British Rail Class 87

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British Rail Class 87
87030 'Black Douglas' at Carlisle.jpg
87030 Black Douglas in Virgin Trains livery at Carlisle in 2004.
Type and origin
Power type Electric
Builder British Rail Engineering Limited Crewe Works
Build date 1973–1975
Total produced 36
Specifications
Configuration:
 • UIC Bo'Bo'
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Bogies BP9[1]
Wheel diameter 3 ft 9 12 in (1.156 m)[2]
Minimum curve 80 m (4 chains)[2]
Wheelbase 43 ft 6 18 in (13.262 m)[3]
 • Bogie 10 ft 9 in (3.280 m)[3]
Pivot centres 32 ft 9 in (9.98 m)[3]
Length:
 • Over beams 58 ft 6 in (17.83 m)[3]
Width 8 ft 8 14 in (2.648 m) (over body)[3]
Height:
 • Pantograph 13 ft 1 14 in (3.994 m)[2]
 • Body height 12 ft 4 14 in (3.766 m)[3]
Axle load 19 long tons 13 cwt (20.0 t)[3]
Loco weight 80 long tons (81 t; 90 short tons)[2]
Electric system(s) 25 kV AC Catenary[2]
Current source Brecknell Willis HS Pantograph[2]
Traction motors
  • 4 × 1,250 hp (930 kW)[4] GEC G412AZ (87/0)
  • 4 × GEC G412BZ (87/1)[2]
 • Rating 1 hour 885A[5]
Gear ratio 32:73[2]
MU working TDM
Train heating
Loco brake Air & Rheostatic[3]
Train brakes Air
Safety systems AWS[6]
Performance figures
Maximum speed 110 mph (180 km/h)
Power output:
 • 1 hour 1,270 hp (950 kW) per motor[5]
 • Continuous
  • 5,000 hp (3,700 kW) (87/0)
  • 4,850 hp (3,620 kW) (87/1)[2]
Tractive effort 58,000 lbf (258 kN)
Brakeforce 40 long tons (41 t)[2]
Career
Operators Bulmarket
Bulgarian Railway Company Caledonian Sleeper
Class 87
Number in class 36
Numbers 87001–87035, 87101
Axle load class Route availability 6
Preserved 87001, 87002, 87035
Disposition
  • 3 preserved
  • 21 exported
  • 12 scrapped

The British Rail Class 87 is a type of electric locomotive built in 1973–75 by British Rail Engineering Limited. Thirty-six of these locomotives were built to work passenger services over the West Coast Main Line (WCML). They were the flagships of British Rail's electric locomotive fleet until the late 1980s, when the Class 90s started to come on stream. The privatisation of British Rail saw all but one of the fleet transferred to Virgin Trains. They continued their duties until the advent of the new Class 390 Pendolinos, when they were transferred to other operators or withdrawn. There is only one Class 87 still in use in Britain, 87002, owned by the AC Locomotive Group and solely used alongside 86101 for the occasional charter train. A large proportion of the fleet have now been exported to Bulgaria. 87002 is currently hired by Serco to work the empty coaching stock of the Caledonian Sleeper services.

History[edit]

A requirement for more electric locomotives came about after the electrification of the WCML was extended from Weaver Junction north of Crewe to Preston, Carlisle and Glasgow. Initially, three Class 86 locomotives were used as test-beds to trial equipment (mainly electrical equipment and suspension) that would be used in the new locomotives; effectively, these locomotives were Class 87s in everything but appearance.[7]

The external design of the Class 87 was clearly derived from that of the Class 86; the only major detail differences were two front cab windows on the 87 instead of the three of the 86, and also the lack of headcode indicator boxes;[8] by 1973, visual recognition of train reporting numbers by signallers was no longer necessary. The power and speed of the Class 87 was increased over that of the Class 86. Power output was increased to 5000 hp to deal with the more demanding gradients on the northern half of the WCML such as Shap Fell and Beattock Summit, and the top speed was raised to 110 mph (180 km/h). The 87s were also fitted with multiple working equipment[8] which enabled locomotives to work with other members of the class (and some Class 86s) while controlled by one driver.[7]

In the 1980s, the multiple working system was replaced with a new system based on time-division multiplexing (TDM) allowing 87s to work with other classes of locomotive (including most 86s, 90s and 91s) and most importantly, Driving Van Trailers (DVTs).

