British Left

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Timeline of parties in the broad socialist movement

The term British Left can refer to a range of political parties, movements and events in Britain. These political parties take the position of either centre-left, left-wing or far-left.

The largest political party associated with the British left is the centre-left Labour Party, which is also the biggest political party in the UK with over half a million members.[1] The Labour Party has 230 seats in the House of Commons.

The largest left-wing party in Britain, by membership, is the Green Party of England and Wales. As of August 2016, membership is approximately 53,000. The party has one Member of Parliament (MP).

The other two political parties in Britain on the left and with representation in the UK parliament are the centre-left Scottish National Party and the left-wing Plaid Cymru. The Scottish National Party are only active in Scotland and Plaid Cymru are only active in Wales. The SNP has 54 MPs and Plaid has 3 MPs.

History[edit]

Active in England[edit]

Labour Party[edit]

Main article: Labour Party (UK)

The biggest left wing party in the UK in terms of members and representation is the Labour Party, which was formed as the Labour Representation Committee in 1900. With the party's rebranding as New Labour in the 1990s under Tony Blair's leadership, the party accepted a number of Thatcherite policy positions,[2] causing it to be identified as neoliberal rather than democratic socialist, and no longer a party of the Left;[3][4] Blair himself described New Labour's ideology as a "Third Way". When Ed Miliband became leader of the Labour Party in 2010, however, he described the Labour Party as "democratic socialist",[5] pledging to clamp down on tax avoidance, introduce a wealth tax in the form of a Mansion Tax, raise income tax on the highest earners in Britain and break up the banks.[6]

As an opposition party under Miliband's leadership, the party was criticised by some, including former leader Tony Blair, as straying leftwards from the "centre ground" of British politics,[7] and that Miliband was a "traditional left-wing" politician.[8] However, others disputed this view, and put Labour's loss of the 2015 UK election down to the party being too right wing.[9][10] The unexpected landslide victory of Jeremy Corbyn in the 2015 Labour leadership election[11] represented a resurgence of the Labour Left and led to a surge in membership;[12] in the reshuffle that followed, John McDonnell (chairman of the Labour Representation Committee) and Diane Abbott (member of the Socialist Campaign Group) were appointed to the Shadow Cabinet.[13]

Labour's status as a left-wing party has nevertheless been disputed by those who do not see the party as part of the Left.[14][15][16]

Internal groups[edit]

Magazine support[edit]

Green Party of England and Wales[edit]

In 2015, the membership of the Green Party quadrupled, and its support in national opinion polls sextupled.[17] Several factors have contributed, including the collapse of the Liberal Democrat vote, the influence of social media and greater awareness among younger people about the rise of other leftist parties in Europe such as Podemos in Spain and Syriza in Greece, as well as a rise in anti-austerity movements across Europe and Britain.[18] Other factors include the Scottish referendum, which has proved an inspiration for a new kind of politics. Other key factors had been the contrast in conferences of the Green Party and Labour in September 2014, and the media exclusion of the Green Party during and following their successes in the European elections. A petition against the media blackout of the Green Party reached 260,000 signatures.[19] The party also received a significant spike in membership during January, 2015 following David Cameron's demand that the Green Party be included in the leaders' debates for the 2015 General Election. The Green Party has been included in a seven-way television debate.[20] The Green Party of England and Wales' spring conference had 1,300 members attend, a record for the party.

The Green Party of England and Wales is now the second largest party of the European Greens, and has increased significantly in the national polls from an average 1% to 7%. It beat the Liberal Democrats to fourth place in the 2014 European Elections with 8%, under a proportional voting system, having a third MEP elected.

The status of the Greens as a party of the Left is also disputed.[21][22][23]

Internal groups[edit]

Other organisations[edit]

The now defunct Respect Party, which at one point had the support of other Left groups (such as the Socialist Workers Party and Socialist Resistance) and some electoral success, lost its last local councillors in 2014[24] and its only MP George Galloway - who was also the party leader[25] - in 2015.

The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition was founded in 2010, comprising the Socialist Party, Socialist Workers Party, and Independent Socialist Network. As of 2016, TUSC has a small number of affiliated local councillors. Following the 2015 election of Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader, TUSC floated plans for a future electoral pact with any Labour councillors standing on an anti-austerity platform.[26]

A new party, Left Unity, was formed in November 2013 and backed by a number of existing leftist parties. Left Unity had an electoral pact with TUSC for the 2015 elections[27] but has since renounced independent electoral activity in favour of the Labour Party.

