British diaspora

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A world map showing the distribution and concentration of Britons by country.[1]
Legend:

The British diaspora consists of British people and their descendants who emigrated from the present-day United Kingdom, or people who have acquired British Nationality through colonisation. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Hong Kong, as well as parts of the Caribbean and continental Europe, such as Spain. A 2006 publication from the Institute for Public Policy Research estimated 5.5 million British-born people lived outside of the United Kingdom.[1]

According to The Foreign and Commonwealth Office there were 13.1 million British nationals living abroad in 2004–05. These figures are taken from the consular annual returns from overseas posts. There is no requirement for UK citizens to register with British missions overseas and therefore these figures are based on the most reliable information that can be obtained e.g. from host government official statistics.[2]

After the Age of Discovery the various peoples of the British Isles, and especially the English, were among the earliest and by far the largest communities to emigrate out of Europe, and the British Empire's expansion during the first half of the 19th century saw an extraordinary dispersion of the British people, with particular concentrations in Australasia and North America.[3]

The British Empire was "built on waves of migration overseas by British people",[4] who left Great Britain, later the United Kingdom, and reached across the globe and permanently affected population structures in three continents.[3] As a result of the British colonisation of the Americas, what became the United States was "easily the greatest single destination of emigrant British", but in the Federation of Australia the British experienced a birth rate higher than anything seen before, resulting in the displacement of indigenous Australians.[3]

In colonies such as Southern Rhodesia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Jamaica, Barbados, British East Africa and the Cape Colony, permanently resident British communities were established and while never more than a numerical minority these Britons exercised a dominant influence upon the culture and politics of those lands.[4] In Australia, Canada and New Zealand people of British origin came to constitute the majority of the population contributing to these states becoming integral to the Anglosphere.[4]

The British emigrated not only to parts of the British Empire but they went to settle in large numbers in Latin America, particularly the Southern Cone. Uruguay and Argentina have large British-descended populations, including a large Welsh population in Patagonia. More a half a million of Chileans have British ancestry and Chilean Culture had been anglicised in the 19th century.

The United Kingdom Census 1861 estimated the size of the overseas British to be around 2.5 million, but concluded that most of these were "not conventional settlers" but rather "travellers, merchants, professionals, and military personnel".[3] By 1890, there were over 1.5 million further British-born people living in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.[3]

British people by country[edit]

Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) estimates[edit]

The following table lists the estimated number of British people (defined as people who are British Subjects, such as British citizen, British National Overseas or British Overseas Citizen) living overseas in countries with more than 100 British:[1][5]

