British Rail Mark 3

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British Rail Mark 3
IC125@40 - TF 41146 at Cardiff Central.JPG
Great Western Railway Mark 3 at Cardiff Central in July 2016
Virgin Trains East Coast refreshed Mk3 interior.jpg
The interior of Standard Class aboard a Virgin Trains East Coast refurbished Mark 3 TS vehicle
In service1975-present
ManufacturerBritish Rail Engineering Limited
Built atDerby Litchurch Lane Works
Constructed1975-88
Number built848
CapacityLocomotive hauled (typical):
  • First class: 48
  • Standard class: 74
Operator(s)Abellio ScotRail
Caledonian Sleeper
Chiltern Railways
CrossCountry
East Midlands Trains
Great Western Railway
Greater Anglia
London North Eastern Railway
Network Rail
The Royal Scotsman
Transport for Wales
Royal Train
Line(s) servedEast Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
Midland Main Line
Great Western Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
Cross Country Route
Chiltern Main Line
Highland Main Line
Glasgow to Aberdeen Line (From 2018)
Edinburgh to Aberdeen Line
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel
fully integral, monocoque
Car length23.0 m (75 ft 6 in)[1]
DoorsHinged slam, centrally locked/automatic plug doors, centrally locked
Maximum speed125 mph (200 km/h)
Power supply3-phase 415/240 V (Mark 3)
1,000 V DC (Mark 3A/B)
BogiesBREL BT10
Braking system(s)Disc, air operated
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Mark 3 is a type of passenger carriage developed in response to growing competition from airlines and the car in the 1960s. A variant of the Mark 3 became the rolling stock for the High Speed Train (HST).

Originally conceived as locomotive-hauled coaching stock, the first coaches built were for the prototype HST in 1972. Production coaches entered service between 1975 and 1988, and multiple-unit designs based on the Mark 3 bodyshell continued to be built until the early 1990s. The Mark 3 and its derivatives are widely recognised as a safe and reliable design, and most of the surviving fleet is still in revenue service on the British railway network in 2018.

Introduction[edit]

Prototype Mark 3 as delivered
Cargo-D Mark 3 in as delivered InterCity livery at Marylebone in June 2008
Chiltern Railways Mark 3 with retrofitted plug doors at London Marylebone in August 2012
The interior of a GNER 'Project Mallard' refurbished Mark 3 Standard Class
The interior of a GNER 'Project Mallard' refurbished Mark 3 First Class

Under the chairmanship of Stanley Raymond, it was decided to reduce journey times further on long-distance trains by increasing line speed to 125 mph where practical – the maximum considered possible on Britain's Victorian-age railway. At the end of 1968 proposals were submitted to the Commercial and Operating Departments of British Rail for a new fleet of third-generation standard coaching stock, designed to run at 125 mph.[2]

The rapid development required for the HST in 1969 made the Mark 3 coach design the obvious choice for this train, and in 1972 the first Mark 3 coaches were built, ten for the prototype HST.[3]

Construction[edit]

The Mark 3 looks similar to Mark 2D, 2E and 2F coaches, but is of a completely different design. It has a ridged roof and under-frame skirt compared with a smooth roof and visible below-frame equipment on the Mark 2.

The bodyshell is 75 feet (23 m) long, almost 10 feet (3.0 m) longer than the Mark 2, of full monocoque construction with an all-welded mild steel stressed skin, and has a reputation for its exceptional strength and crashworthiness.[citation needed] An important advance over its predecessor was the adoption of secondary air suspension between the body and the bogies, giving an exceptionally smooth ride. The bogies, classified BT10 (BT5 on the prototype vehicles), were designed specifically for the Mark 3 and have coil-spring primary suspension with hydraulic dampers, enabling a maximum speed of 125 mph (200 km/h) – the Mark 2 is limited to 100 mph (160 km/h). Disc brakes in place of the Mark 2 clasp brakes completed the engineering package enabling – in conjunction with wheel slip protection (WSP) – efficient deceleration from 125 mph and almost silent brake operation.

