout the 1970s, the class saw use on both express passenger and freight services. Locomotives in the 860xx series (or Class 86/0) had their maximum speed reduced to 80 mph in 1979 due to the excessive rough riding and were then used mainly on freight, whilst the higher-speed 861xx (or Class 86/1) and 862xx series (or Class 86/2) tended to be used primarily for passenger trains. In 1980 a number of class 86/0s were modified to class 86/3s by the use of SAB resilient wheels - a new design of wheel in two sections separated by a rubber bearing, this enabled a return to 100 mph operations.
In 1974, demand for electric locomotives grew due to the extension of electrification north from Preston to Carlisle and Glasgow. From 1978 onwards, BR started to name some of their Class 86 fleet, many of them after cities or counties along the lines that they worked.
In the early 1980s, electrification from London Liverpool Street to Cambridge, Harwich, Ipswich and Norwich saw the class employed on passenger trains to these towns. In addition, many of the freightliner trains to Felixstowe were also hauled as far as Ipswich by Class 86 locomotives working in multiple. By the end of the 1980s, the need for a standard fleet saw all remaining Class 86/0 and Class 86/3 locomotives fitted with improved suspension and converted to Class 86/4. These locomotives were now inter-operable with Class 86/2, and thus gave greater operational flexibility.
A later development saw Class 86/2 and 86/4 locomotives fitted with TDM to enable them to operate push-pull passenger trains, to avoid having to run the locomotive round a train at a terminus (see DBSO, DVT). The 86/4s were already fitted with an older multiple-working system and this was gradually phased out after TDM was fitted across the fleet.
In the late-1980s and early-1990s, the majority of the Class 86/4 subclass were dedicated to freight traffic. As a result, they had their electric train heating isolated, and their maximum speed reduced to 75 mph (121 km/h). These locomotives were reclassified as Class 86/6, and were renumbered by adding 200 to their number. Eight Class 86/2 locomotives were also dedicated to freight work, and were reclassified as Class 86/5, being renumbered into the range 86 501-508. However, the InterCity sector of BR decided that it wanted these locomotives back, so they were soon renumbered back as Class 86/2 locomotives. For a period of 1 year starting on 10 May 1992, 6 Class 86/6's were returned to Parcels use. These were renumbered back to class 86/4, as follows: 86 405, 86 411, 86 414, 86 415, 86 428 and 86 431. All six remained in Railfreight Triple Grey.
The late-1980s also saw the introduction of many new liveries. The class had previously only worn electric blue when built, replaced by the standard BR Blue livery from 1967. The first new livery was introduced by the InterCity sector in 1984 with the unveiling of a 'InterCity Executive' livery, with dark grey upper body, tan lower body separated by red and white stripes, with wrap around yellow cabsides and yellow cab roofs.
InterCity undertook a rebranding of InterCity Swallow livery in 1987 on InterCity 125's, and Class 90's and Class 91 which were in the final stages of construction. Class 86's were still used on a mixed traffic basis on InterCity express trains, Parcels, Speedlink and Freightliner traffic, so a modernised version of InterCity livery was used. Commonly known as 'Mainline' livery. The red and white stripes and tan bands covered the whole bodyside, and the roof was dark grey. The whole of the ends were painted yellow, although some were repainted dark grey around the front windows. It wasn't until 1990 that the first Class 86 received InterCity Swallow livery, when a full sector ownership was established.
The Railfreight sector introduced its new two tone grey livery in 1987, initially without sub-sector logos due to shared operations on speedlink and Freightliner duties. Four Class 86's received Railfreight General logos from June 1988, but all 86/6 locomotives carried Railfreight Distribution livery beginning in January 1990. Finally the parcels sector introduced a new red and grey livery with repaints from July 1990 to July 1991, which was replaced with Rail Express Systems livery applied between December 1991 to February 1995.
In the mid-1990s, British Rail was privatised, and the Class 86 fleet was divided among several operators. These are dealt with separately below.
Anglia Railways / 'one'
Anglia Railways was one of three passenger franchises to inherit the class. A fleet of 15 locomotives (nos. 86 215/217/218/220/221/223/230/232/235/237/238/246/250/252/257) were inherited, which were used to exclusively haul London Liverpool Street-Norwich express services. The locomotives were used in push-pull mode with Mk.2E/Mk.2F coaching stock and a DBSO, which removed the need for the locomotive to swap ends at the termini. Generally, the locomotive was at the south, or London, end of a formation, with the DBSO at the north, or country, end of the train.
In 1998 Anglia Railways introduced a new livery of turquoise, with a central white stripe. The first locomotive to be treated was no. 86 223 Norwich Union, followed quickly by no. 86 218 NHS 50. Over the next few years the whole fleet was treated as they received works overhauls at Springburn Works, Glasgow.
Over the years, several of the Anglia fleet were withdrawn following mishaps. For example, nos. 86 220, 86 221 and 86 237 were withdrawn in 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively, following transformer failures. Another machine, no. 86 252 was written off in 2002 after catching fire near Colchester on 1 December 2001 whilst no. 86 257 was withdrawn in 2003 due to its general bad condition. These locomotives were replaced by locomotives made redundant from Virgin CrossCountry (nos. 86 234/242) or West Coast (nos. 86 209/260) franchises. Another locomotive, no. 86 227 was reinstated to traffic in 2002 after being stored for many years. It was repainted in a variation of Anglia's turquoise livery, with a large Union Flag painted on the side, and named Golden Jubilee to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II's 50th anniversary of her reign.
