Education in the United Kingdom
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is directly responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively. In England and Wales, the EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage) is applicable to children aged 5 and below, and the national curriculum is applicable to children aged 5+.
For details of education in each country, see:
In each country there are five stages of education: early years, primary, secondary, further education (FE) and higher education (HE). The law states that full time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16, the compulsory school age (CSA). In England, compulsory education or training has been extended to 18 for those born on or after 1 September 1997. This full-time education does not need to be at a school and a number of parents choose to home educate. Before they reach compulsory school age, children can be educated at nursery if parents wish though there is only limited government funding for such places. Further Education is non-compulsory, and covers non-advanced education which can be taken at further (including tertiary) education colleges and Higher Education institutions (HEIs). The fifth stage, Higher Education, is study beyond A levels or BTECs (and their equivalent) which, for most full-time students, takes place in universities and other Higher Education institutions and colleges.
The National Curriculum (NC), established in 1988, provides a framework for education in England and Wales between the ages of 5 and 18. Though the National Curriculum is not compulsory it is followed by most state schools, but some private schools, academies, free schools and home educators design their own curricula. In Scotland the nearest equivalent is the Curriculum for Excellence programme, and in Northern Ireland there is something known as the common curriculum. The Scottish qualifications the National 4/5s, Highers and Advanced Highers are highly similar to the English Advanced Subsidiary (AS) and Advanced Level (A2) courses.
Traditionally a high-performing country in international rankings of education, the UK has stagnated in recent years in such rankings as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests; in 2013 for reading and maths the country as a whole stood in the middle-rankings, a position broadly similar to three years before. Within the UK Scotland performed marginally better than England; both were slightly ahead of Northern Ireland and markedly ahead of Wales. However these results contradict those of the education and publishing firm Pearson published in 2014, which placed the UK in second place across European countries and sixth worldwide; these rankings took account of higher-education graduate rates, which may have accounted for the higher ranking than in PISA.
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In 2015/16, the UK spent £3.2 billion on under-5s education, £27.7 billion on primary education, £38.2 billion on secondary education and £5.9 billion on tertiary education. In total, the UK spent £83.4 billion on education (includes £8.4 billion on other categories).
Funding for UK schools will change to a national formula in 2018, with some schools likely to gain from the new formula and others likely to lose. Secretary of State for Education, Justine Greening claims funding will depend less on the postcode lottery. The National Audit Office (NAO) claims funding will be cut by 8%.
A cross-party parliamentary committee criticised the government's free school programme as poor value for money. The Public Accounts Committee criticised the government for spending excessively on unsuitable sites and building schools where none are needed. Meanwhile, other schools are not getting repairs done and need £7bn to be brought back to a satisfactory condition. “While the department is spending significant funds in creating 500 more free schools, even in areas with no shortage of places, existing schools struggle to live within their budgets and carry out routine maintenance,” according to the Public Accounts Committee report.
- Education in England
- Higher education in the United Kingdom
- Home education in the United Kingdom
- Faith schools in the United Kingdom
- Dyslexia support in the United Kingdom
- Examination boards in the United Kingdom
- Special education in the United Kingdom
- Teachers' trade unions in the United Kingdom
- The Scottish Government scotland.gov.uk, accessed 6 June 2009
- About wales.gov.uk, accessed 6 June 2009
- "EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE UK" (PDF). British Government. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Guardian article
- "THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF ENGLAND & WALES, SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND" (PDF). British Council. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Education Otherwise website
- "The British Education System". HMC Projects. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Coughlan, Sean. "UK makes no progress in Pisa tests". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Pisa ranks Wales' education the worst in the UK". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Coughlan, Sean. "UK 'second best education in Europe'". BBC. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Schoolsweek report 14 December 2016
- Schools face cuts of £3bn, says watchdog BBC
- Thousands of schools stand to lose out under new funding formula The Guardian
- MPs condemn free schools policy as incoherent and wasteful The Guardian
- Blatchford, Roy (2014). The Restless School. John Catt Educational. p. 136. ISBN 978-1909717077.
- Christodoulou, Daisy (2014). Seven Myths About Education. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-0415746823.
- Gearon, Liam (2002). Education in the United Kingdom. David Fulton Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1853467154.
- Giddens, Anthony; Griffiths, Simon (2006). Sociology. Polity Press. pp. 682–728. ISBN 0745633781.
- Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna (2005). What's The Good Of Education? The Economics Of Education In The UK. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691117349.
- Peal, Robert (2014). Progressively worse: The Burden of Bad Ideas in British Schools. Civitas. p. 298. ISBN 978-1906837624.
- Staples N., Rebecca; Cochran, Moncrieff (2008). Early Childhood Education: An International Encyclopedia. IV. Praeger. pp. 1281–1318. ISBN 0313341435.
- Department for Education at the UK government
- Studies from the Office for National Statistics regarding Children, Education and Skills
- Information on education in United Kingdom, OECD - Contains indicators and information about United Kingdom and how it compares to other OECD and non-OECD countries
- Diagram of British education systems, OECD - Using 1997 ISCED classification of programmes and typical ages.
- Fully searchable UK school guide independent and state