Ancillaries such as electrical and air-conditioning systems were grouped together in discrete modules housed behind an aerodynamic skirting between the bogies; on the Mark 2 these were mounted above and below the passenger seating area. The lighting and air-conditioning fittings were for the first time integrated into the ceiling panels. Other new features were the pneumatically operated automatic gangway doors triggered by pressure pads under the floor. From 1993, after fatal falls from moving trains, a central door-locking system operated by the train guard was installed to protect the passenger operated slam-doors.

The main difference between the HST vehicles and the loco-hauled Mark 3A relate to electrical supply arrangements. HST coaches take an industrial voltage/frequency 3-phase supply directly from an auxiliary alternator in the power car to supply on-board equipment such as air conditioning; loco-hauled vehicles take a standard single-phase 1000 V AC or DC train heat supply from the locomotive and convert it through motor generator units under the floor. These convert the train supply to 3-phase 415/240 V 50 Hz AC to power air conditioning and other ancillaries. The two types are non-interconnectable in service conditions. The other main difference is the lack of buffers on HST coaches.

The later Mark 3B build provided first class loco-hauled vehicles for the West Coast Main Line. These are similar to Mark 3As, but have an improved motor alternator unit with compound-wound motor, and seating derived from the Advanced Passenger Train (APT).

Prototype[edit]

Ten coaches were constructed to run between a pair of Class 41 power cars as the prototype HST, exploring different seating and layout options for first and standard class passengers, and evaluating different designs of catering facilities. In 1973 the prototype HST was evaluated as an 8-coach formation. The two spare coaches, 2903 and 2904, were rebuilt and redeployed in the Royal Train, where they remain.

Development[edit]

Initial plans for a large fleet for almost all InterCity services were amended prior to construction to provide stock for the planned HST fleet, resulting in a much smaller fleet of loco-hauled coaches for the West Coast Main Line. A much reduced number of coaches were manufactured, requiring many Mark 2D, 2E and 2F coaches to remain in service.

The table below lists manufacturing variants as built, showing the quantity of each type/designation and original running numbers.

Mark Built Features Numbers Built : No, Type, (Original Number Series)
Mark 3 1972 prototypes

1 x RSB (10000)
1 x RUK (10100)

4 x FO (11000-11003)
4 x TSO (12000-12003)

Mark 3 1976-82 standard HST stock (no buffers)

37 x TRSB (40001-40037)
58 x TRUB (40300-40357)
20 x TRUK (40501-40520)

167 x TF (41003-41169)
339 x TS (42003-42342)
102 x TGS (44000-44101)

Mark 3A 1975-84 standard loco-hauled stock

28 x RFB (10001-10028)
120 x SLEP (10500-10619)
88 x SLE (10646-10733)

60 x FO (11004-11063)
165 x TSO (12004-12168)
2 x Royal (2914–2915)

Mark 3B 1985-86 loco-hauled stock with improved interior lighting diffusers, InterCity 80 seats and other upgrades

38 x FO (11064-11101)
3 x BFO (17173-17175)

2 x Royal (2922–2923)

Mark 3B International[4] 1986-88 Revised version slightly different body profile built to promote export orders.

11 x International (99519-99529)
Eventually exported to Ireland.[5]

52 x DVT (82101-82152)
T4 bogies

See British Railway Coach Designations for the meaning of RSB, TRUK, BFO etc.

Usage[edit]

Since 1977, the Royal Train has included some specially equipped Mark 3 coaches.

Mark 3s remain in service as part of HSTs with CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains, Great Western Railway and London North Eastern Railway much as they have since introduced. These were refurbished when their operators were privatised, with all except East Midlands Trains' receiving new seats between 2006 and 2009.

The introduction by Virgin CrossCountry of 220/221 Voyagers in the early 2000s rendered many Mark 3s surplus. After periods of storage, all have now returned to service with other operators.

The introduction by Virgin Trains of Class 390 Pendolinos in the early 2000s resulted in the withdrawal of the locomotive hauled Mark 3s. Some were cascaded to One to replace Mark 2s on the Great Eastern Main Line, while a few replaced Mark 2s on the Night Riviera.[6][7] Most were placed in store at Long Marston. Many have since been returned to service, both as locomotive hauled coaches with Arriva Trains Wales, Chiltern Railways and Wrexham & Shropshire as well as being converted for use with HSTs by Grand Central and CrossCountry.[8] This required modifications to the coupling mechanisms and electrical systems to make them compatible with Class 43 power cars.