The first major changes to the fleet occurred in late 2002 when Anglia started to hire Class 90 locomotives from Freightliner. This was because at the time, the Class 86 fleet was suffering from reliability problems. In late 2003, Anglia swapped to using English Welsh & Scottish owned Class 90 locomotives, hiring up to five at any one time. Consequently, the use of the Class 86 fleet was decreased, which subsequently allowed reliability to improve.
In early 2004, two locomotives suffered from serious transformer failures. One locomotive, no. 86 246, was subsequently repaired, but the other, no. 86 237 was withdrawn, and later scrapped. This prompted the suggestion that the Anglia Class 86 fleet be replaced by the 15 Class 90 locomotives from Virgin Trains, which were soon to be made redundant by the introduction of new Class 390 "Pendolino" units.
On 1 April 2004 the Anglia Railways franchise ended and the franchise was merged with the other operators in East Anglia to form the new Greater Anglia franchise operated by One. With this came the news that the Class 86 fleet would progressively be replaced by Class 90 locomotives, cascaded from Virgin Trains. The first day of the new franchise saw two Class 90 locomotives unveiled in the new franchisee's 'one' livery. However, despite this announcement, one Class 86 locomotive, no. 86 235, was authorised a complete overhaul, somewhat surprising considering its bleak future. As such, this locomotive became the last to receive classified repairs.
For the first few months of the new franchise all the Class 86 fleet was retained, to insure against reliability issues with the new Class 90 locomotives. However, in October 2004, the fleet was reduced to just six examples, these being nos. 86 218/232/234/235/246/260. The rest were withdrawn but three (nos. 86 217/223/250) were subsequently sold to Fragonset Railways. By December the fleet stood at just two operational locomotives, these being nos. 86 235 Crown Point and 86 246 Royal Anglian Regiment. These were the last two locomotives to receive classified repairs, and consequently were the most reliable (in theory, at least).
It was originally planned to withdraw these final two locomotives on 31 December 2004. However, all did not go to plan, as the replacement Class 90 locomotives did not prove to be as reliable as hoped. Therefore, two locomotives were reprieved until at least March 2005. A final twist saw no. 86 232 repaired, replacing no. 86 246, which had again suffered from a serious failure. A third locomotive, no. 86 234, was also repaired and briefly returned to traffic in April 2005, but was later stored again after failing. The last two locomotives (nos. 86 232/235) saw occasional use, when not enough Class 90 locomotives were available. By mid-2005 no. 86 232 was out of use and no. 86 235 was operational but not used. The final use of the class came on 17 September 2005, when no. 86 235 was used on several Norwich-London return trips to mark its retirement from service. This brought an end to 40 years of Class 86-hauled passenger trains.
86 701 joined the Colas Rail fleet and was painted into the Colas Rail Yellow & Orange livery in October 2012. This, however, was short lived, as it was withdrawn from mainline use in January 2013. In 2015 it was used for contractual work at Ilford Yard Depot. In March 2016 it was transferred to Europhoenix, where it was subsequently exported to Bulgaria, for further use.
On 31 March 2015 the new Caledonian Sleeper contract started, following takeover of the contract from DB Schenker. In February 2015 86 101 was repainted into the new Caledonian Blue livery. From 31 March 2015 86 101 was used to convey the empty sleeper coaching stock between Wembley and London Euston, alongside 87 002. After a lengthy refurbishment, 86 401 joined the Caledonian Sleeper fleet on 8 August 2015. In October 2019 the class 86s were withdrawn, due (primarily) to coupler incompatibility, and returned to the AC Locomotive Group.
English, Welsh & Scottish Railway
English Welsh & Scottish inherited a small fleet of 15 locomotives (nos. 86 208/210/239/241/243/254/261, 86 401/416/417/419/424-426/430), when it bought the Rail Express Systems parcels business. The locomotives were employed on mail trains from London King's Cross to Newcastle, and Birmingham to Glasgow. One of the locomotives (no. 86 239 "Glenfiddich") was destroyed in an accident at Stafford in 1996.
EWS soon diversified the use of its fleet, hiring its locomotives to charter train operators, and also to Virgin Trains, to supplement their unreliable fleet. Three locomotives (nos. 86 261/401/426) were repainted into EWS's red and gold livery.
The rundown of the fleet started in 2001, when the locomotives were replaced on charter and mail trains by Class 67 or Class 90 locomotives. They saw continued use with Virgin Trains, however, but were gradually withdrawn as new Class 390 Pendolino units entered service, reducing the need for hired locomotives. By the end of their working careers, most of the EWS locomotives were in an appalling state and suffered from numerous failures. The final locomotives, nos. 86 210/401/424 were withdrawn from traffic in late 2002.
Following withdrawal from traffic, two locomotives (nos. 86 426/430) were subsequently reinstated and hired to Freightliner, on a long-term contract. This was due to a Class 90 locomotive, no. 90 150, being written off due to fire damage, resulting in a shortage of electric traction. The two locomotives were repainted into Freightliner's racing green livery and employed on intermodal traffic, with the rest of Freightliner's Class 86 fleet. The contract ended in mid-2004, following deliveries of new Class 66 locomotives, meaning that the two electric locomotives were surplus to requirements and they were withdrawn from traffic.
