British Royal Train

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The Royal Train passing Harringay West in 1961, the locomotive, Gresley A4 Pacific No. 60028 'Walter K. Whigham' carries a four-lamp headcode that was reserved for the Royal Train

In the United Kingdom, the Royal Train is used to convey senior members of the British Royal Family and associated staff of the Royal Household around the railway network of Great Britain. It is formed from a dedicated set of claret liveried sleeper, dining and lounge carriages. The current stock dates from 1977-1987. They are arranged according to requirements, and stored when not in use. The earliest royal coaches date back to the mid-19th Century in the reign of Queen Victoria; until an upgrade in 1977 there were multiple sets based in different regions, a legacy of the pre-nationalisation era of railways in Britain. Many are now in museums or on heritage railways; the National Railway Museum in York has a royal themed exhibition. Dedicated locomotives have never traditionally been part of the Royal Train, first appearing in special livery only in the 1990s, but also seeing use on other trains since 2003. In the 21st Century, various preserved (and one new build) steam locomotives have also hauled the train on special occasions. Although regularly cited by critics as one of the unnecessary luxuries of the Royal Family, which has led to an increase in the alternate use of normal scheduled services where possible, supporters argue the current arrangement emphasizes utility over luxury, and is still often the most practical and secure mode of travel to fit the required itinerary and avoid disruption to the public.

History[edit]

A special carriage built by the London and Birmingham Railway in 1842 for Queen Dowager Adelaide

The first member of the British Royal Family to travel by train[1] was Queen Dowager Adelaide who took a train from Nottingham to Leeds on 22 July 1840.[2] Queen Victoria was the first British monarch to travel by train, on 13 June 1842[3] on the Great Western Railway (GWR), which ran the line between London and Windsor (for the Castle).[4] The train transported the Queen from Slough to Paddington, and was hauled by the locomotive Phlegethon driven by Daniel Gooch assisted by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.[3] The Queen used a Royal Saloon which had been constructed by the Great Western Railway in 1840.

The first carriage built for the exclusive use of a member of the British Royal Family was constructed in 1842 by the London and Birmingham Railway for Queen Dowager Adelaide. This carriage is now on display in the National Railway Museum in York.

In 1869, Queen Victoria commissioned a pair of coaches for £1,800 (equivalent to £150,000 in 2015) with the London and North Western Railway.[1]

In 1874, the Great Western Railway built a new royal saloon at their Swindon works for the use of the Queen.[5] It was constructed under the supervision of Joseph Armstrong. It was 43 feet (13 m) long.

Queen Victoria's Great Western Railway saloon of 1897 in Swindon

In 1897 they marked the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria by providing a new Royal Train of six coaches. Until now, railway companies had provided special saloon carriages, but there was no regular Royal Train until this one was constructed.[6] It replaced the GWR Royal carriage of 1874 which was re-fitted and lengthened to 53.5 feet (16.3 m).[7]

In 1877 the London and South Western Railway built a royal saloon for the use of the Queen.[8] It was built at the company workshop at Nine Elms and was 50 feet (15 m) long.

In 1899 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway provided a new royal train of five carriages, each 52 feet (16 m) long, comprising the Royal saloon in the centre, with saloon carriages at either end. The Morning Post of 17 April 1899 reported

The Royal Saloon is divided into two sections, the larger portion being especially fitted for the Princess of Wales, and the smaller portion for the Prince of Wales. In the matters of the decorations and furniture of the saloons the Company consulted their Royal Highnesses, whose choice rested on quiet, and at the same time artistic, ornamentation. The chief woods employed are Karri pine, Cuba mahogany, and satinwood. The inlaid panels and Lincrusta-Walton dados, in which the rose, shamrock, and thistle are designed, show great taste of skilled workmanship, and the same remark may be applied to the furniture in the saloon, which consists of sofas and easy-chairs upholstered in dark green morocco, that being the colour and material which her Royal Highness preferred to any other.[9]