The unique Class 87/1, No.87101 Stephenson, in blue livery at Birmingham International station in 1988

87101[edit]

Whilst the first 35 locomotives (numbered from 87001 to 87035, and known as Class 87/0) were identical, the 36th was numbered 87101 (was going to carry the number 87036 before entering traffic but got the 87101 number instead) and had major equipment differences from the rest of the class. While the 87/0s were fitted with a traditional tap changer transformer and rectifiers, 87101 had a new thyristor power control system,[9] and spent over a year on test before entering service in 1976.[10] The locomotive, named Stephenson after transfer of the name from 87001,[8] worked the same services as the standard locomotives for many years, until British Rail was sectorised in the 1980s.

This locomotive was in effect the prototype for the later build of locomotives designated Class 90.

British Rail service[edit]

A Class 87 hauled express on the WCML in InterCity livery in 1994

The great majority of the Class 87s' workload came on express passenger services from London Euston to the North West and Glasgow. They did, however, see some use on freight, especially on heavy services that required two locomotives. In the late 1970s, British Rail named its entire Class 87 fleet, many receiving names previously carried by the "Britannia" steam locomotives. The rest were named after towns, cities or counties along the WCML. In the 1980s, British Rail locomotives were allocated to separate sectors and the 87/0s were transferred to InterCity (which meant that their freight work largely came to an end), whilst 87101 went to work for Railfreight Distribution.

Post-Privatisation service[edit]

87025 'County of Cheshire' in 2002. One of the last Class 87s to be in service with Virgin Trains. The locomotive is painted in Virgin Trains' red and black livery.

Virgin Trains[edit]

As part of the privatisation of British Rail, all 35 passed to rolling stock leasing company Porterbrook and were leased to InterCity West Coast operator Virgin Trains in 1997. The locomotives continued to work the same services as before, the only outward indication of the change of ownership being the repainting of the locomotives in the red Virgin Trains livery. However, the Virgin policy of introducing a new fleet of trains inevitably meant that the writing was on the wall for the 87s. As Pendolino deliveries began to come on stream from 2002 onward, 87005 City of London was the first locomotive taken out of service, and although withdrawals were slower than expected due to the unreliability of the Pendolinos, the final day in service was set for 10 June 2005, by which time many locomotives had been withdrawn, and others transferred to other operators. On this day, four locomotives hauled special trains to Wolverhampton, Northampton and Manchester. However, this turned out not to be the final workings for Virgin, as further problems with the new trains meant sporadic appearances by Class 87s hired from other operators. The final working, between London and Birmingham, eventually occurred on 22 December 2006; 87002 performing the honours.

English Welsh & Scottish[edit]

English Welsh & Scottish inherited the unique 87101 from Railfreight Distribution. The locomotive was used infrequently on freight and charter trains but suffered a major failure in 1999 and was withdrawn due to its non-standard nature. It was eventually sold to Alstom for spare parts, and finally scrapped at Barrow Hill by Harry Needle Railroad Company in 2002.

Cotswold Rail[edit]

In April 2005, Cotswold Rail acquired three locomotives, all of which had been out of service for a number of months. The fleet later grew to eight, and were intended to work charter trains, for spot-hire contracts and a new possible intermodal traffic flow. They were based at Oxley depot in Wolverhampton. However the fleet saw very little use, only two ever worked a train (87007 and 87008) both were repainted into Cotswold Rail livery, and in July 2006 the locomotives went off-lease.

Direct Rail Services[edit]

In November 2004, Direct Rail Services (DRS) acquired four locomotives. They were used on Anglo-Scottish intermodal services, but never on a regular basis. In June 2005, the four locomotives were stored. The main reason for their lack of use was the need for a diesel to shunt the train in non-electrified sidings.

FirstGBRf[edit]

In November 2004, FirstGBRf acquired two locomotives which had recently been retired from Virgin passenger service. They were used as standby locomotives to rescue failed Class 325 units working FirstGBRf parcels trains. The fleet increased to four at one point, but finally consisted of two locomotives, 87022 Cock O' The North, and 87028 Lord President, which were both withdrawn at the end of 2007. What was to have been their final working, a charter train on 29 December 2007, was cancelled.