In late 2003, with the exception of the two locomotives on hire to Freightliner, EWS advertised all of its remaining locomotives for sale. Most were subsequently sold for scrap, but one locomotive (no. 86 401) was preserved (later hired in and used by GB Railfreight on the Caledonian Sleeper contract), whilst two others (nos. 86 210/424) were sold for further use with Network Rail and reclassified class 86/9. The former Freightliner pair were sold for scrap in late 2005.
FM Rail (previously Fragonset Railways) briefly leased several locomotives from HSBC Rail. These locomotives were previously used by Anglia Railways (86 217/223/250), Virgin Cross-Country (86 231/251) and Virgin West Coast (86 229/233). One locomotive, ex-Virgin 86 212, was hauled to East Ham Depot in London to be used for carriage power duties for the new Blue Pullman train. However, it does not operate services on the mainline.
FM Rail entered administration in December 2006 without having returned any of their Class 86 locomotives to traffic, and they were returned to the lease company.
The open-access passenger operator Hull Trains obtained the use of 86 101 (one of the preserved Class 86 locomotives) between January and April 2008 to provide cover in the short term for its badly damaged Class 222 Pioneer DMU. The locomotive, together with a rake of Mark 3 coaches, was introduced to public services between London and Doncaster on 11 January 2008, following several months of tests and training, and ran until 20 April 2008 when Class 180 Adelante DMUs were introduced to the service.
The CrossCountry franchise inherited a fleet of 19 locomotives (nos. 86 206/207/214/222/224/225/226/231/234/236/240/242/244/248/249/251/253/256/258). These were employed on various services, such as Birmingham New Street to Manchester Piccadilly, Liverpool, Edinburgh or Glasgow Central. Other services continued south to Birmingham International, whilst others originated from Preston. At Birmingham New Street and Preston, in particular, it was common for the Class 86 locomotive to be removed, and replaced with a Class 47 diesel locomotive, before the service continued south to destinations such as Bristol, Penzance, Reading, Brighton, Poole and Weymouth.
From 1998, onwards, locomotives began to be outshopped in the new Virgin Trains red and black livery. However, a few locomotives, namely nos. 86 207/214/224/234/249/253 retained the old InterCity livery.
In mid-2001 Virgin CrossCountry started to introduce new Class 220 "Voyager" and Class 221 "Super-Voyager" units. These new trains enabled Virgin to start to retire its older traction. Several of the early withdrawals were transferred to other operators, such as nos. 86 234 and 86 242 (to Anglia Railways). However, the majority of locomotives were retained in service until September 2002, when virtually the entire fleet was withdrawn en masse. Prior to this, Virgin had specially repainted no. 86 253 in InterCity livery to commemorate its final few months in traffic. The final Cross-Country operated service was actually operated by no. 86 233. from the West-Coast fleet, which had been repainted in original electric blue livery a few weeks earlier.
Since withdrawal from traffic, several locomotives have been scrapped at Immingham Railfreight Terminal. A few locomotives were sold to other operators, for further use, such as no. 86 253 to Network Rail and nos. 86 231/251 to Fragonset Railways. One locomotive, no. 86 249, was retained by Virgin until late-2004, as a driver-training locomotive at Polmadie depot in Glasgow.
The InterCity West Coast franchise inherited a small fleet of thirteen locomotives (nos. 86 101/102, 86 205/209/212/213/228/229/233/245/247/259/260), which were employed on West Coast Main Line express trains from London Euston to Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Manchester, Liverpool Lime Street, Carlisle and Glasgow Central. By 2001 the fleet had been cut to nine locomotives, with 86 209 being transferred to Anglia Railways, and three more (nos. 86 101/102/213) withdrawn from traffic.
In 1998 no. 86 229 became the first of the class to be repainted in Virgin's red and black livery. By 2001 all except one locomotive had been repainted in this livery.
The West Coast fleet contained several 'celebrity' locomotives, including no. 86 245 "Caledonian", which was repainted in Caledonian Railway blue to celebrate the company's 150th Anniversary. In 2002 no. 86 233 was specially repainted into original electric blue, to commemorate the last few months in traffic for the fleet. One locomotive, no. 86 228, also retained in the old InterCity livery.
In mid-2003, the rundown of the fleet started, as new Class 390 Pendolino electrical multiple units entered service. The final three locomotives (nos. 86 229/233/247) were removed from traffic in September 2003, the final service being operated by electric blue locomotive no. 86 233. Several of the fleet were later transferred to other operators, including Anglia Railways (no. 86 260) and Fragonset Railways (nos. 86 212/229/233). One former West Coast locomotive (no. 86 259) has been preserved.
In 2004, Network Rail acquired three locomotives (nos. 86 210/253/424), of which the first two were converted to mobile load-bank testing locomotives, with the third used for spares. The two operational locomotives were reclassified as Class 86/9, and renumbered as 86 901/902. They were formerly[when?] based at Rugby but were moved and stored at Derby, and carried the Network Rail all-over yellow livery. Their primary use was to test the overhead line supply of electrified lines by simulating various loads. Both locomotives were capable of running under their own power for positioning purposes but could not haul any significant loads. Therefore, when being used to test the overhead supply, they had to be hauled by a diesel locomotive. As of 8 January 2014 they were removed from service and extracted from Derby by low-loader and taken to Long Marston. 86 901 was subsequently taken to Sandbach Car and Commercial Dismantlers, where it was broken up, whilst 86 902 suffered the same fate at CF Booth's scrapyard in Rotherham. 86 424, the erstwhile source of spares, was exported to Hungary, where it is used as a source of spares for the Class 86's that were purchased by Floyd Zrt for freight usage.
