The British Rail Class EF1 (Electric Freight 1) was a class of electrically powered locomotives used by British Rail in England. They were used during the pre-TOPS period. They were also classified as British Rail Class EB1 for a short period of time, although only a single locomotive was completely modified to EB1 condition. These locomotives were built by the North Eastern Railway to haul coal trains from the mines at Shildon to the docks at Middlesbrough. In common with other LNER electric locomotives, no classification was given to these locomotives until 4 October 1945, when nos. 3-12 were all classified EB1 (Electric Banking 1) although only no. 11 was actually modified for banking. It was expected that all the locomotives would be similarly modified, but this did not happen, and the remaining locos were classified as EF1 (Electric Freight 1).
During the 1920s the coal traffic declined and some of the locomotives became surplus to requirements. In 1928 a plan was devised to convert one of them to a Diesel-electric, using a 1,000 hp Beardmore diesel engine driving an English Electric generator. This plan did not come to fruition.
Electric traction on the Shildon line was discontinued in 1935 but the locomotives were retained for possible future use. Number 11 (later BR 26510) was rebuilt in 1941 for use as a banker on the Manchester-Sheffield line, and given the classification EB1 (Electric Banking 1). Horsepower was increased from 1,100 to 1,256 and the twin pantographs were replaced by a single central one. In October 1945, all ten locomotives were classified as Class EB1. Although only one had been rebuilt, it was expected that rebuilding of the others would follow. Nos. 3-12 were renumbered as Nos. 6490-9 in the LNER's 1946 renumbering scheme. After nationalisation in 1948 they were renumbered again as 26502-11. In 1949, the plan to convert the remaining nine locomotives as banking engines was dropped and they were reclassified as Class EF1 (Electric Freight 1).
The EF1s were withdrawn in 1950–51. In 1949 the EB1, number 26510, was moved to Ilford Depot (Eastern Region) for use as a shunter. Number 26510 was transferred to departmental stock (as no. 100) in 1959 and withdrawn in 1964. None of the locomotives are preserved.