Mark 3 sleeping cars are used on the overnight Caledonian Sleeper and Night Riviera services.

Virgin Trains retained one complete Mark 3 set. Initially used to cover peak-time London Euston to Birmingham services while the Pendolinos underwent modifications, but later covering the loss of 390033, written off after the Grayrigg derailment in 2007. In July 2009, it was refurbished and repainted at Doncaster Works in the same style as the Pendolino and Voyager fleets, but with the British Rail seats and interior fittings retained.[9] This set was nicknamed the "Pretendolino" by enthusiasts. It was transferred to Abellio Greater Anglia in November 2014.[10][11] In 2016 it moved to TransPennine Express to be used as a crew trainer in the lead up to the introduction of Mark 5s.

Sewage discharge[edit]

Legally in the UK, train operators are allowed to discharge up to 25 litres of untreated waste at a time on to the track[12] and the discharge from each toilet flush is considerably less than this. Most Mark 3 carriages have no retention tanks, discharging onto the track via a U-bend/pipe near the bogies, and in the 2000s both the RMT trade union and politicians were concerned at the environmental impact of this legacy issue. The problem was first raised in 2003 after Railtrack staff at Nottingham abandoned local clean-up and then track maintenance procedures due to an excessive build-up of sewage waste in the area.[13] In 2006 the RMT agreed waste tank and clean-out developments at Northern Rail's Heaton depot in 2006 with GNER, and new clean-out procedures at all other depots, to solve an ongoing dispute over the previous 18 months.[14] By 2011, the European Union had started a formal investigation to see whether trains composed of such carriages were breaking EU environmental and health laws, although the Environment Agency confirmed that train companies claimed special exemptions to dump waste on the track.[15] In 2013, Transport Minister Susan Kramer branded the practice "utterly disgusting" and called on the industry to take action. ATOC responded by stating that, as all new vehicles had to be fitted with compliant toilet tanks, withdrawal of the HSTs by the end of 2017 would solve the problem.[16] The use of HSTs without retention tanks continued after the end of 2017, but sets being transferred to ScotRail and shortened HST sets retained by GWR are being fitted with retention tanks.

Train formations[edit]

HST vehicles[edit]

The interior of refurbished East Midlands Trains Mark 3 Standard Class with improved fluorescent lighting
The interior of refurbished East Midlands Trains Mark 3 First Class with improved fluorescent lighting

Original formation[edit]

The original coaches were delivered in HST sets for Western Region (Class 253) with Trailer First (TF), Trailer Second (TS), and Trailer Buffet Second (TRSB) cars in the formation TF-TF-TRUK-TS-TRSB-TS-TS. Complaints from guards about engine noise in the guards' compartments in the power cars led to the Trailer Guard Second (TGS) in 1980, based on the TS but with the end vestibule and one seating bay replaced by a guard's compartment. This replaced the last TS in all sets from 1980 onwards. Sets delivered for Eastern Region (Class 254) contained eight coaches, originally in the formation TF-TF-TRUK-TS-TS-TRSB-TS-TS. The TRUK cars were quickly replaced by a TS on the Western Region and most had been replaced on the Eastern Region by 1985 (many later rebuilt into loco-hauled buffet cars). TRUB cars (Trailer Restaurant Unclassified Buffet) were built from 1978 to replace the TRUK cars, and these were reclassified as TRFB (Trailer Restaurant First Buffet) from 1985 on the Eastern and London Midland Regions and from 1989/90 on the Western Region. The original interiors were fitted out fully carpeted with InterCity 70 seats. First Class had orange and red stripes on both carpet and seating,[17] whilst Standard Class had a blue and green scheme.[18] From May 1987 onwards, both HST and Mark 3 loco hauled sets were repainted and refurbished into the Intercity swallow livery.[19]

Previous formations[edit]

Virgin CrossCountry proposed operating HST sets in shortened 2 power car and 5 trailer formations to be known as Challenger sets painted in the silver and red livery. This would give the trains better acceleration, similar to the Voyager units. Approval was not granted for this however.