Bulgaria export[edit]

In 2006, Singapore trading company Romic-Ace International PTE Ltd approached Porterbrook to discuss the potential export of the Class 87 locomotives to a customer in Eastern Europe. Nos 87012 and 87019 were purchased and sold to BRC, an open access operator in Bulgaria by Romic-Ace after preparation for export by Electric Traction Services Limited (ETS). The transfer did not take place until after Bulgaria's accession to the European Union the following year to minimise customs formalities.

Following successful trials and homologation by the state railways, a further 25 locomotives (the entire fleet, minus five that have been scrapped, two already in Bulgaria and the four locomotives preserved or staying in the UK) were purchased from Porterbrook by Romic-Ace and sold to the Bulgarian Railway Company (БЖК/BRC) in seven batches with the refurbishment being carried out by ETS at Long Marston. The locomotives were then moved to Crewe for 25 kV testing and sign off. The project involved the supply of the locomotives, spares, drawings, overhaul documents and the provision of driver/staff training, which was provided by ETS in the UK and Bulgaria on behalf of Romic-Ace.

The locomotive batches were scheduled to be exported in stages over the period 2008–2009. The first batch, locos 87007, 87008 and 87026, were prepared by Electric Traction Services Limited, and left the UK in June 2008 after testing and sign off by Romic-Ace and BRC at Crewe.[11] The locomotives were delivered by rail via the Channel Tunnel. Subsequent batches of locomotives have been delivered by road to Hull, then ferry and barge to the port of Ruse in Bulgaria. 17 locomotives are in service with Bulgarian Railway Company.[12] A downturn in traffic in Bulgaria meant that the export deal was terminated in 2009, leaving 11 locos "in limbo". Those in worst condition (87011, 87018, 87021, 87027, 87030, 87031 and 87032) were sent for scrapping in 2010 and 2011.

This left four 87009, 87017, 87023 and 87025 owned by Europhoenix. Europhoenix started to prepare 87017 and 87023 for possible use in the UK, but the only interest was from Bulgaria in the form of open access freight operator Bulmarket. 87017 and 87023 (in working order) and 87009 and 87025 (not in working order) were exported by ship from Immingham in October 2012.

Accidents[edit]

  • On 16 February 1980, at Bushey, a broken welded rail caused a train hauled by 87007 to derail at 96 mph, injuring 19 passengers.[13]
  • 1999 Winsford rail accident: On 23 June 1999, an express hauled by 87027 collided with an empty Class 142 Pacer railbus which had passed a signal at danger in Cheshire. 31 people were injured.[14]

Fleet Details[edit]