Freightliner inherited a large fleet of 30 Class 86/6 freight-dedicated locomotives, most of which had previously been operated by Railfreight Distribution, but some came from Rail Express Systems. The fleet therefore consisted of locomotives in many different obsolete liveries so, from 1995, Freightliner started to apply its newly introduced livery. This was based on the previous Trainload two-tone grey, with the addition of Freightliner's red triangle logo.
The Freightliner fleet were originally employed on intermodal traffic along the northern half of the WCML from Crewe to Coatbridge (near Glasgow). The steep gradients along this route meant that trains were hauled by pairs of locomotives working in multiple. The class also worked services south from Crewe to Tilbury and Ipswich (for onwards movement to Felixstowe by diesel locomotive), and some services to Trafford Park in Manchester. The class have occasionally been used on the East Coast Main Line, particularly when services are diverted due to engineering works.
In 1998, following the introduction of the rebuilt Class 57 diesel locomotives, Freightliner introduced a new livery of racing green with yellow cabsides. The first Class 86 to appear in this livery was no. 86 631, which was hurriedly repainted for display at an open day at Toton. The majority of the fleet have slowly been treated over the years, such that by the end of 2004, only a handful remained in the original two-tone grey livery.
In 2000 locomotive no. 86 608 was experimentally regeared to allow it to work trains single-handedly. It was reclassified as Class 86/5 and renumbered to 86 501. This was the second time this classification and number had been used, the first occasion being former Class 86/2 dedicated to freight work in the late 1980s. Despite the apparent success of 86 501's conversion, no further locomotives have been similar regeared. In mid-2004 the locomotive suffered fire-damage, but was subsequently repaired and returned to service, thereby demonstrating Freightliner's faith in its ability. 86 501 again suffered fire-damage in August 2008 near Bletchley. It was subsequently repaired in December 2008 and returned to service shortly after.
Due to a locomotive shortage in 2002, two further locomotives, nos. 86 426/430, were hired from English Welsh & Scottish, which has just withdrawn its last examples. Since the hire contract was long-term, both locomotives were repainted in Freightliner green livery. They were used in a common pool with the rest of the fleet. By 2004 the need for the extra locomotives was reduced, and so both were returned to EWS, and subsequently withdrawn.
Two other locomotives, nos. 86 101/102, formerly used by Virgin Trains, were also briefly hired by Freightliner in 2001/2002. Neither of these locomotives were repainted, and they both retained obsolete InterCity livery. Due to their non-standard nature, both locomotives had been withdrawn by early 2002.
Following the withdrawal of the Anglia Railways, Virgin Trains and EWS fleets, Freightliner is now the only operator of the class. In January 2005 it had an operational fleet of 19 locomotives, with several more in "warm-storage", capable of being returned to traffic. In the last few years, however, several locomotives have been withdrawn from service, mainly due to the influx of new Class 66 diesel locomotives, although two locomotives (nos. 86 611/631) were written off following the Norton Bridge rail crash, and another three (nos. 86 615/620/621) have been withdrawn following fire damage and subsequently scrapped. In addition, Freightliner's Class 90 fleet, which were previously hired to passenger operators Virgin Trains and Anglia Railways, have now all returned to the company, thus reducing the requirement for the Class 86 fleet. However, Freightliner has retained a core fleet of 14 locomotives in service, as of 2019, ensuring the class has been in service well over 55 years after first being introduced. Two locomotives (nos. 86 622 and 86 637) have been repainted in Freightliner Powerhaul Livery.
In 2008, privately owned and preserved 86 259 was returned to service on the main line, gaining the name of its owner "Les Ross". It was operated on occasional charters by Vintage Trains, from their base at Tyseley, and from 2011 was based at Willesden and available for ad-hoc charters. By August 2011 it had covered 5.7 million miles in service. It is currently[when?] cleared for operation at up to 100 mph (160 km/h). 86 259 is no longer connected to Vintage Trains and is available (and extensively used) for use by any West Coast Railways operated charter trains.
86 233 was sent to Bulgaria, in October 2012, for use by open access freight operator Bulmarket, as a spares donor for previously exported class 87s nos. 87 009, 87 017, 87 023 and 87 025. In March 2016 nos. 86 213 (91 52 0085 003), 86 231 (91 52 0085 005), 86 234 (91 52 0085 006), 86 235 (91 52 0085 004), 86 701 (91 52 0085 001) and 86 702 (91 52 0085 002) were also exported for use with open-access operator Bulmarket.
In 2008 Europhoenix completed a deal to purchase the remaining Class 86/2 fleet from HSBC Rail Leasing, numbering 23 locomotives, with the intention of overhauling some of them for use in Europe and the UK. 86 248 and 86 250 were sold to Hungarian private open access freight operator Floyd Zrt, and were delivered in February and May 2009, becoming Hungarian Class 450. As of July 2013 Floyd Zrt owns 9 Class 86s: 86 215 (0450 005-8), 86 217 (0450 006-8), 86 218 (0450 004-1), 86 228 (0450 007-4), 86 232 (0450 003-1), 86 242 (0450 008-2), 86 248 (0450 001-5), 86 250 (0450 002-5) and 86 424 (0450 009).
Currently three locomotives have been preserved.