Rank Country Number of British residents Region(s) Group(s)
1 Australia 1,300,000 Asia Pacific Anglo-Celtic Australian, Cornish Australian, English Australian, Scottish Australian, Welsh Australian
2 Spain 761,000 Europe Britons in Spain
3 USA 678,000 North America British American, Cornish American, English American, Welsh American, Scottish American, Scotch-Irish American
4 Canada 603,000 North America English Canadian, Scottish Canadian, Welsh Canadian, Cornish Canadian
5 Ireland 291,000 Europe
6 New Zealand 215,000 Asia Pacific British New Zealander, Scottish New Zealander
7 South Africa 212,000 Africa British diaspora in Africa
8 France 200,000 Europe (and other continents) Britons in France
9 Germany 115,000 Europe
10 Cyprus 59,000 Mid East
11 UAE 55,000 Mid East Britons in the United Arab Emirates
12 Pakistan 47,000 Asia Britons in Pakistan
13 Singapore 45,000 Asia Pacific
14 Switzerland 45,000 Europe
15 Israel 44,000 Mid East
16 Netherlands 44,000 Europe
17 Thailand 41,000 Asia Pacific
18 Portugal 38,000 Europe
19 China (including Hong Kong) 36,000note Asia Pacific Britons in Hong Kong
20 Turkey 34,000 Eur/Mid East Britons in Turkey
21 India 32,000 Asia Anglo-Indian
22 Kenya 29,000 Africa
23 Belgium 28,000 Europe
24 Barbados 27,000 Caribbean
25 Saudi Arabia 26,000 Mid East
26 Italy 26,000 Europe
27 Jamaica 25,000 Caribbean
28 Japan 23,000 Asia Pacific Britons in Japan
29 Sweden 18,000 Europe
30 Greece 18,000 Europe
31 Nigeria 16,000 Africa
32 Norway 15,000 Europe
33 Egypt 14,000 Africa Britons in Egypt
34 Philippines 14,000 Asia Pacific
35 Malaysia 13,000 Asia Pacific
36 Trinidad and Tobago 11,000 Caribbean
37 Brazil 11,000 South America English Brazilian, Scottish Brazilian
38 Bahrain 11,000 Mid East
39 Gaza & West Bank 11,000 Mid East
40 Indonesia 11,000 Asia Pacific
41 Denmark 11,000 Europe
42 Bangladesh 9,200 Asia
43 Malta 9,000 Europe
44 Mexico 8,500 North America
45 Austria 8,500 Europe
46 Argentina 8,300 South America English Argentine, Irish Argentine, Welsh Argentine, Scottish Argentine
47 Qatar 8,100 Mid East
48 Oman 7,800 Mid East
49 Malawi 7,400 Africa
50 Venezuela 7,200 South America
51 Jordan 7,200 Mid East
52 Kuwait 7,100 Mid East
53 Czech Republic 6,800 Europe
54 Brunei 6,400 Asia Pacific
55 Macao 6,300 Asia Pacific
56 Zimbabwe 6,100 Africa
57 Russia 6,100 Europe
58 Ghana 5,900 Africa
59 Zambia 5,800 Africa
60 Poland 5,600 Europe
61 Tanzania 5,500 Africa
62 Luxembourg 5,500 Europe
63 Chile 5,200 South America British Chilean, English Chilean, Scottish Chilean, Irish Chilean, Welsh Chilean
64 Hungary 5,200 Europe
65 Botswana 5,000 Africa
66 Costa Rica 4,800 North America
67 Peru 4,600 South America British Peruvian
68 Romania 4,500 Europe
69 Sri Lanka 4,400 Asia Burgher people
70 Bahamas 4,100 Caribbean
71 Vietnam 3,800 Asia Pacific
72 Colombia 3,600 South America
73 Libya 3,600 Africa
74 Gibraltar 3,600 Europe
75 Yemen 3,400 Mid East
76 South Korea 3,400 Asia Pacific
77 Iran 2,900 Mid East
78 Antigua/Barbuda 2,800 Caribbean
79 Finland 2,800 Europe
80 Nepal 2,700 Asia
81 Grenada 2,500 Caribbean
82 Uganda 2,500 Africa
83 Ecuador 2,400 South America