Current formations[edit]

East Midlands Trains and Great Western Railway operate HST sets in 10 car sets (2 powercars and 8 coaches), CrossCountry 9 (2 Powercars and 7 coaches), London North Eastern Railway 11 (2 Powercars, 9 coaches). Great Western Railway began trials of a 6 car set with 2 powercars and 4 coaches in April 2018. [20]. ScotRail will introduce 4 and 5 coach sets, each with 2 power cars, on scottish InterCity routes in 2018.

Hauled stock[edit]

The interior of Virgin Trains refurbished Mark 3 Standard Class
The interior of Virgin Trains refurbished Mark 3 First Class
The interior of Chiltern Railways refurbished Mark 3 with the original InterCity 70 seats
The interior of Business Class aboard a Chiltern Railways refurbished Mark 3
The interior of a Greater Anglia refurbished Mark 3 Standard Class with original InterCity 70 seats
The interior of a Greater Anglia refurbished Mark 3 First Class with revised interior lighting and InterCity 80 seats as per the APT

Mark 3A coaches were deployed on West Coast Main Line expresses out of Euston to bring the three main long-distance routes from London up to the same standard. Initial variants were Second Open (TSO) and First Open (FO). Catering and sleeper vehicles continued to be Mark 1 stock until the introduction of Restaurant Buffet (RUB) vehicles in 1979-80 and the sleeper (SLEP) vehicles in 1981-82. In 1988 the process was completed with the elimination of Mk 1 parcels vehicles and their replacement by Mk 3-derived Driving Van Trailers, making the WCML push-pull.

Scottish Region push-pull services were initially made up of four TSO and one FO Mark 3A coaches with a Mark 2F DBSO. The FO was later converted to a CO by the declassification of half a coach and installation of a partition between the two classes and an SO was removed. These vehicles were removed from the Scottish regional routes in 1989 when they were replaced with Class 158 multiple units.

Chiltern Railways employs several rakes of Mark 3 carriages, hauled by Class 68 locomotives in push-pull configuration with Mark 3 Driving Van Trailers. These mark 3 carriages have been extensively refurbished and modernised with the following enhancements:[21]

  • Application of new Chiltern Railways Silver Mainline livery based on the former, defunct Wrexham and Shropshire livery of two tone silver
  • Automatic plug doors in place of the original slam doors (except for the two doors adjacent to the buffet car counter, which are no longer for public use)
  • Large doorway vestibule areas
  • Installation of economical controlled emission toilets with retention tanks
  • Retrimmed carpets in new trim
  • Retrimmed seats in new trim
  • New dado side panels and repainted wall end coverings
  • Power sockets at each seat
  • Improved ceiling mounted LED interior saloon lighting diffusers

The Driving Van Trailers have been modified with diesel generators to provide Electric Train Supply to the coaches when the locomotive is not running, such as when in terminus stations and when stabled.

Greater Anglia have refurbished their Mark 3 carriages, hauled by Class 90 locomotives in push-pull configuration with Mark 3 Driving Van Trailers. These carriages have been refurbished with the following enhancements: [22][23][24][25]

  • Application of new Greater Anglia livery – a white bodyside with black window surrounds and red highlighted doors
  • Installation of economical controlled emission toilets with retention tanks
  • Retrimmed carpets in new trim
  • Retrimmed seats in new trim
  • New dado side panels and repainted wall end coverings
  • An increase in Standard Class seating capacity by adding another eight seats to each TSO carriage, thus creating 80 seats per a TSO vehicle
  • Removing the kitchen equipment and 24 First Class seats in the former Restaurant Car vehicles, replacing them with 54 Standard Class seats
  • Power sockets at each seat
  • Improved ceiling mounted LED interior saloon lighting diffusers

Current coaches (2015) typically have 74 or 76 seats (80 seats on InterCity Anglia) in Standard Class to the 2+2 layout or 46 to 48 seats in First Class to the 2+1 layout.[26]

Abellio Greater Anglia use a mix of eight, nine and ten coaches in their trains.[27]

Entertainment carriages[edit]

In 2009 First Great Western introduced 'entertainment carriages' with at-seat television screens known as Volo TV. The system, which FGW claimed was a "world first", was fitted to Coach D in Standard Class.[28][29] The service, originally charged for, eventually became free, although users either had to provide their own headphones (standard 3.5mm stereo mini-jack plug) or purchase a pair from the on-board Express Cafe for £1.50.[30]

In addition to radio and video feeds, a GPS train-location screen allowed passengers to check and track train progress. For this purpose an aerial had been fitted to the roof of these coaches. With the advent of portable media devices and tablet computers, the Volo TV service was discontinued in 2014.