Key: In Service Withdrawn Preserved Converted Scrapped Exported
87/0 Number 87/1 Number Last Number Export Number Date into traffic[15] Disposal Notes Name[15][nb 1]
87001 87001 - June 1973 Preserved 2005: National Railway Museum, York -
  • Stephenson (14 January 1976–July 1977)[16][nb 2]
  • Royal Scot (14 July 1977–1998)[nb 3]
  • Royal Scot (1999–2003)
  • Stephenson (2003–present)
  • Royal Scot (2005–present)
87002 87002 June 1973 Preserved 2008: The AC Locomotive Group Repainted into Caledonian Blue and shunts the Caledonian Sleeper coaching stock into London Euston, also back-up loco for the Caledonian Sleeper. Royal Sovereign (4 July 1978 – 2003)
The AC Locomotive Group (2005–2008)
Royal Sovereign (2008–present)
87003 - 87003 87003-0 July 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) - Patriot (13 June 1978 – 2005)
87004 - 87004 87004-8 July 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) - Britannia (3 April 1978 – 2005)[nb 4]
Britannia (2009–present)
87005 - 87005 August 1973 Scrapped 2005: JT Landscapes, MoD Caerwent - City of London (22 November 1977 – 2003)
87006 - 87006 87006-3 November 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) -
  • City of Glasgow (8 December 1977–1987)
  • Glasgow Garden Festival (April 1987–January 1989)[16]
  • City of Glasgow (1989–1997)
  • George Reynolds (1997–2004)
87007 - 87007 87007-1 October 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) - City of Manchester (1 November 1977 – 2004)
87008 - 87008 87008-9 November 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) - City of Liverpool (29 November 1977 – 1998)
Royal Scot (1998–1999)
City of Liverpool (1999–2004)
87009 - 87009 - November 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (Bulmarket) - City of Birmingham (29 November 1977 – 2003)
87010 - 87010 87010-5 December 1973 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) - King Arthur (6 June 1978 – 2005)
Driver Tommy Farr (2005–2005)
87011 - 87011 - January 1974 Scrapped 2011: EMR Kingsbury - The Black Prince (15 May 1978 – 1998)
City of Wolverhampton (2001–2004)
87012 87012 87012-1 January 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK)
  • Coeur de Lion (25 May 1978–November 1984)[16]
  • The Royal Bank of Scotland (1988–1998)
  • Coeur de Lion (2001–2005)
  • The Olympian (2005–2006)
87013 87013 87013-6 February 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) John o' Gaunt (14 March 1978 – 1998)[nb 5]
John O' Gaunt (2000–2004)
87014 87014 87014-7 January 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Knight of the Thistle (16 May 1978 – 2004)
87015 87015 February 1974 Scrapped 2005: JT Landscapes, MoD Caerwent Howard of Effingham (12 May 1978 – 2005)
87016 87016 March 1974 Scrapped 2004: JT Landscapes, MoD Caerwent Sir Francis Drake (28 April 1978 – 1988)
Willesden Intercity Depot (1992–2004)
87017 87017 March 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (Bulmarket) Iron Duke (30 May 1978 – 2004)
Iron Duke (2011–present)
87018 87018 May 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Lord Nelson (9 March 1978 – 2004)[nb 6]
87019 87019 87019-6 March 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Sir Winston Churchill (3 May 1978 – 2005)
ACoRP Association of Community Rail Partnerships (2005–2006)
87020 87020 87020-4 March 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) North Briton (19 May 1978 – 2004)
87021 87021 April 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Robert the Bruce (12 June 1978 – 2005)
87022 87022 87022-0 April 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Cock o' the North (30 June 1978 – 1998)
Lew Adams The Black Prince (1998–2004)
Cock o' the North (2006–2007)
87023 87023 April 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (Bulmarket)
  • Highland Chieftain (3 July 1978–November 1982)
  • Velocity (1985–2000)
  • Polmadie (2000–2005)
  • Velocity (2011–present)
87024 87024 April 1974 Scrapped 2005: JT Landscapes, MoD Caerwent Lord of the Isles (24 May 1978 – 2004)
87025 87025 April 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (Bulmarket)
  • Borderer (6 June 1978–November 1982)[16]
  • County of Cheshire (1982–2004)[nb 7]
87026 87026 87026-1 May 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK)
  • Redgauntlet (19 May 1978–October 1982)[16]
  • Sir Richard Arkwright (1982–2004)[nb 8]
87027 87027 May 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Wolf of Badenoch (18 May 1978 – 2003)
87028 87028 87028-7 May 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Lord President (9 May 1978 – 2003)
Lord President (2006–2007)
87029 87029 87029-5 June 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Earl Marischal (26 June 1978 – 2004)
87030 87030 June 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Black Douglas (10 July 1978 – 2005)
87031 87031 July 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Hal o' the Wynd (8 June 1978 – 2004)
Keith Harper (2004–2005)
87032 87032 July 1974 Scrapped 2010: EMR Kingsbury Kenilworth (9 May 1978 – 2003)
Richard Fearn (2003–2004)
87033 87033 87033-7 August 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) Thane of Fife (30 May 1978 – 2005)
87034 87034 87034-5 September 1974 Exported: Bulgaria (BZK) William Shakespeare (16 May 1978 – 2003)[nb 9]
87035 87035 October 1974 Preserved 2005: Crewe Heritage Centre Robert Burns (13 April 1978 – 2004)[nb 10]
(87036) 87101 87101 January 1977[nb 11] Scrapped 2002: HNRC Barrow Hill. Originally allocated number 87036.
Entered revenue-earning service 08/1976.[16]
Some equipment preserved by The AC Loco Group.
Stephenson (12 October 1977-scrap)[nb 12]

Preservation[edit]

British Rail Class 87 No. 87001 restored to static display at the National Railway Museum
Caledonian Sleeper Class 87 No. 87002 at London Euston

Three Class 87 electric locomotives are currently preserved in Britain.