Some left and far-left parties contest elections independently, such as the Socialist Party of Great Britain (the oldest extant left party, having formed in 1904) and the Communist Party of Britain, a split from and effectively the political successor to the historical Communist Party of Great Britain, once the largest British far-left organisation.[28] Other parties or groups are electorally inactive or renounce participation in elections.

In the case of anarchist groups, the status of anarchism as part of the left is sometimes disputed.[29]

Active electoral parties[edit]

Parties working within TUSC[edit]

Non-electoral groups[edit]

Anti-revisionists[edit]
Further information: Anti-revisionism
Others[edit]
Groups working within Labour Party[edit]
Entryist groups within Labour Party[edit]
Further information: Entryism

Active only in Scotland[edit]

Active only in Wales[edit]

Media[edit]

Publications affiliated to parties[edit]

Unaffiliated[edit]

Archive[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, Perry. Arguments Within English Marxism, (Verso, 1980)
  • Baker, Blake. The Far Left (Butler & Tanner, 1981)
  • Barrow, Logic and Bullock, Ian. Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement (Cambridge University Press, 1996)
  • Beilharz, Peter. Labour's Utopias: Bolshevism, Fabianism and Social Democracy (Routledge 1992)
  • Biagini, E.F. and Reid, A.J., eds. Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain 1850–1914, (Cambridge University Press, 1991)
  • Black, L. The Political Culture of the Left in Affluent Britain, 1951–64: old Labour, new Britain? (Basingstoke, 2003)
  • Bryant, C. Possible Dreams: a personal history of British Christian Socialists (London, 1996)
  • Buchanan, Tom. "Britain's Popular Front?: Aid Spain and the British Labour Movement," History Workshop Journal, 31, 1991
  • Callaghan, John. British Trotskyism: Theory and Practice (Blackwell 1984)
  • Callaghan, John. Socialism in Britain since 1884 (Blackwell, 1990)
  • Callaghan, John. The Far Left in British Politics (Blackwell, 1987)
  • Crick, Michael. Militant (Faber & Faber, 1984)
  • Chun, L. The British New Left (Edinburgh University Press, 1993)
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. Ages of Reform: Dawns and Downfalls of the British Left (I.B. Tauris, dist. by Palgrave Macmillan; 2011), history of British left since the Great Reform Act, 1832.
  • Parker, Martin, et al. The Dictionary of Alternatives Zed Books, 2007[41]
  • Quail, John. The Slow Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists (Paladin, 1978)
  • Shipley, Peter. Revolutionaries in Modern Britain (Bodley Head, 1976)
  • Smith, Evan & Worley, Matthew. Against the Grain: The British Far Left from 1956 (Manchester University Press, 2014)[42]

Labour Party[edit]

  • Cole, G. D. H. A history of the Labour Party from 1914 (1969)
  • Pelling, Henry. A short history of the Labour Party (12th ed. 2005)
  • Pugh, Martin. Speak for Britain!: A New History of the Labour Party (2011) [43]
  • Taylor, Robert. The Parliamentary Labour Party: A History 1906–2006 (2007)
  • Thorpe, Andrew and Jeremy Black. A History of the British Labour Party (3rd. ed. 2008)[44]
  • Worley, Matthew. Labour Inside the Gate: A History of the British Labour Party between the Wars (2009)[45]

Communist Party[edit]

  • Beckett, Francis. Enemy Within: The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Great Britain (John Murray, 1995)
  • Callaghan, John. Cold War, Crisis and Conflict: The History of the Communist Party of Great Britain, 1951–68 (Lawrence & Wishart, 2001)[46]
  • Britain's Road to Socialism - the programme of the Communist Party of Britain
  • Croft, Andy, (ed.) A Weapon in the Struggle: The Cultural History of the Communist Party in Britain (Pluto Press, London, 1998)
  • Parker, Lawrence. The Kick Inside: Revolutionary Opposition in the CPGB, 1945-1991 (November Publications, 2012)
  • Pearce, Brian, and Michael Woodhouse. A History of Communism in Britain

Women[edit]

  • Bruley, Sue. Leninism, Stalinism and the Women's Movement in Britain, 1920–1939 (Garland, London and New York, 1986)
  • Graves, Pamela M. Labour Women: Women in British Working-Class Politics 1918–1939 (Cambridge University Press, 1994)
  • Jackson, Angela. British Women and the Spanish Civil War (Routledge 2002)[47]
  • Mitchell, Juliet, and Ann Oakley, (eds). The Rights and Wrongs of Women (Penguin, London, 1976)
  • Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from History: 300 Years of Women's Oppression and the Fight Against It (Pluto Press, London, 1973)