Nearly sixty years later, after her funeral in 1901, Queen Victoria's coffin was taken to London Paddington station and transported on the Royal Train back to Windsor where she is buried.[10]

King Edward's saloon of 1902 at the National Railway Museum York

In 1902, her son Edward VII commissioned a new Royal saloons from the London and North Western Railway. They were built in the Wolverton railway works under the direction of C.A. Park. Two saloons were provided, one for the King and one for the Queen. The interior decoration was carried out by S.J. Waring and Sons. The Kings saloon had a smoking room in mahogany, with inlays of rosewood and satinwood, a day compartment in the Colonial style, in white enamel. The saloons included electric heating.[11] These saloons are now preserved at the National Railway Museum in York.

In 1908 the Great Northern Railway and North Eastern Railway jointly provided two new saloons and a brake van for use over their lines. King Edward VII used this for the first time on 7 September 1908 for a journey to Ollerton railway station when visiting Rufford Abbey to stay with Lord and Lady Savile for the Doncaster Races.[12]

In 1912 the Midland Railway provided a Royal Saloon for George V. It was built at the company workshops in Derby under the supervision of D. Bain, the works superintendent, and fitted out by Waring & Gillow. It was numbered 1910 to mark the year or the Coronation and first used in July 1912 when the King and Queen travelled from Yorkshire to London.[13] The Midland Railway company also provided a dining car which could be attached to the saloon when required.

Prior to the partition of Ireland in 1921, royal trains were occasionally used for the British Royal family when Ireland was under British rule. In 1897 the Great Northern Railway provided a new Royal train of six vehicles comprising a drawing room saloon, a dining saloon, first-class carriage, composite coach, and two vans. This was constructed in their own workshops and used for the first time during a visit by the Duke of York and Duchess of York in September 1897 and a trip from Banagher to Clara over the tracks of the Great Southern and Western Railway.[14] This use of a Royal Train continued in Northern Ireland until the last British royal train there in the 1950s.[15]

The King's armoured saloon of 1941 built by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (now with armour plating removed) in the Glasgow Transport Museum

The Great Western Railway abandoned its old royal saloons of 1897 during the 1930s and borrowed stock from the London, Midland and Scottish Railway when required. After the Second World War they provided new saloons for their own Royal Train.[16] In 1941 the London Midland and Scottish Railway built three armour-plated saloons for the King. Shortly after the war, the armour plating was removed. Two of these have survived into preservation.

Royal Train arriving at Tattenham Corner on Derby Day in 1959. Notice the station master marking the stopping point for the driver.

After the formation of British Railways in 1948, the individual regions continued to maintain the constituent railway companies' Royal Train carriages. A single "Royal Train" was formed in 1977 as a response to the demands of the Silver Jubilee. The Royal Family have also travelled on ordinary service trains more frequently in recent years to minimise costs.[17]

The train currently consists of nine carriages, seven of these being of the British Rail Mark 3 design, including two that were built for the prototype HST train. Not all of these will be used to form a train, as different vehicles have specified purposes. Two locomotives are designated for use on the train and painted in the claret livery of the royal household, but are used for other traffic when not hauling the royal train. The carriages may be used for other Heads of State, but they cannot be hired by private users. When not in use, the train is stored in Wolverton, where it is maintained by an Alstom subsidiary.[17]

Train drivers are specially selected based on their skills, including the ability to make a station stop within six inches of the designated position.[17]

Incidents[edit]

In October 1881 the train carrying the Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales and Princess Louise from Ballater to Aberdeen lost a tyre from one of the engine wheels.[18]

On 21 June 1898, David Fenwick, engine driver, was killed whilst driving the Royal Train between Aberdeen and Perth. The inquest found that he had climbed onto the coal tender to attempt to resolve a problem with the communication cord, and was killed after an impact with a bridge.[19]

The Royal Train has had a very good service record. However, Gerald Fiennes wrote in his autobiography I Tried to Run a Railway of one incident on the Eastern Region when an ex-LNER A4 class 4-6-2 was used to pull the Royal Train. The first vehicle was a BR Midland Region generator van, and the difference between the 'buckeye' couplings on the A4 and on the van was about 2".[20] Various attempts to separate the couplings failed, leading the crew to couple the station pilot (standing at the rear of the train) to couple up and apply the brakes. The A4's regulator was then opened to full cut-off, resulting in the engine breaking free from the generator van and rushing off up the track. Probably the standard screw coupling was then used instead of the 'buckeye' couplings on the two vehicles, which would have required an inspection due to the various attempts to break them apart.