84 Morocco 2,400 Africa
85 Azerbaijan 2,400 Europe
86 Swaziland 2,300 Africa
87 Guyana 2,200 South America
88 Lebanon 2,200 Mid East
89 Syria 2,200 Mid East
90 Belize 2,000 North America
91 Sierra Leone 2,000 Africa
92 Iraq 2,000 Mid East
93 Guatemala 1,900 North America
94 Dominica 1,800 Caribbean
95 Netherlands Antilles 1,800 Caribbean
96 Seychelles 1,800 Africa
97 Namibia 1,700 Africa
98 Mauritania 1,600 Africa
99 Serbia-Montenegro 1,600 Europe
100 St Lucia 1,500 Caribbean
101 Gambia 1,500 Africa
102 Mozambique 1,400 Africa
103 Tunisia 1,400 Africa
104 St Vincent/Grenadines 1,300 Caribbean
105 Ethiopia 1,300 Africa
106 Sudan 1,300 Africa
107 Ivory Coast 1,200 Africa
108 Dominican Republic 1,100 Caribbean
109 Panama 1,000 North America
110 British Virgin Islands 1,000 Caribbean
111 Cambodia 1,000 Asia Pacific
112 Honduras 950 North America
113 Macedonia 950 Europe
114 Papua New Guinea 940 Asia Pacific
115 Iceland 940 Europe
116 Falklands 930 South America
117 Afghanistan 900 Asia
118 Ukraine 900 Europe
119 Croatia 890 Europe
120 St Kitts & Nevis 880 Caribbean
121 Bulgaria 800 Europe
122 Kazakhstan 770 Asia
123 Estonia 750 Europe
124 Mauritius 740 Africa
125 Slovakia 740 Europe
126 Uruguay 690 South America
127 Angola 650 Africa
128 Algeria 630 Africa
129 Bermuda 600 Caribbean
130 Bosnia-Herzegovina 540 Europe
131 Fiji 500 Asia Pacific
132 Bolivia 470 South America
133 Burma 460 Asia Pacific Anglo-Burmese
134 Nicaragua 410 North America
135 El Salvador 390 North America
136 DR Congo 390 Africa
137 Latvia 370 Europe
138 Lesotho 350 Africa
139 Mongolia 340 Asia Pacific
140 Paraguay 330 South America
141 Slovenia 330 Europe
142 Monaco 320 Europe
143 Cameroon 300 Africa
144 Madagascar 300 Africa
145 Lithuania 290 Europe
146 Vanuatu 270 Asia Pacific
147 Anguilla 260 Caribbean
148 Senegal 220 Africa
149 Andorra 210 Europe
150 Tajikistan 200 Asia
151 Georgia 200 Europe
152 Tonga 190 Asia Pacific
153 Albania 190 Europe
154 Cuba 160 Caribbean
155 Montserrat 160 Caribbean
156 Uzbekistan 130 Asia
157 Cayman Islands 110 Caribbean
158 Djibouti 110 Africa
- Greenland <100 North America
- Haiti <100 Caribbean
- Puerto Rico <100 Caribbean
- Turks & Caicos <100 Caribbean
- US Virgin Islands <100 Caribbean
- Surinam <100 South America
- Benin <100 Africa
- Burkina Faso <100 Africa
- Cape Verde <100 Africa
- Central African Republic <100 Africa
- Chad <100 Africa
- Congo <100 Africa
- Guinea <100 Africa
- Liberia <100 Africa
- Niger <100 Africa
- Rwanda <100 Africa
- Somalia <100 Africa
- St Helena <100 Africa
- Togo <100 Africa
- Bhutan <100 Asia
- Kyrgyzstan <100 Asia
- Maldives <100 Asia
- Turkmenistan <100 Asia
- Cook Islands <100 Asia Pacific
- French Polynesia <100 Asia Pacific
- Guam <100 Asia Pacific
- Kiribati <100 Asia Pacific
- New Caledonia <100 Asia Pacific
- Norfolk Island <100 Asia Pacific
- North Korea <100 Asia Pacific
- Samoa <100 Asia Pacific
- Solomon Islands <100 Asia Pacific
- Taiwan <100 Asia Pacific
- Tuvalu <100 Asia Pacific
- Armenia <100 Europe
- Belarus <100 Europe
- Faroe Islands <100 Europe
- Liechtenstein <100 Europe
- Moldova <100 Europe
- San Marino <100 Europe