Critiques[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jul/08/jeremy-corbyn-stands-defiant-after-labour-membership-surge
  2. ^ John Kampfner (17 April 2008). "Margaret Thatcher, inspiration to New Labour". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  3. ^ http://internationalsocialist.org.uk/index.php/2013/07/labour-neoliberalism-and-the-future/
  4. ^ Peter Hain. "A smaller state? It's what got us into trouble to begin with". the Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "Ed Miliband: I'm bringing socialism back to Britain", The Telegraph, September 2013.
  6. ^ "Labour will restore 50p top rate of income tax, says Ed Balls", The Guardian, January 2014
  7. ^ "Tony Blair says Labour 'left-wing' warning 'misinterpreted'". BBC News. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  8. ^ "Blair claims 'left-wing' comments about Miliband were 'misinterpreted'". ITV News. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  9. ^ Stanley, Tim (15 May 2015). "Labour didn't lose because it was too Left-wing. But it will lose again if it becomes too Right-wing". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  10. ^ Wintour, Patrick (13 May 2015). "Labour did not lose election because it was too leftwing, says Unite chief". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  11. ^ ToHelm. "Corbyn hails huge mandate as he sets out leftwing agenda". the Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  12. ^ "Labour claim membership surge after Corbyn election". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  13. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn unveils 'unifying' shadow cabinet team". BBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  14. ^ Singh, Amit (8 May 2015). "The most embarrassing part of the election? Seeing people mistake Labour for a left-wing party". The Independent. London. 
  15. ^ "Socialist Party :: Labour conference - no socialist policies". socialistparty.org.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  16. ^ "The Labour Party and socialism". Socialist Worker (Britain). Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  17. ^ Ramsay, Adam (6 March 2015). "Today, Natalie Bennett must deliver the speech of her life". New Statesman. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  18. ^ See: list of political parties in the United Kingdom opposed to austerity.
  19. ^ ""Invite the Greens" petition handed in to the BBC". Green Party of England and Wales. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  20. ^ "Election 2015: Seven-party TV debate plan announced". BBC News. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  21. ^ "Just how left wing is the Green Party?". leftunity.org. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  22. ^ Suzanne Moore. "Forget the Greens – if the UK wants a truly leftwing party, it might have to grow its own". the Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  23. ^ ToMiller (14 April 2015). "The Greens are not a real party of the left – here's why". The Conversation. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  24. ^ Helen Pidd "Labour gains control of Bradford as Respect fail" theguardian.com (The Northerner Blog), 23 May 2014
  25. ^ Helen Pidd "Who is the leader of the Respect party these days?" theguardian.com (The Northerner Blog), 28 October 2013
  26. ^ Ian Silvera. "Far-left TUSC seeks anti-austerity electoral pact with Jeremy Corbyn's Labour". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  27. ^ Hill, Dave. "On relations between Left Unity and TUSC". Left Unity. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  28. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-18351323
  29. ^ https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/jason-mcquinn-the-incredible-lameness-of-left-anarchism
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ "Workers Revolutionary Party". wrp.org.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  32. ^ http://www.newworker.org/nwp1.pdf
  33. ^ "Tories split - strike now! - The Socialist 23 March 2016". socialistparty.org.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  34. ^ "Socialist Appeal - The International Marxist Tendency". Socialist Appeal. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  35. ^ "Socialist Resistance". Socialist Resistance. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  36. ^ "Socialist Standard". worldsocialism.org. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  37. ^ "Socialist Worker (Britain)". Socialist Worker (Britain). Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  38. ^ "Workers' Liberty". Workers' Liberty. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-05. 
  40. ^ "World Socialist Web Site". wsws.org. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  41. ^ [2]
  42. ^ http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/9780719095900/
  43. ^ "Speak for Britain!: A New History of the Labour Party: Martin Pugh: 9780099520788: Amazon.com: Books". amazon.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  44. ^ "A History of the British Labour Party, Third Edition (British Studies): Andrew Thorpe, Jeremy Black: 9780230500112: Amazon.com: Books". amazon.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  45. ^ "Labour Inside the Gate: A History of the British Labour Party between the Wars (International Library of Political Studies)". amazon.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  46. ^ "Cold War, Crisis and Conflict: The History of the Communist Party of Great Britain, 1951-68". questia.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  47. ^ "British Women and the Spanish Civil War". questia.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016.