  • 87001 Stephenson/Royal Scot was donated to the National Railway Museum in November 2005.[19]
  • 87002 Royal Sovereign is preserved by the AC Locomotive Group, and has been returned to main line running conditions. Due to the new contract for the Caledonian Sleeper won by the Serco in 2014, 87002 has been selected to help bring the empty coaching stock in and out of London Euston. It was painted in February 2015 into Caledonian blue ready for the new contract. From 31 March 2015, 87002 shunts the empty sleeper coaching stock into London Euston alongside 86101 as part of the Serco Caledonian Sleeper contract. 87002 can also be used on mainline sleeper services if required. [20][21]
  • 87035 Robert Burns was the first locomotive to be preserved. It is based at Crewe Heritage Centre. It was handed over for preservation by owners Porterbrook at Crewe Works Open Day on 10 September 2005.
Numbers Name Livery Location Status
87001 Stephenson
Royal Scot
British Rail Blue National Railway Museum Static display
87002 Royal Sovereign Caledonian Blue Willesden TMD Operational (mainline registered)
87035 Robert Burns Intercity Crewe Heritage Centre Static display

In addition, the two banks of thyristors and transformer from 87101 were preserved by the AC Locomotive Group.[22]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Unless otherwise stated, prior to 1979, locomotives were named at Willesden depot, without a ceremony.[15]
  2. ^ 87001 named Stephenson at Euston in 1976.
  3. ^ 87001 named Royal Scot at Manchester Piccadilly in 1977.
  4. ^ 87004 named Britannia at Crewe in 1978.
  5. ^ 87013 named John o' Gaunt at Lancaster in 1978.
  6. ^ 87018 named Lord Nelson at Liverpool in 1978.
  7. ^ 87025 was named County of Cheshire on 29 November 1982 at Crewe, by Councillor Roy Hinks, the chairman of Cheshire County Council.[17]
  8. ^ 87026 was named Sir Richard Arkwright on 12 October 1982 by the Duke of Devonshire at Preston.[18]
  9. ^ 87034 named William Shakespeare at Birmingham International in 1978.
  10. ^ 87004 named Robert Burns at Glasgow in 1978.
  11. ^ 87101 was delivered for research in March 1975, and officially in traffic in January 1977.[15]
  12. ^ 87101 named Stephenson at Manchester in 1977.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "87002: Technical Details". The AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Marsden & Fenn 2001, p. 103
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Vehicle Diagram Book No. 110 for Electric Locomotives (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. Derby: British Railways Board. May 1987. 87-0a, 87-1a. 
  4. ^ Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 81
  5. ^ a b Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 79
  6. ^ "Driving Cabs". Dawlish Trains. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Class 87". AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Longhurst 1979, Class 87
  9. ^ Longhurst 1979, The changing pattern of electric service
  10. ^ "Class 87 history". AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 28 July 2007. 
  11. ^ "First three 87s almost ready". Electric Traction Services Limited. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008. 
  12. ^ "BZK locomotives". Railfaneurope.net. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  13. ^ Dept of Transport (1981). Report on the Derailment that occurred on 16th February 1980 at Bushey in the London Midland Region British Railways. London: HMSO. 
  14. ^ "REPORT BY THE HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE'" (PDF). Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d Webb & Duncan 1979, p. 82
  16. ^ a b c d e f Marsden 1991, pp. 206–207
  17. ^ "Loco namings". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. February 1983. p. 53. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. 
  18. ^ "Readers' round-up: Class 87". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. January 1983. p. 51. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. 
  19. ^ "British Rail Bo-Bo Class 87 electric locomotive, No 87001, 1974". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  20. ^ "87002". The AC Locomotive Group. Retrieved 20 October 2016. 
  21. ^ 86101 and 87002 on Caledonian Sleeper duties Electric Traction Ltd 1 April 2015
  22. ^ "The Locomotives - Introduction". AC Locomotive Group. 

Sources[edit]

  • Longhurst, Roly (1979). Electric Locomotives of the West Coast Main Line. Truro: D. Bradford Barton Ltd. ISBN 0851533558. OCLC 16491712. 
  • Marsden, Colin J. (1991). The Complete BR Diesel & Electric Locomotive Directory. Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860934868. OCLC 59814977. 
  • Marsden, Colin J.; Fenn, Graham B. (2001). British Rail Main Line Electric Locomotives (2nd ed.). Oxford Publishing Co. ISBN 9780860935599. OCLC 48532553. 
  • Webb, Brian; Duncan, John (1979). AC Electric Locomotives of British Rail. David & Charles. ISBN 9780715376638. OCLC 6916046. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]