^ Note: A different estimate puts China (incl. Hong Kong) ahead with a population of 3,750,000 Britons,[6][7] most of which are those in Hong Kong who have continued to possess British nationality, particularly the British nationals (overseas) status, which numbered 3.4 million, through their connection with the former crown colony (see British nationality and Hong Kong for further details).[8]

List of countries by population of British heritage[edit]

Country Population  % of country Criterion
British in North America
United States British American 72,065,000 23.3%

See also English American, Scottish American, Welsh American, Cornish American, Manx American, Scotch-Irish American [9][10]

Canada British Canadian 12,134,745 34%

See also English Canadian, Scottish Canadian, Welsh Canadian, Cornish Canadian, Manx Canadian, Scotch-Irish Canadian, Anglo-Indian Canadian [11]

Mexico British immigration to Mexico 45,000 0.03%

[12][13] [14]

British Latin American
Argentina British Argentine 250,000 0.5%

See also English Argentine, Scottish Argentine, Welsh Argentine [15]

Brazil British Brazilian  ?

See also English Brazilian, Scottish Brazilian [16]

Chile British Chilean 700,000 4%

See also English Chilean, Scottish Chilean, Welsh Chilean [17]

Uruguay British Uruguayan  ?

[18]

Paraguay English people in Paraguay  ?

[19]

Peru British Peruvian 150,000 0.5%

[20]

British in Europe
United Kingdom British Overseas Territories 247,899 14.5%

[21]

France British French 400,000 0.66%

[22]

Spain British migration to Spain 297,229 0.5%

[23]

Republic of Ireland Anglo-Irish 291,000 7.5%

[24]

Germany British German 115,000 0.1%

[25]

Cyprus British Cypriots 77,673 6%

[26]

Portugal British in Portugal 38,000 3,8%

[27]

British in Asia
United Arab Emirates Britons in United Arab Emirates 240,000 2.5%

[28]

Pakistan Britons in Pakistan 47,000 0.01%

[29]

Hong Kong Britons in Hong Kong 36,000 0.4%

[30]

Turkey Britons in Turkey 34,000 0.02%

[31]

India Anglo-Indian 500,000 0.01%

See also Scottish-Indian [32]

Burma Anglo-Burmese people 52,000 0.06%

[33]

Sri Lanka Burgher people 34,000 0.15%

[34]

Japan Britons in Japan 34,000 0.02%

[35]

British in Oceania
Australia British Australian 17,000,000 74%

See also English Australian, Scottish Australian, Welsh Australian, Cornish Australian, Manx Australian [36] [37]

New Zealand European New Zealanders 2,425,278 74%

See also Pakeha, Scottish New Zealanders [38] [39]

British in Africa
South Africa White South African 2,000,000 3.5%

40% speaks English from a wider White South African ethnic group. [40]

Kenya White people in Kenya 67,000 0.2%

[41]

Namibia White Namibians 15,000 1%

[42]

Zimbabwe White people in Zimbabwe 28,732 0.2%

[43][44]

Total in Diaspora ~92000000

[45] [3] [4]

United Kingdom British people 51,736,290 81.4%

See White British [46] [47]