- The first locomotive to be preserved was no. 86 401 'Hertfordshire Rail Tours'. This locomotive was operated by EWS until 2002, when it was one of the final three EWS machines to be withdrawn from traffic. Prior to that, it was the only locomotive of its class to be painted in Network SouthEast livery, and was named 'Northampton Town'. In this guise it was used on London-Cambridge and London-Northampton passenger trains. In 2004 no. 86 401 was preserved by the AC Locomotive Group, which also owns examples of Classes 81-85 (based at Barrow Hill Engine Shed). 86 401 was initially deployed in the reserve fleet of operational shunting/depot service locomotives at Willesden TMD. In February 2015 no. 86 401 moved from Willesden TMD to Leicester Depot, where it underwent renovation work. Modifications that it had at Leicester Depot included the fitting of GSM-R and OTMR, the recommissioning of the Time-division multiplexing system and various attention to the components and bodywork. On 12 May 2015 it left Leicester Depot bound for Brush Traction where it was re-painted into "Caledonian Blue" and renamed "Mons Meg".
- 86 101 was preserved by the AC Locomotive Group in August 2005. It was initially stored at MoD Ashchurch but was restored to working condition at Barrow Hill. On 15 March 2007 it undertook its first test run and made a return to the main line, when it hauled the Carlisle-Crewe and return legs of "The Ynys Mon Express" railtour to Holyhead, on 24 March 2007. In December 2014, after a few years in storage, 86 101 made its initial main-line run to and from Willesden TMD. In 2015 86 101 was selected as one of the locomotives to help with the new Caledonian Sleeper Services. In February 2015 it was taken to Brush Traction where it was painted into Caledonian blue. Template:From of it was used to convey empty coaching stock for the Caledonian sleepers between Wembley and London Euston, alongside 87 002. 86 101 was subsequently sold to Locomotive Services Ltd., along with 87 002.
- 86 259 has been preserved, initially at Tyseley Locomotive Works, and (as of late 2017) stabled at Rugby Station. It is owned by Les Ross, after whom the locomotive is named. It is maintained in full operational condition wearing its initial Electric blue scheme.
|Numbers (current in bold)||Name||Livery||Location||Status||Owners||Notes|
|E3137||86 045||86 259||Les Ross/Peter Pan||1960s Electric Blue||Rugby railway station||Operational (mainline registered)||Les Ross||E3137 at one end and 86 259 at the other end. "Les Ross" nameplate on one side & "Peter Pan" on other.|
|E3191||86 201||86 101||Sir William A Stanier FRS||Caledonian Blue||Willesden TMD||Operational (mainline registered)||Locomotive Services Limited||Sold from Electric Traction Ltd to Locomotive Services Ltd in November 2019, following completion of its running agreement with GBRf, working the Caledonian Sleeper empty sleeper stock trains.|
|E3199||86 001||86 401||Mons Meg||Caledonian Blue||Willesden TMD||Operational (mainline registered)||Electric Traction Limited|
|Numbers (current in bold)||Name(s)||Dates||Final Livery||Operator||Withdrawn||Status |
|86101||86201||E3191||Sir William A Stanier FRS[nb 1]||1978–2005
|Caledonian Blue||AC Locomotive Group||-||Preserved operational|
|86102||86202||E3150||Robert A Riddles[nb 2]||1981–2002||InterCity||Freightliner||04/2002||Scrapped at MoD Caerwent (04/2005)|
|86103||86203||E3143||André Chapelon||1981–1995||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||05/1995||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (11/2002)|
|86204||-||E3173||City of Carlisle[nb 3]||1978–1998||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||08/1998||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (07/2003)|
|86205||86503||E3129||City of Lancaster||1979–2003||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin West Coast||10/2003||Converted to 86701 (08/2009)|
|86206||-||E3184||City of Stoke on Trent||1978–2002||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Cardiff (02/2004)|
|86207||-||E3179||City of Lichfield||1981–2002||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||07/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (04/2006)|
|86208||-||E3141||City of Chester[nb 4]||1979–2000||InterCity||EWS||03/2002||Scrapped at Crewe Electric TMD (07/2003)|
|86209||-||E3125||City of Coventry||1979–2004||Anglia Railways||'one'||10/2004||Scrapped at Boreham, Essex (07/2005)|
|86210||-||E3179||City of Edinburgh[nb 5]||1981–1995||Rail Express Systems||EWS||12/2002||Converted to 86902 (12/2004)|
|C.I.T. 75th Anniversary||1995–2003|
|86211||-||E3147||City of Milton Keynes||1982–1986||InterCity||British Rail||11/1986||Written-off in Colwich accident |
Scrapped at Crewe Works (09/1987)
|86212||-||E3151||Preston Guild||1979–1992||Virgin Red/Black||FM Rail||10/2003||Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury 02/2011|
|Preston Guild 1328-1992||1992–2003|
|86213||-||E3193||Lancashire Witch||1981-||InterCity||AC Locomotive Group||09/1998||In February 2016, sold for export to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85003.|
|86214||-||E3106||Sans Pareil||1980–2002||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (03/2006)|
|86215||-||E3165||Joseph Chamberlain||1981–1996||Anglia Railways||'one'||10/2004||Exported to Hungary. (05/2012) Export Number 0450 005-8. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|Norfolk and Norwich Festival||1998–1999|
|The Round Tabler||2003–2004|
|86216||-||E3166||Meteor||1978–2002||InterCity||Virgin West Coast||04/1998||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (03/2003)|
|86217||86504||E3177||Comet||1980–1985||Anglia Railways||FM Rail||04/2004||Exported to Hungary. (02/2013) Export Number 0450 006. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|86218||-||E3175||Planet||1979–1993||Anglia Railways||'one'||09/2004||Exported to Hungary. (02/2011) Export Number 0450 004-1. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|Year of Opera and Musical Theatre 1997||1997–1998|
|86219||-||E3196||Phoenix||1978–2002||InterCity||Virgin West Coast||05/1996||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (05/2002)|
|86220||-||E3156||Goliath||1979–1987||Anglia Railways||Anglia Railways||05/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (11/2003)|