In June 2000, a member of the Royalty Protection Branch (SO14) accidentally discharged his 9mm Glock automatic pistol while the train was halted for an overnight stop near Gwent, South Wales. Both the Queen and Prince Philip were on board at the time, but were undisturbed by the accidental discharge, only becoming aware of it the following morning when notified by staff.[21]

Locomotives nominated for the Royal Train[edit]

Class 67, no. 67006 "Royal Sovereign" at Evesham on 26 March 2005 hauling the Venice-Simplon Orient Express Northern Belle train. This is one of the two locomotives painted in Royal Claret livery for hauling the Royal Train.
Former Royal locomotive 47798 Prince William at the Rail200 railfest at the National Railway Museum 1 June 2004.

Although railways often had nominated locomotives for hauling the Royal Train (with special high maintenance regimes), no locomotives were dedicated solely to the train until the 1990s, when two Class 47 locomotives were painted in the claret livery of the Royal Household and were dedicated solely to Royal Train duty until they were replaced in 2003 by two Class 67 locomotives, both operated by EWS (now DB Schenker Rail). The new locomotives are often used for special charter train services and on other occasional passenger services when not required. Occasionally the Royal Train is hauled by other engines.

Locomotives nominated for working the Royal Train have included:

  • 1990–2004: Class 47 47834 Fire Fly and 47835 Windsor Castle (in InterCity livery) and later refurbished, renumbered and renamed 47798 Prince William and 47799 Prince Henry (in Royal claret). Both are now withdrawn: the former is preserved at the National Railway Museum, York and the latter is at the Eden Valley Railway, Warcop.
  • Since 2004: Class 67 67005 Queen's Messenger and 67006 Royal Sovereign (in Royal claret). Since 2012 an extra locomotive, Class 67 67026 Diamond Jubilee (in Diamond Jubilee silver), has been allocated to Royal duties.

Steam locomotives[edit]

In the pre-preservation era, the Royal Train was always hauled by steam locomotives for the relevant British Rail region. Examples of royal trains hauled by preserved steam are as follows.[22] 6233 Duchess of Sutherland (an LMS Princess Coronation Class 4-6-2), 6024 King Edward I (a GWR 'King' Class 4-6-0),[23] and 60163 Tornado (a new LNER-design Peppercorn A1 4-6-2).[24]

On 11 June 2002, the restored 6233 Duchess of Sutherland was the first steam locomotive to haul the Royal Train for 35 years,[25] transporting Queen Elizabeth II on a tour to North Wales, from Holyhead to Llandudno Junction, as part of her Golden Jubilee. The trip also marked the 160th anniversary of the first Royal train in 1842.[26]

On 22 March 2005 Duchess of Sutherland again hauled the Royal Train, the second time for a steam locomotive in 40 years, transporting the Prince of Wales from Settle to Carlisle over the Settle-Carlisle Railway.[27] The trip marked the 25th anniversary of the formation of the "Friends of the Settle and Carlisle" pressure group. On the trip, the Prince spent a 15-minute spell behind the controls of the locomotive.[28]

On 10 June 2008, 6024 King Edward I hauled the Royal Train, transporting the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall on board, from Kidderminster Town to Bridgnorth, on a visit to the Severn Valley Railway.[29] Once again The Prince of Wales took the controls of the locomotive for a period.[30]

On 19 February 2009 the Royal Train was hauled by the first standard-gauge steam locomotive to be built in Britain in over 40 years, 60163 Tornado, an LNER-design Peppercorn Class A1 4-6-2, with the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall on board, the Prince travelling in the cab.[24]

On 4 February 2010, Tornado again hauled the Royal Train, taking the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall to the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester.[31]

On 24 January 2012, BR 70000 Britannia hauled the royal train took the Prince of Wales from Preston to Wakefield for a renaming ceremony to commemorate 70000's recent return to traffic after an overhaul.