Sleeping carriages[edit]

In 1979 British Rail ordered 236 Mark 3 sleeper carriages.[31] Because of cost over runs partly caused by more stringent regulations in the wake of the Taunton sleeping car fire the order was cut back to 207.[32] However even this was too many, as by the time they were delivered British Rail were withdrawing sleeper services.

In 1987, ten were leased to Danish State Railways[33] while in 1994, three were sold to Swiss bogie manufacturer Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft for tilt train testing.[34][35] In 1995 Porterbrook experimentally converted one to a day carriage.[36] GNER purchased 13 with the intention of converting to High Speed Train carriages, but the project was aborted.[37][38]

Five were converted to generator vans for the aborted Nightstar service.[39] One was purchased by UK Rail Leasing for use as a carriage heater at its Leicester depot in 2016.[40] English Welsh & Scottish investigated converting Mark 3s for use on high speed freight trains.[41]

Future[edit]

GWR Mark 3s fitted with power doors in 2018

Many of the Mark 3s are scheduled to be withdrawn by 2020. Great Western Railway and London North Eastern Railway sets will be replaced by Class 800, 801 and 802 sets. The East Midlands Trains sets were also scheduled to be replaced when the Midland Main Line was electrified, but the July 2015 deferment of this project may result in the HST sets being retained.[42] Approximately 120 Great Western Railway Mark 3s are to be transferred to Abellio ScotRail in 2018 for use on Edinburgh/Glasgow to Aberdeen/Inverness and Aberdeen to Inverness, routes.[43] Great Western began trials of shortened HST sets with new power-operated external doors in 2018, and intend to run 11 of these 'Castle' sets on local services on the main lines[20].

The Caledonian Sleeper Mark 3 sets are scheduled to be replaced in 2018.[44] Grand Central withdrew its sets in 2017.[45] Greater Anglia's are to be replaced by 2020.[46]

Preservation[edit]

Many former Mark 3 sleeping carriages were sold to railway preservation organisations for use as volunteer staff accommodation vehicles. Three former Virgin Trains Mark 3 carriages; RFM 10206, FO 11074 and former National Express East Anglia TSO 12092 are now owned by the 125 Group and based at the Great Central Railway (Nottingham). They have been repainted to operate with and match preserved prototype HST power car 41001.[47] In August 2017, the 125 Group purchased three additional Mk3 TSOs, Numbers 12065, 12087 and 12134.[48] These are currently painted in un-branded Virgin Trains livery. On 4 November 2018, 12087 entered traffic at the GCRN, working the Firework Spectacular shuttle train to/from Rushcliffe Halt.[49]

Multiple units based on the Mark 3[edit]

The Mark 3 design proved to be highly adaptable and formed the basis of BR's Second Generation multiple unit fleet, introduced from the early 1980s. With the following classes having Mark-3-based bodyshells:


The cars for Classes 150, 210, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 325, 455 and 456 units are built to a shorter 20 m 'suburban' design. Those for Class 442 are 23 m and are very similar to the Mark 3 coach. The main visual difference is the swing plug automatic doors rather than the traditional manual "slam-doors".

The Class 153 and Class 155, while of the "Sprinter family", are built by British Leyland and have no connection with the Mark 3, neither does the Class 156, built by Metro-Cammell.

The final batch of "Sprinters" of Class 158 (some rebuilt as Class 159) are of a different design built from aluminium extrusions. Its design being intermediate between that of the Mark 3 and the Networker (train).

Nine 450 Class DMUs were built at Derby Litchurch Lane Works for Northern Ireland Railways using Mark 3 bodyshells and Mark 1 underframes, together with refurbished power units and traction motors, recovered from the former Class 70 units.

The last Mark-3-based EMUs built are the Class 325 EMUs bulit for Royal Mail in 1995.

Mark 3 coaches overseas[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Iarnród Éireann Mark 3 at Dublin Heuston in InterCity livery
Iarnród Éireann BREL Mark 3 carriage at the North Wall, Dublin, September 2014.