|The Round Tabler||1987–2002|
|86221||-||E3132||Vesta||1979–1987||Anglia Railways||Anglia Railways||05/2003||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (11/2003)|
|BBC Look East||1987–2003|
|86222||86502||E3131||Fury||1979–1987||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (12/2003)|
|Lloyd's List 250th Anniversary||1989–1994|
|Clothes Show Live||1994–2002|
|86223||-||E3158||Hector||1979–1987||Anglia Railways||FM Rail||04/2004||Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury 04/2011|
|86224||-||E3134||Caledonian||1979–1988||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||07/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (05/2006)|
|86225||-||E3164||Hardwicke||1980–2003||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||07/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (04/2006)|
|86226||-||E3162||1979–1984||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||07/2002||Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury 04/2011|
|Royal Mail Midlands||1984–1996|
|Charles Rennie Mackintosh||1996–2002|
|86227||-||E3117||Sir Henry Johnson||1981–2002||Anglia Railways
(with Union Flag)
|'one'||10/2004||Scrapped at Rotherham (07/2005)|
|86228||-||E3167||Vulcan Heritage||1980-||InterCity||Virgin West Coast||10/2003||Exported to Hungary. (07/2013) Export number: 0450 007-4. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|86229||-||E3119||Sir John Betjeman[nb 6]||1983–1998||Virgin Red/Black||FM Rail||10/2003||Stored at Crewe Basford Hall. Source of spares for Freightliner.|
|Lions Club International||1998–2003|
|86230||-||E3168||The Duke of Wellington||1981–1997||Anglia Railways||'one'||10/2004||Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury 05/2011|
|86231||-||E3126||Starlight Express||1984–2002||Virgin Red/Black||FM Rail||07/2002||Exported to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85005.|
|86232||-||E3113||Harold Macmillan||1979–1990||Anglia Railways||'one'||07/2005||Exported to Hungary. (04/2010) Export Number 0450 003-3. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|Norfolk and Norwich Festival||1990–1995|
|86233||86506||E3172||Laurence Olivier||1980–2002||BR Electric Blue||Swift Rail Ltd||11/2007||Exported to Bulgaria. (11/2012) Bulmarket as a spares donor.|
|86234||-||E3155||J B Priestley OM||1980–2002||Anglia Railways||'one'||04/2005||Exported to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85006.|
|Suffolk - Relax Refresh Return||2002-|
|86235||-||E3194||Novelty||1979–1990||Anglia Railways||'one'||09/2005||Exported to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85004.|
Master Potter 1736-1795
|1978–2002||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (12/2003)|
|86237||-||E3197||Sir Charles Hallé||1983–1993||Anglia Railways||'one'||04/2004||Scrapped at Cardiff (10/2004)|
|University of East Anglia||1993–2004|
|86238||-||E3116||European Community||1986–2004||Anglia Railways||'one'||10/2004||Scrapped at Boreham, Essex (05/2005)|
|86239||86507||E3169||L. S. Lowry||1980–1996||Rail Express Systems||EWS||04/1996||Written-off in Stafford accident |
Scrapped at Crewe Electric TMD (04/1997)
|86240||-||E3127||Bishop Eric Treacy[nb 7]||1979–2002||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (04/2005)|
|86241||86508||E3121||Glenfiddich[nb 8]||1979–2003||Rail Express Systems||EWS||01/2000||Scrapped at Crewe Electric TMD (02/2003)|
|86242||-||E3138||James Kennedy GC||1981–2002||Anglia Railways||'one'||10/2004||Involved in Nuneaton rail crash. Exported to Hungary. (07/2013) Export Number 0450 008-2. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|86243||-||E3181||The Boys' Brigade[nb 9]||1983–1993||Rail Express Systems||EWS||11/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (09/2004)|
|86244||-||E3178||The Royal British Legion||1981–2002||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (11/2003)|
|86245||-||E3182||Dudley Castle||1984–1998||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin West Coast||10/2003||Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury (06/2010)|
|86246||86505||E3149||Royal Anglian Regiment||1985-||Anglia Railways||'one'||12/2004||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (01/2017)|
|86247||-||E3192||Abraham Darby||1981–2003||Europhenix||Europhenix||10/2003||Scrapped at Crewe Basford Hall (12/2015)|
|86248||-||E3107||County of Clwyd / Sir Clwyd||1981–2003||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Exported to Hungary. (2/2009) Export Number 0450 001-7. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|86249||-||E3161||County of Merseyside||1981–2005||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2003||Scrapped at MoD Caerwent (10/2005)|
|86250||-||E3189||The Glasgow Herald||1980–1998||Anglia Railways||FM Rail||04/2004||Exported to Hungary. (5/2009) Export Number 0450 002-5. Operated by Floyd ZRt.|
|86251||-||E3183||The Birmingham Post||1984–2002||Virgin Red/Black||FM Rail||10/2002||Stored at Crewe Basford Hall. Source of spares for Freightliner.|
|86252||-||E3101||The Liverpool Daily Post||1980–2000||Anglia Railways||Anglia Railways||05/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (08/2002)|
|86253||86044||E3136||The Manchester Guardian||1980–2004||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Converted to 86901 (11/2004)|
|86254||86047||E3142||William Webb Ellis||1980–1996||Rail Express Systems||EWS||10/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (08/2004)|
|86255||86042||E3154||Penrith Beacon||1981–1999||InterCity||Virgin Cross-Country||08/1998||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (09/2002)|
|86256||86040||E3135||Pebble Mill||1981–2003||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||10/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (03/2006)|
|86257||86043||E3139||Snowdon||1981–1999||Anglia Railways||Anglia Railways||11/2002||Scrapped at Immingham RFT (11/2003)|
|86258||86046||E3192||Talyllyn - The First Preserved Railway||1984–2001||Virgin Red/Black||Virgin Cross-Country||07/2002||Conversion to battery-electric locomotive cancelled. Scrapped at EMR Kingsbury (12/2009)|
|Talyllyn 50 Years of Railway Preservation 1951-2001||2001-2002|
|86259||86045||E3137||Peter Pan||1979–1995||BR Electric Blue||Peter Pan Locomotive Ltd (Les Ross)||10/2003||Preserved operational at Rugby railway station|