On 11 July 2012, the Queen visited Worcester and the train was hauled by namesake locomotive 6201 Princess Elizabeth.[32] This was also one of the locomotives considered for use during the Queen's tour of North Wales in 2002, although 6233 Duchess of Sutherland was eventually chosen for the trip from Newport to Hereford, and then from Worcester to Oxford.

On 23 July 2013, Tornado again hauled the Royal Train, taking the Prince of Wales from Kemble to Alnmouth.

Royal Train carriages[edit]

Historic carriages[edit]

The table below lists historic Royal Train carriages, from Britain and Ireland, in chronological order to 1977. Where a separate date is shown for building, the vehicle was converted rather than built new.

Key: In service Withdrawn Preserved Returned to normal traffic Departmental use Scrapped
Number(s) Introduced Original owner Withdrawn Notes on use Current location
1840 Great Western Railway unknown Saloon. Not used by the Queen until 1842. Scrapped
2 1842 London and Birmingham Railway 1850 Queen Adelaide's saloon National Railway Museum, York
ca. 1843 London and South Western Railway unknown Saloon Scrapped
1848 Great Western Railway unknown Saloon. Converted to Standard Gauge in 1889 Scrapped in 1903
17 1850s London, Brighton and South Coast Railway unknown Saloon Scrapped
1851 London and South Western Railway 1876 (To passenger stock) Saloon
1866 London, Chatham and Dover Railway unknown Saloon. Scrapped
- (LMS 802) 1869 London and North Western Railway 1902 Queen Victoria's saloon. Originally two vehicles until combined on one underframe in 1895. National Railway Museum, York
229 / 9001 1874 Great Western Railway 1912 Queen Victoria's saloon Small section at National Railway Museum, York
10 1877 London and South Western Railway 1925 Prince of Wales' Saloon Stoborough
8 1881 (Built 1877) Great Eastern Railway 1897 (To passenger stock) Prince of Wales' Saloon Embsay
17 1887 (Built 1885) London and South Western Railway 1913 (To passenger stock) Saloon Bolton Abbey
153 1897 Belfast and County Down Railway 1924 (To passenger stock) Irish Saloon Downpatrick and County Down Railway
233 / 9002 1897 Great Western Railway 1930 Diamond Jubilee train saloon Swindon
234 / 9003 1897 Great Western Railway 1930 Diamond Jubilee train saloon Barry
5 1898 Great Eastern Railway 1925 (To departmental stock) Princess of Wales' Saloon Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway
85 1899 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway unknown Saloon Scrapped
86 1899 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway unknown Saloon Scrapped
87 1899 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway unknown 1st and brake Scrapped
1 1901 (Built 1898) Great North of Scotland Railway 1910 (To passenger stock) Saloon Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway
- (LMS 800) 1902 London and North Western Railway 1947 Edward VII's saloon National Railway Museum, York
- (LMS 801) 1902 London and North Western Railway 1947 Queen Alexandra's saloon National Railway Museum, York
351 1903 Great Southern and Western Railway 1974 (as Irish State Coach) Irish Saloon Iarnród Éireann Inchicore Works