Total Worldwide ~143,000,000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan; Drew, Catherine (2006). Brits Abroad: Mapping the scale and nature of British emigration. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 1-86030-307-2. 
  2. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 22 Mar 2006 (pt 15)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Ember et al 2004, p. 47.
  4. ^ a b c d Marshall 2001, p. 254.
  5. ^ "Brits Abroad". BBC News – Special Reports. BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "The Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons put the size of the British expatriate community in Hong Kong at over 3 million". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  7. ^ "The FCO had the figure for Hong Kong and China combined at 3,752,031 : Both figures cover all British nationals, including those who are not British citizens.". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  8. ^ [1] [www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm141202/debtext/141202-0002.htm]
  9. ^ See: British American – The United States American Community Survey reported in 2009 that 40,234,652 Americans identified themselves as having English,Scottish, Welsh and Ulster-Scottish ancestry. 1,172,050 reported to have British ancestry. 2009 American Community Survey.[dead link]
  10. ^ Brits Abroad: Country-by-country, BBC News, 11 December 2006, retrieved 24 May 2009 
  11. ^ Statistics Canada reported in 2006 that 6,570,015 Canadians identified themselves as having English ancestry, 4,719,850 Scottish, 440,965 Welsh and 403,915 from the British Isles (other than English, Scottish, Welsh or Irish). See:
    Statistics Canada (2006), "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories", Canada 2006 Census (statcan.ca), retrieved 27 May 2009 
  12. ^ BBC - The Cornish in Mexico
  13. ^ Cornish Mexican Cultural Society 2008 visit
  14. ^ A Mexican Wave from Cornwall - Cornish World magazine
  15. ^ Chavez, Lydia (23 June 1985). "Fare of the country: A bit of Britain in Argentina". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2009. 
  16. ^ Recenseamento do Brazil. Realizado em 1 de Setembro de 1920. População (1a parte). População do Brazil por Estados, municipios e districtos, segundo o sexo, o estado civil e a nacionalidade. (1926) – pages 312 to 317
  17. ^ "Historia de Chile, Británicos y Anglosajones en Chile durante el siglo XIX". Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  18. ^ "Brits in South America". BBC News. 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  19. ^ "Brits Abroad". BBC. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  20. ^ Erwin Dopf. "Inmigración británica al Perú". Espejodelperu.com.pe. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  21. ^ See the article entitled British overseas territories.
  22. ^ Erwin Dopf. "Présentation du Royaume-Uni". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  23. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/10781350/End-to-Mediterranean-dream-for-90000-Britons-who-left-Spain-last-year.html
  24. ^ The Anglo-Irish, Fidelma Maguire, University College Cork and Donnchadh Ó Corráin
  25. ^ The most popular British emigration destinations, local.live.com, 13 April 2007, retrieved 24 May 2009 
  26. ^ Winder, Robert (2004). Bloody Foreigners: The Story of Immigration to Britain. London: Abacus. pp. 360–62. ISBN 0-349-11566-4. 
  27. ^ "Brits Abroad: Portugal". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  28. ^ "The other special relationship: the UAE and the UK". The National. Abu Dhabi. 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  29. ^ Brits Abroad: Asia, BBC News, 11 December 2006, retrieved 24 May 2009 
  30. ^ Interactive Data Dissemination Service, Hong Kong Census, 2011
  31. ^ Brits Abroad: BBC
  32. ^ "Treaty Bodies Database – Document – State Party Report" United Nations Human Rights Website. April 29, 1996.
  33. ^ see Finding George Orwell by Emma Larkin
  34. ^ "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  35. ^ "(Northern Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain) United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)" (in Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  36. ^ A. Babacan, S. Singh, Migration, Belonging and the Nation State, Cambridge Scholars Pub., 2010, p. 16
  37. ^ The Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2011 showed that 7,238,500 Australians reported having English ancestry, and 1,792,600 reported having Scottish ancestry. The most commonly reported ancestry was English (36.1% of the population). Scottish ancestry was reported by 8.3% of the population. See:
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (21 June 2012), Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013, abs.gov.au, retrieved 1 May 2014  In 2006, 63% of the population had reported British ancestry. See: Mansouri, Fethi, and Michele Lobo, Migration, Citizenship, and Intercultural Relations: Looking Through the Lens of Social Inclusion. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011, p.30
  38. ^ 2013 Census results: New Zealand
  39. ^ Statistics New Zealand (4 February 2009), QuickStats About Culture and Identity, stats.govt.nz, archived from the original on 19 February 2008, retrieved 18 May 2009 
  40. ^ "Mid-year population estimates 2014" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  41. ^ Brits Abroad: Africa, BBC News, 11 December 2006, retrieved 24 May 2009 
  42. ^ Government, Namibia. "Demographics of Namibia". Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  43. ^ http://www.zimstat.co.zw/dmdocuments/Census/CensusResults2012/National_Report.pdf
  44. ^ "Zimbabwe: Treatment of white Zimbabweans who are not farmers and available state protection". UNHCR. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2013. According to an article in World Affairs, a bi-monthly international affairs journal published in Washington, DC (World Affairs n.d.), there were 296,000 resident white Zimbabweans in 1975, 120,000 in 1999, and 30,000 in 2010 (World Affairs 1 May 2010). 
  45. ^ Richards 2004, p. 255.
  46. ^ Population By Country of Birth and Nationality tables January 2013 to December 2013. Retrieved 04_11_2014
  47. ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 13 June 2014
Bibliography
  • Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin; Skoggard, Ian A. (2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. 
  • Marshall, Peter James (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7.