The Life & Soul Of Britain
|86260||86048||E3144||Driver Wallace Oakes GC||1981–2003||Anglia Railways||'one'||05/2004||Converted to 86702 (08/2009)|
|86261||86041||E3118||Driver John Axon GC||1981–1992||EWS Red/Gold||EWS||11/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (12/2004)|
|The Rail Charter Partnership||1997–2004|
|86401||86001||E3199||Northampton Town||1989–1991||Caledonian Blue||AC Locomotive Group||-||Preserved Operational|
|Hertfordshire Rail Tours||1998–2002|
|86416||86316||E3109||Wigan Pier||1984–1992||Rail Express Systems||EWS||02/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (07/2005)|
|86417||86317||E3146||The Kingsman||1985–1993||Rail Express Systems||EWS||09/2001||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (11/2004)|
|86419||86319||E3120||Post Haste 150 Years of the Travelling Post Office||1990–1993||Rail Express Systems||EWS||03/1999||Scrapped at Crewe Electric TMD (03/2003)|
|86424||86324||E3111||-||-||NR Yellow||Network Rail||12/2002||Exported to Hungary. (08/2013) Export Number 0450 009. Operated by Floyd ZRt. Returned to service 2018.|
|86425||86325||E3186||Saint Mungo||1995–2003||Rail Express Systems||EWS||02/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (01/2005)|
|86426||86326||E3195||Pride of the Nation||1998–2002||Freightliner Green||EWS||06/2004||Derailed at Bushbury Junction 13 August 1979. Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (11/2005)|
|86429||86329||E3200||The Times||1982–1986||InterCity||British Rail||11/1986||Written-off in Colwich accident |
Scrapped at Crewe Works (11/1986)
|86430||86030||E3105||Scottish National Orchestra||1987–1991||Freightliner Green||EWS||06/2004||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (12/2005)|
|86501||86608||E3180||Crewe Basford Hall||2000–2000||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||Originally rebuilt with low-range final drive and reclassified, since restored to original specification.|
|86602||86402||E3170||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||03/2005||Scrapped at Sandbach Car & Commercial Dismantlers at Crewe LNWR (01/2010)|
|Freightliner||09/1999||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (11/2005)|
|86604||86404||E3103||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86605||86405||E3185||Intercontainer||1992–1996||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86606||86406||E3112||-||-||Freightliner grey||Freightliner||11/2003||Scrapped at Ron Hull Jr, Rotherham (06/2007)|
|86607||86407||E3176||The Institution of
|1987–2000||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86608||86408||E3180||St. John Ambulance||1987–1999||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86609||86409||E3102||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86610||86410||E3104||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86611||86411||E3171||Airey Neave[nb 10]||1983–2003||Freightliner grey||Freightliner||11/2003||Written-off in Norton Bridge accident |
Scrapped at Crewe Works by HNRC (02/2005)
|86612||86412||E3122||Elizabeth Garrett Anderson||1983–2004||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86613||86413||E3128||County of Lancashire||1985–1999||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86614||86414||E3145||Frank Hornby||1986–2001||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86615||86415||E3123||Rotary International||1984–2005||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||04/2005||Scrapped at Ron Hull Jr, Rotherham (07/2007)|
|86618||86418||E3163||-||-||Freightliner grey||Freightliner||08/2001||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (03/2005)|
|86620||86420||E3114||Philip G Walton||1998-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||09/2005||Scrapped at Ron Hull Jr, Rotherham (06/2007)|
|86621||86421||E3157||London School of Economics||1985–2004||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||04/2011||Scrapped at Crewe LNWR (03/2013)|
|86622||86422||E3174||-||-||Freightliner Powerhaul||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86623||86423||E3152||-||-||Freightliner grey||Freightliner||10/2003||Scrapped by Sandbach Car & Commercial Dismantlers at Crewe LNWR (01/2010)|
|86627||86427||E3110||The Industrial Society||1985–1999||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86628||86428||E3159||Aldaniti||1984–2004||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86631||86431||E3188||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||11/2003||Written-off in Norton Bridge accident |
Scrapped at Crewe Works by HNRC (03/2005)
|86632||86432||E3148||Brookside||1987–1999||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86633||86433||E3198||Wulfruna||1985–2004||Freightliner grey||Freightliner||02/2004||Scrapped at Crewe LNWR (03/2013)|
|86634||86434||E3187||University of London||1986–1999||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||05/2002||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (03/2005)|
|86635||86435||E3124||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||02/2004||Scrapped at Crewe LNWR (03/2013)|
|86636||86436||E3160||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||03/2000||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (01/2005)|
|86637||86437||E3130||-||-||Freightliner Powerhaul||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86638||86438||E3108||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86639||86439||E3153||-||-||Freightliner Green||Freightliner||-||In service|
|86701||86205||E3129||Orion||2009-2015||Colas Rail Yellow & Orange||Europhoenix||12/2015||Exported to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85001.|
|86702||86260||E3144||Cassiopeia||2009-2015||Electric Traction Limited Red and Grey||Europhoenix||12/2015||Exported to Bulgaria. Operated by Bulmarket. Renumbered to 85002.|
|86901||86253||E3136||Chief Engineer||2005-2011||NR Yellow||Network Rail||03/2011||Scrapped at Sandbach Commercial Dismantlers Ltd (06/2018)|
|86902||86210||E3190||Rail Vehicle Engineering||2005-2011||NR Yellow||Network Rail||03/2011||Scrapped at CF Booth, Rotherham (11/2016)|
N.B. All locomotives numbered in the 86 3xx, 86 4xx and 86 6xx series were previously numbered in the 86 0xx series.