- (CIÉ 346) 1903 Midland Great Western Railway Last used in 1932 Irish Saloon Scrapped 1960s
72 / 5072 / 10504 / 804 1903 London and North Western Railway 1948 Semi-Royal saloon, used by Winston Churchill during World War II Scrapped 1998
74 / 5074 / 10506 / 806 1903 London and North Western Railway 1971 Semi-Royal saloon Bluebell Railway
1R / 7930 1903 South Eastern and Chatham Railway unknown Saloon. Built by the Metropolitan - Amalgamated Railway Carriage & Wagon Company for £3,670. Withdrawn September 1947
82 / 109 1908 East Coast Joint Stock 1977 Royal Train brake van National Railway Museum, York
395 1908 East Coast Joint Stock 1977 Edward VII's saloon National Railway Museum, York
396 1908 East Coast Joint Stock 1977 Queen Alexandra's saloon National Railway Museum, York
1910 / 809 1912 Midland Railway 1951 (To passenger stock) George V's saloon. In passenger stock 1923–33, numbered 2795 Midland Railway - Butterley
10070 / 5154 1924 (Built 1905) London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1977 Staff car with generators in brake van National Railway Museum, Shildon
10071 / 5155 1924 (Built 1905) London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1977 Staff couchette National Railway Museum, Shildon
798 1941 London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1977 George VI's armoured saloon Severn Valley Railway
799 1941 London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1977 Queen Elizabeth's (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) armoured saloon National Railway Museum, York
31209 / 2910 1941 London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1989 Staff sleeper with generator, retained for post-1977 train Scrapped 1991
9006 1945 Great Western Railway 1984 Queen Elizabeth's (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) Saloon Midland Railway - Butterley
9007 1945 Great Western Railway 1984 Queen Elizabeth's (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) Saloon National Railway Museum, York
45000 / 2911 1948 (Built 1920) British Railways 1990 Saloon, retained for post-1977 train Midland Railway - Butterley
45005 1948 (Built 1942) British Railways 1977 Saloon Fawley Hill
45006 / 2912 1948 (Built 1942) British Railways 1989 Saloon, retained for post-1977 train Scrapped 1991
2900 1955 British Railways 1994 Royal Family lounge, bedrooms and bathroom, retained for post-1977 train Preserved, Fawley Hill Railway
499 / 2902 1956 British Railways 1994 Royal Family dining car with kitchen, retained for post-1977 train Preserved, Midland Railway - Butterley
2901 1957 British Railways 1994 Royal Household office, bedrooms and bathrooms, retained for post-1977 train Preserved, Bressingham Steam Museum
2013 / 2908 ? (Built 1958) British Railways 1984 Staff sleeper, retained for post-1977 train Scrapped 2012.[33]
325 / 2907 ? (Built 1961) British Railways 1993 (To passenger stock) Staff dining car with kitchen, retained for post-1977 train In passenger stock as number 325
The LNWR Royal Train travels over the Reddish Vale Viaduct in 1905.

