British re-armament

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HMS Prince of Wales, ordered in 1936, as part of the re-armament programme.

In British history re-armament covers the period between 1934 and 1939, when a substantial programme of re-arming the nation was undertaken. Re-armament was necessary, because defense spending had gone down from £766 million in 1919–20, to £189 million in 1921–22, to £102 million in 1932.[1]

Ten Year Rule[edit]

After World War I, dubbed "The War To End All Wars” and “The Great War”, Britain (along with many other nations) had wound down its military capability. The Ten Year Rule said that a "great war" was not expected in the next ten years with the belief in its impossibility and the folly of preparing for it so that Britain made almost no investment at all in the development of new armament.[2] The British Admiralty, however, requested the suspension of this rule when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931.[2] The policy was officially abandoned on March 23, 1932, by the Cabinet,[3] four months before Adolf Hitler's Nazis became the largest party in the German Reichstag. A statement released cautioned that the decision was not an endorsement of increased armament spending, citing the grave economic situation in Britain and also indicating the British commitment to the arms limitations being promoted by the World Disarmament Conference, an event coinciding with the announcement.[3]

There are sources who describe the British re-armament immediately after the abrogation of the Ten Year Rule as uncertain, hovering between disarmament and re-armament.[4][5] Even after the collapse of the League of Nations in 1935, the re-armament policy has been tempered by appeasement.[4]

Collapse of international disarmament[edit]

Germany was not considered a threat during the 1920s, but the situation changed radically when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and withdrew Germany from the League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament conference.

In October 1933, when the failure of the Disarmament Conference was evident, a Defence Requirements Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence was appointed to examine the worst deficiencies of the armed forces. The group first considered the Far East, but soon looked at dangers nearer home.[6]

Re-armament[edit]

Government-backed "Shadow Factories", generally privately owned but subsidised by the government, were established to increase the capacity of private industry; some were also built by the government. Similarly Agency Factories supplemented the Royal Ordnance Factories.

Royal Air Force[edit]

In the mid-1930s the Royal Air Force's front-line fighters were biplanes, little different from those employed in World War I. The Re-Armament Programme enabled the RAF to acquire modern monoplanes, like the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire, such that sufficient numbers were available to defend the UK in the Battle of Britain in 1940, during the early stages of World War II.

Royal Navy[edit]

Re-armament also led to the Royal Navy acquiring five new battleships of the King George V class, and modernising existing battleships to varying extents. Whereas ships such as HMS Renown and HMS Warspite were completely modernised, others such as HMS Hood, the Nelson class, the Royal Sovereign class, HMS Barham, and HMS Repulse were largely unmodernised - lacking improvements to horizontal armour, large command towers and new machinery.

Equally importantly, aircraft carriers of the Illustrious class and a series of large cruiser classes were ordered and expedited. Britain also accelerated building programs such as the Singapore Naval Base, which was completed within three and a half years instead of five.[3]

British Army[edit]

The British Army was supplied with modern tanks and weapons e.g. howitzers, and the Royal Ordnance Factories were equipped to produce munitions on a large scale.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Kennedy, The Realities behind Diplomacy. Fontana, 1981. p. 231.
  2. ^ a b Roth, Ariel Ilan (2010). Leadership in International Relations: The Balance of Power and the Origins of World War II. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54. ISBN 9781349290369.
  3. ^ a b c Kennedy, Greg; Neilson, Keith (2002). Incidents and International Relations: People, Power, and Personalities. Westport, CT: Praeger. p. 123. ISBN 0275965961.
  4. ^ a b Higham, Robin (2015). A Guide to the Sources of British Military History. London: Routledge. p. 453. ISBN 9781317390213.
  5. ^ Millett, Allan; Murray, Williamson (2010). Military Effectiveness: Volume 2, The Interwar Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780521425896.
  6. ^ Rhodes James, Robert (1970). Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900-1939. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-297-17944-3.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]