Over the years, several Class 86 locomotives have been involved in accidents. The most serious of these was the Watford Junction rail crash 23-Jan-1975 (between Bushey and Watford Junction), when no. 86 209 collided head-on with Class 83 no. 83 003. The Class 86 was seriously damaged after falling down an embankment, coming to rest in a field (now the site of the Colne Valley Retail Park). It was eventually recovered, several weeks later, by road. Surprisingly, given the seriousness of the incident, it was authorised for repairs and later returned to service. Also, in 1975, nos. 86 006 and 86 242 were involved in the Nuneaton rail crash. Both were later repaired. Another serious accident was the Colwich rail crash in 1986, when nos. 86 211 and 86 429 were involved in a head-on collision. Both locomotives were written-off and subsequently scrapped.
In 1996 a Travelling Post Office train hauled by no. 86 239 collided with the rear of a freight train at Stafford, writing-off the locomotive and killing two of the Royal Mail employees on board the train, John Thomson and Tommy Poynts.
The Norton Bridge rail crash, in 2003, saw an intermodal train, hauled by nos. 86 631 and 86 611, collide with the rear of another stationary freight train. The force of the impact broke the leading locomotive in half, although the driver was not killed. Both locomotives were written-off as uneconomical to repair.
- First named on 27 October 1978 at Liverpool Lime Street.
- Named at Euston on 19 May 1981.
- Named on 7 December 1978 at Carlisle.
- Named on 7 March 1979 at Chester.
- Named on 27 February 1979 at Edinburgh.
- 86229 was named Sir John Betjeman on 24 June 1983 by Sir John Betjeman, himself, at St Pancras.
- Named on 3 April 1979 at Penrith.
- Named on 28 March 1979 at Glasgow.
- Named by Sir David McNee on 9 April 1983 at Glasgow Central.
- 86311 was named Airey Neave on 14 May 1983 by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at Euston.
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 77
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 69
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 68
- "86101 / 86201 / E3191: Technical Details". The AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 71
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 94
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 67
- "History - Early AC Locomotives". The AC Electric Group. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Class History AL6/86". The AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Longhurst 1979, Class AL6–86
- "Class History 87". The AC Electric Group. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Clinnick, Richard. "CAF Mk 5s finally used on all Caledonian Sleeper services". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Class 86 Renumbering Chart : exported locos - AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- https://www.railadvent.co.uk/2019/11/locomotive-services-ltd-purchases-electric-locomotives.html/amp Class 86 & 87 sold to Loco Services Ltd.
- wnxx.com - Disposal details for fleet
- Class 86 Renumbering Chart - AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved on 2011-02-12
- Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 72
- Maxey, David (February 1984). "The game of the name". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. p. 29. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
- "Sir John names 'his' loco". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. August 1983. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
- "86243 The Boys' Brigade". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. June 1983. p. 20. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
- "Readers' round-up: Class 86". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. August 1983. p. 48. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
- Dept of the Environment (1975). Report on the Derailment and Consequent Collision that Occurred on 23rd January 1975 Near Watford Junction (PDF). Edinburgh: HMSO. p. 3.
- Longhurst, Roly (1979). Electric Locomotives of the West Coast Main Line. Truro: D. Bradford Barton Ltd. ISBN 0851533558. OCLC 16491712.
- Webb, Brian; Duncan, John (1979). AC Electric Locomotives of British Rail. David & Charles. ISBN 9780715376638. OCLC 6916046.
- Derrick, Kevin (2014). Looking back at AC Electric Locomotives. Strathwood. ISBN 9781905276516. OCLC 931820979.
- Marsden, Colin J. (2007). The AC Electrics. OPC. ISBN 9780860936145. OCLC 148304137.
- McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948–1968. Wirral. Michael McManus.
- Morrison, Brian (1988). The Power of the AC Electrics. OPC. ISBN 9780860932468. OCLC 59814839.
- Morrison, Gavin (2013). AC Electric Locomotives in Colour. Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711035058. OCLC 812686430.
- Shaw, Chris (1991). Rail Portfolios 13: The AC Electrics. Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711019386. OCLC 59968422.
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