Fleet from 1977[edit]

In 1977, the Royal Train was considerably changed to update it for use during Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee celebrations. A number of new carriages were added to the train, and old ones either refurbished or withdrawn. Since this time all Royal Train vehicles have been painted Royal Claret and numbered in a dedicated series commencing at 2900.

The new 1977 vehicles were converted Mark 3 carriages originally built for the prototype High Speed Train (HST) in the early 1970s. The new formation has a higher maximum speed, depending on the locomotive, an important factor if slots are to be found for the train on crowded main lines.

Following the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981, the honeymoon royal train configuration was formed with inspection saloon 975025 Caroline.[34][35]

The table below lists all the vehicles used in the fleet since 1977 in numerical order.

Key: In service Withdrawn Preserved Returned to normal traffic Departmental use Scrapped
Number Previous numbers Converted Intended use Current location
2900 - New (1955) Royal Family lounge, bedrooms and bathroom Preserved, Fawley Hill Railway
2901 - New (1957) Royal Household office, bedrooms and bathrooms Preserved, Bressingham Steam Museum
2902 499 New (1956) Royal Family dining car with kitchen; renumbered 1977 Preserved, Midland Railway - Butterley
2903 11001 1977 HM The Queen's lounge, bedroom and bathroom In service
2904 12001 1977 HRH The Duke of Edinburgh's lounge, bedroom and bathroom In service
2905 14105 1977 Royal Household couchette, diesel generator & brake van Returned to ordinary passenger stock, 17105
2906 14112 1977 Royal Household couchette To departmental service, 977969
2907 325 1977 Royal Household dining car with kitchen Returned to ordinary passenger stock, 325
2908 2013 1977 Royal Household sleeper Scrapped 2012,
2909 2500 1981 Royal Household sleeper Withdrawn, West Coast Railway Company, Carnforth
2910 M31209M New (1941) Royal Household sleeper, generator & brake van; renumbered 1983 Scrapped (1991)
2911 LNWR 5000, M45000M New (1920) Special saloon; renumbered 1983 Preserved, Midland Railway - Butterley
2912 M45006M New (1942) Special saloon; renumbered 1983 Scrapped (1991)
2914 10734 1985 Royal Household sleeping car Returned to ordinary passenger stock, 10734
2915 10735 1985 Royal Household sleeping car In service
2916 40512 1986 Royal Family dining car with kitchen In service
2917 40514 1986 Royal Household dining car with kitchen In service
2918 40515 1986 Royal Household car Stored
2919 40518 1986 Royal Household car Stored
2920 14109, 17109 1986 Royal Household couchette, diesel generator & brake van In service
2921 14107, 17107 1986 Royal Household couchette, kitchen & brake van In service
2922 New (1987) HRH The Prince of Wales's sleeping car In service
2923 New (1987) HRH The Prince of Wales's saloon In service

Royal Train use[edit]

Typical 8-carriage royal train configuration of 2921, 2903, 2916, 2922, 2923, 2917, 2915, 2920 between top and tail royal Class 67s during 2012.
Royal Train Use
year end trips miles/trip Cost/year
2012 31 March 2012 13 912 £900,000
2011 31 March 2011 14 931 £900,000
2010 31 March 2010 19 751 £1,000,000
2009 31 March 2009 14 696 £800,000
2008 31 March 2008 19 755 £900,000
2007 31 March 2007 11 655 £700,000
2006 31 March 2006 14 700 £600,000
2005 31 March 2005 19 691 £700,000
2004 31 March 2004 18 736 £800,000

Although this type of travel is expensive compared to scheduled services, the train enables members of the Royal Family to carry out busy schedules over an extended period, in a secure environment that minimises disruption and inconvenience to the public and provides accommodation and office facilities. On at least one occasion, The Prince of Wales has conducted a dinner meeting on board the train. Some members of Parliament have argued that the Royal Train, like the Royal Yacht, is an expensive under-used relic. However, the train is recognised as being a very secure way for the nonagenarian queen to complete overnight trips. The yearly cost of the Royal Train when it was introduced in 1977 for The Queen's Silver Jubilee was £1.9 million (equivalent to £10,645,782 in 2015),[36] and has since been considerably reduced.[37] Edward Leigh, the Conservative chairman of the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee, said the Royal Train was twice as expensive as using air travel but hardly luxurious. He said, "It's a rather Formica-laminated affair. I don't think it's that grand or that comfortable."

In the FY 2011 the Royal Train was used for 14 trips, averaging 931 miles. Ten trips were by The Prince of Wales, and four by The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh. Nineteen nights were spent on the train during the course of the 14 trips. To control costs, Parliament permits the Royal Train to be used only by The Queen with The Duke of Edinburgh, or The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall.