The Republic of Ireland's national rail operator, Iarnród Éireann, ordered Mark 3 carriages built between 1980 and 1989, with bogies for the Irish gauge of 1600 mm (5 ft 3 in). The fleet consisted of 124 Mark 3 and nine Mark 3A Internationals, which worked only the DublinGalway service, branded Cú na Mara or Hound of the Seas as it was a coast-to-coast route.

Throughout the 1990s and 2000s they were the backbone of the Irish InterCity rolling stock.

They were built with automatic plug doors, which initially caused some concern as additional time and resources were required to perfect them. The design was later used on the Class 442 "Wessex Electrics". Most of the fleet was air-conditioned, except for a small number of coaches built as outer-suburban stock, which ran in push-pull configuration. A number of coaches were first class, and there were several dining cars and five driving van trailers (DVTs) that included passenger seating. There were also a number of accompanying generator vans to supply power.

In 2006-07, Irish Mark 4 carriages were introduced on the Dublin-Cork route, with the displaced Mark 3 coaches to other InterCity routes.

In 2008, Iarnród Éireann began taking delivery of 22000 Class railcars, which led to withdrawal of all Mark 3 coaches. The type's final service was a Dublin-Cork relief train on 21 September 2009.

Efforts were made to sell the 130 carriages but some were still stored in various locations.[50][51][52] During 2015 some carriages were refurbished for use on the Grand Hibernian luxury train, which began operating on 30 August 2016.

Between 2013 and 2014, most of the Iarnród Éireann Mark 3s were scrapped at Waterford, Dundalk, and Adelaide Depot in Belfast.

Denmark[edit]

In 1987, ten sleepers were leased to Danish State Railways.[33] They returned in November 1998 and placed in store at MoD Kineton.[53][54][55]

Switzerland[edit]