As part of information revealed in March 2017 regarding plans for Queen Elizabeth's death, codenamed Operation London Bridge, the Royal Train would be used in the event that she dies at Holyrood Palace, to transport her to London.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hoey, Brian (2009). The Royal Train. The Inside Story. Haynes Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 9781844255566. 
  2. ^ "Visit of Queen Adelaide to Yorkshire". Leeds Intelligencer. British Newspaper Archive. 25 July 1840. Retrieved 20 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ a b "Her Majesty’s First Trip by Railway". Bristol Mercury. British Newspaper Archive. 18 June 1842. Retrieved 20 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ The Royal Train, Monarchy of the United Kingdom. Accessed 31 December 2007.
  5. ^ "The New Great Western Railway Royal Saloon". Birmingham Daily Post. British Newspaper Archive. 3 March 1874. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ "The New Royal Train in which the Queen will travel from Windsor to London". The Graphic. British Newspaper Archive. 19 June 1897. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  7. ^ "The New Royal Train at Swindon". Swindon Advertiser and North Wilts Chronicle. British Newspaper Archive. 22 May 1897. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ "Royal Saloon Carriage". Edinburgh Evening News. British Newspaper Archive. 15 November 1877. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ "New Royal Train". Morning Post. British Newspaper Archive. 17 April 1899. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ "THE PROCESSION IN LONDON.; SCENE AT VICTORIA STATION. THE FUNERAL TRAIN ARRIVES. THE ROYAL MOURNERS. KAISER EASILY RECOGNIZED. AT PADDINGTON STATION.", The New York Times, 3 February 1901. Accessed 31 December 2007.
  11. ^ "The New Royal Train". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. British Newspaper Archive. 29 December 1902. Retrieved 20 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ "New Royal Train". Dundee Evening Telegraph. British Newspaper Archive. 7 September 1908. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ "The Midland Railway’s Royal Saloon". Derby Daily Telegraph. British Newspaper Archive. 28 August 1912. Retrieved 21 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  14. ^ "The Royal Visit". Freeman’s Journal. British Newspaper Archive. 2 September 1897. Retrieved 20 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ Irish Broad Gauge Carriages, by Desmond Coackham
  16. ^ Horsfall, Bill (2014). London, Midland & Scottish. Author House. p. 74. ISBN 9781496981783. 
  17. ^ a b c Chamberlain, Gethin. "Royal Express is more Pizza than Orient" Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine., The Scotsman, 4 May 2002. Accessed 31 December 2007.
  18. ^ "Accident to the Royal Train". Nottingham Evening Post. 11 October 1881. Retrieved 22 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  19. ^ "The Accident on the Royal Train. Inquiry at Stonehaven". Aberdeen Journal. British Newspaper Archive. 7 July 1898. Retrieved 22 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  20. ^ Fiennes, Gerard (31 July 2015). I Tried to Run a Railway. Head of Zeus. ISBN 9781784970840. 
  21. ^ Perry, Keith. "PC fires gun on royal train". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-23. 
  22. ^ In preservation examples include the visit of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent to the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway on 10 July 2008: "Full steam ahead on the royal railway". The Telegraph and Argus. 
  23. ^ The Railway Magazine. No. December 2008. p. 7.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ a b "Royal couple name new steam train". BBC News Online. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009. .
  25. ^ "Jubilee tour diary: Wales walkabout". BBC News Online. 13 June 2002. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  26. ^ "The Queen's Golden Jubilee Journal". Insight Magazine. www.thedukeofyork.org. [permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "HRH spends a day in Cumbria and Yorkshire". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. 22 March 2005. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  28. ^ "Prince Charles takes steam train". BBC News Online. 22 March 2005. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  29. ^ "Prince to take control of SVR train". Wolverhampton Express and Star. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  30. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall visited the Severn Valley Railway". Bewdley Station. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  31. ^ "Tornado pulls Royal Train into MOSI". MOSI. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  32. ^ "The Queen Leaves Worcester on the Royal Train 6201 Princess Elizabeth 11th July 2012". YouTube. YouTube. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  33. ^ http://www.cs.vintagecarriagestrust.org/se/CarriageInfo.asp?Ref=1177
  34. ^ Newby, Howard; Railway Heritage Committee (12 October 2009). Artefacts Sub-committee (PDF). Annual Report 2008–2009 (Report). pp. 7, 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  35. ^ Railway Heritage Committee (13 March 2009). "Designation of 'Caroline' – 12.12.08". News. Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  36. ^ UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
  37. ^ "Royal train's inside story". BBC News. 4 September 2002. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  38. ^ Knight, Sam (16 March 2017). "Operation London Bridge: the secret plan for the days after the Queen’s death". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 

External links[edit]