In 1994, three sleepers were sold to Swiss bogie manufacturer Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft for tilt train testing.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Haresnape, Brian (June 1983). British Rail Fleet Survey 5: High Speed Trains. Shepperton: Ian Allan. pp. 62–64. ISBN 0-7110-1297-0. GE/0683.
  2. ^ Haresnape, Brian (1983). British Rail Fleet Survey, 5: High Speed Trains. Ian Allan. pp. 4–7. ISBN 0-71101297-0.
  3. ^ "Next generation of BR coaches emerges" Railway Gazette International April 1972 page 145
  4. ^ "BREL International train". www.traintesting.com.
  5. ^ "BREL International train". www.traintesting.com.
  6. ^ "Mk3s enter traffic on Cornish sleeper" Rail Magazine issue 539 10 May 2006 page 3
  7. ^ "FGW replaces Mark 2s with Mark 3s on Sleeper" Today's Railways issue 55 July 2006 page 61
  8. ^ "Grand Central Railway to operate HST power cars and loco-hauled Mk3s". The Railway Centre. 5 October 2006.
  9. ^ "Refurbished Virgin Mark 3 rake enters traffic" Today's Railways issue 93 September 2009 page 66
  10. ^ "Virgin Pretendolio Withdrawn". Modern Railways. November 2014.
  11. ^ "VT's Pretendolino Mk3s end daytime WCML working" Rail Magazine issue 761 12 November 2014 page 26
  12. ^ "Waste exemption: D2 depositing waste from a railway sanitary convenience".
  13. ^ Tom Geoghegan (24 July 2003). "Toilet waste 'hampers rail repairs'". BBC News. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  14. ^ "Toilet waste 'sprays' track staff". BBC News. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  15. ^ Ungoed-Thomas, Jon; Clover, Charles (9 January 2011). "Rail bosses face EU inquiry over sewage on tracks". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 13 November 2013. (subscription required)
  16. ^ "End 'disgusting' train toilet sewage – Lady Kramer". BBC News. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  17. ^ "The original interior of First Class". Flickr.
  18. ^ "The original interior of Standard Class". Flickr.
  19. ^ "The InterCity Swallow livery". Flickr.
  20. ^ a b "Great Western short HST set testing begins". The Railway Magazine. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Chiltern Railways puts refurbished Mk III coaches into service". Railway Gazette.
  22. ^ "Intercity train upgrade scheme to provide over 600,000 extra seats per year". Greater Anglia.
  23. ^ "Mark III carriage refurbishment commences". Greater Anglia.
  24. ^ "More seats for passengers on Abellio Greater Anglia's Intercity trains". Greater Anglia.
  25. ^ "600,000 extra seats and smarter trains following completion of intercity fleet refurbishment". Greater Anglia.
  26. ^ "Mk3 Locomotive Hauled Coaches" (PDF). Porterbrook. Derby. July 2012. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  27. ^ Less busy trains Abellio Greater Anglia
  28. ^ Shem, Pennant (7 June 2010). "Latest Gadgets round up: Heart rate monitors, Volo TV and Jinx tees". LatestGadgets. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  29. ^ "Seat-back TV for FGW passengers" The Railway Magazine issue 1316 December 2010 page 76
  30. ^ The Volo: TV information screen.
  31. ^ "BR replaces sleepers" Railway Gazette International May 1979 page 386
  32. ^ "Aberdeen gets MkIII sleepers" Railway Gazette International January 1982 page 17
  33. ^ a b "BR sleepers for Denmark" The Railway Magazine issue 1034 June 1987 page 391
  34. ^ a b "Swiss-bound sleeping car" Rail Magazine issue 234 31 August 1994 page 14
  35. ^ "Tilting SIG test train to visit Britain" Rail Magazine issue 326 11 March 1998 page 6
  36. ^ "New life for old sleepers" Rail Magazine issue 267 6 December 1995 page 6
  37. ^ "GNER buys 'new' Mk3 coaches" Rail Magazine issue 311 13 August 1997 page 11
  38. ^ "GNER prepares to let sleeper conversion contracts" Rail Magazine issue 321 31 December 1997 page 7
  39. ^ "Welcome to Le growl: Enter the 37/6s" Railway Gazette International 15 February 1995 page 10
  40. ^ "UKRL to repair Nightstar Mk3 generator coach" Rail Express issue 238 March 2016 page 94
  41. ^ "Mk 3s for 125mph freight – EWS" Rail Magazine issue 466 23 July 2003 page 13
  42. ^ "Possible stay of execution for EMT High Speed Trains" Rail Magazine issue 779 22 July 2015 page 28
  43. ^ "Quality and more trains key to Abellio's SR franchise" Rail Magazine issue 760 29 October 2014 page 10
  44. ^ "The Sleepers are stirring" Rail Magazine issue 756 3 September 2014 page 70
  45. ^ "Grand Central to acquire five FGW 180s" Rail Magazine issue 759 15 October 2014 page 11
  46. ^ Stadler and Bombardier to supply trains for Abellio East Anglia franchise Railway Gazette International 10 August 2016
  47. ^ "125 Group buys three coaches" Today's Railways issue 159 March 2015 page 71
  48. ^ "Three more Mk3 Coaches join 125 Group Fleet". 125 Group. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  49. ^ "Passenger debut for Mk3 Coach 12087". 125 Group. 5 November 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  50. ^ "Maps". binged.it.
  51. ^ "Maps". binged.it.
  52. ^ "Maps". binged.it.
  53. ^ "Exiled Mk 3 sleepers return home after ten years in Denmark" Rail Magazine issue 346 16 December 1998 page 13
  54. ^ "Danish Sleepers return" Rail Express issue 33 February 1999 page 41
  55. ^ "Danish Mk3 sleepers return to England" The Railway Magazine issue 1174 February 1999 page 47
  • Cooper, B K (1981). British Rail Handbook. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1027-7.
  • Fox, Peter (1984). Coaching Stock Pocket Book sixth edition. Sheffield: Platform 5. ISBN 0-906579-35-X.
  • Haresnape, Brian (1979). British Rail 1948-78: A Journey Through Design.
  • Mallaband, P; Bowles, LJ (1976). The Coaching Stock of British Railways 1976. Oxford: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-39-4; ISBN 0-901115-39-8 (corrected).
  • Mallaband, P; Bowles, LJ (1980). British Rail Coaching Stock 1980. Oxford: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-50-9.

External links[edit]

Media related to British Rail Mk3 coaches at Wikimedia Commons