British space programme
|First flight||27 June 1969 (Black Arrow)|
The British space programme is the British government's work to develop British space capabilities. The objectives of the current civil programme are to "win sustainable economic growth, secure new scientific knowledge and provide benefits to all citizens."
The first official British space programme began in 1952. In 1959, the first satellite programme was started, with the Ariel series of British satellites, built in the United States and the UK and launched using American rockets. The first British satellite, Ariel 1, was launched in 1962. The British space programme has always emphasized uncrewed space research and commercial initiatives. It has never been government policy to create a British astronaut corps. The British government did not provide funding for the International Space Station until 2011.
During the 1960s and 1970s, a number of efforts were made to develop a British satellite launch capability. A British rocket named Black Arrow did succeed in placing a single British satellite, Prospero, into orbit from a launch site in Australia in 1971. Prospero remains the only British satellite to be put into orbit using a British vehicle.
The British National Space Centre was established in 1985 to co-ordinate British government agencies and other interested bodies in the promotion of British participation in the international market for satellite launches, satellite construction and other space endeavours.
In 2010, many of the various separate sources of space-related funding were combined and allocated to the Centre's replacement, the UK Space Agency. Among other projects, the agency is funding a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane concept called Skylon.
Scientific interest in space travel existed in the United Kingdom prior to World War II, particularly amongst members of the British Interplanetary Society (founded in 1933) whose members included Sir Arthur C. Clarke, author and conceiver of the geostationary telecommunications satellite, who joined the BIS before World War II.
As with the other post-war space-faring nations, the British government's initial interest in space was primarily military. Early programmes reflected this interest. As with other nations, much of the rocketry knowledge was obtained from captured German scientists who were persuaded to work for the British. The British performed the earliest post-war tests of captured V-2 rockets in Operation Backfire, less than six months after the end of the war in Europe. In 1946 a proposal was made by Ralph A. Smith to fund a British crewed suborbital launch in a modified V-2 called Megaroc; this was, however, rejected by the government.
From 1957, British space astronomy used Skylark suborbital sounding rockets, launched from Woomera, Australia, which at first reached heights of 200 km (124 mi). Development of air-to-surface missiles such as Blue Steel contributed to progress towards launches of larger orbit-capable rockets.
British satellite programmes (1959–present)
Early satellite programmes
Military communications satellite programme
Skynet is a purely military programme, operating a set of communications satellites on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), to provide communication services to the three branches of the British Armed Forces and to NATO and allied governments. The first satellite was launched in 1969, becoming the first military satellite in geostationary orbit, and the most recent in 2012. As of 2020, seven Skynet satellites are operating and providing coverage of almost the whole globe.
Skynet is the most expensive British space project, although as a military initiative it is not part of the civil space programme. The MoD is currently specifying the Skynet 6 architecture to replace the Skynet 5 model satellites, which is expected to cost about £6 billion.
Intelligence satellite programmes
Zircon was the codename for a British signals intelligence satellite, intended to be launched in 1988, before being cancelled. During the Cold War, the UK's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) was very reliant on America's National Security Agency (NSA) for communications interception from space. GCHQ therefore decided to produce a British-designed-and-built signals intelligence satellite, to be named Zircon, a code-name derived from zirconium silicate, a diamond substitute.
Zircon's function was to intercept radio and other signals from the USSR, Europe and other areas. The satellite was to be built by Marconi Space and Defence Systems at Portsmouth Airport, in which a new high security building had been built.
It was to be launched on a NASA Space Shuttle under the guise of Skynet IV. Launch on the Shuttle would have entitled a British National to fly as a Payload Specialist and a group of military pilots were presented to the press as candidates for 'Britain's first man in space'.
On 30 November 2018, it was announced that the United Kingdom Global Navigation Satellite System (UKGNSS) will not be affiliated with the European Space Agency's Galileo satellite system after Britain completes its withdrawal from the European Union. Instead, it was initially planned that the UK Space Agency would operate an independent satellite system. However on 25 September 2020, The Daily Telegraph reported that the United Kingdom Global Navigation Satellite System project had been scrapped. The project, deemed unnecessary and too expensive, will be replaced with a new project that will explore alternative ways to provide satellite navigation services.
OneWeb satellite constellation
In July 2020, the United Kingdom government and India's Bharti Enterprises jointly purchased the bankrupt OneWeb satellite company, with the UK paying £400 million (US$500 million) for a 45% stake and a golden share to give it control over future ownership. The UK government is considering whether the low Earth orbit OneWeb satellite constellation could in future provide a form of UKGNSS service in addition to its primary purpose of fast satellite broadband, and it may be incorporated into the military Skynet 6 communications architecture. OneWeb satellites are manufactured by a joint venture including Airbus Defence and Space who operate Skynet.
OneWeb commenced launches of the OneWeb satellite constellation, a network of more than 650 low Earth orbit satellites, in February 2019, and by March 2020, had launched 74 of the planned 648 satellites in the initial constellation. OneWeb's goal has been to provide internet services to "everyone, everywhere", delivering internet connections to rural and remote places as well as to a range of markets. The post-bankruptcy company leadership launched an additional 36 OneWeb satellites on 18 December 2020. OneWeb satellites are listed in the UK Registry of Outer Space Objects.
British space vehicles (1950–1985)
Beginning in 1950, the UK developed and launched several space rockets, as well as developing space planes. These included the Black Knight and Blue Streak rockets. During this period, the launcher programmes were administered in succession by the Ministry of Supply, the Ministry of Aviation, the Ministry of Technology and the Department of Trade and Industry. Rockets were tested on the Isle of Wight, RAF Spadeadam, and Woomera in South Australia.
A major satellite launch vehicle was proposed in 1957 based on Blue Streak and Black Knight technology. This was named Black Prince, but the project was cancelled in 1960 due to lack of funding. Blue Streak rockets continued to be launched as the first stage of the European Europa carrier rocket until Europa's cancellation in 1972. The smaller Black Arrow launcher was developed from Black Knight and was first launched in 1969 from Woomera. The program was soon cancelled. In 1971, the last Black Arrow (R3) launched Prospero X-3, becoming the first (and last) satellite to be placed in orbit by a British launch vehicle.
By 1972, British government funding of both Blue Streak (missile) and Black Arrow had ceased, and no further government-backed British space rockets were developed. Other space agencies, notably NASA, were used for subsequent launches of British satellites. Communication with the Prospero X-3 was terminated in 1996.
Falstaff, a British hypersonic test rocket, was launched from Woomera between 1969 and 1979.
In 1960 the British Space Development Company, a consortium of thirteen large industrial companies, was set up by Robert Renwick, 1st Baron Renwick to plan the world's first commercial communication satellite company, Renwick becoming the Executive Director. With Blue Streak, Britain had the technology to make it possible, but the idea was rejected by the British government on the grounds that such a system could not be envisaged in the next 20 years (1961–81). The United States would eventually set up COMSAT in 1963, resulting in Intelsat, a large fleet of commercial satellites. The first of Intelsat's fleet, Intelsat I, was launched in April 1965.
The official national space programme was revived in 1982 when the British government funded the HOTOL project, an ambitious attempt at a re-usable space plane using air-breathing rocket engines designed by Alan Bond. Work was begun by British Aerospace. However, having classified the engine design as 'top secret' the government then ended funding for the project, terminating it.
National space programme (1985–2010)
The BNSC was the third largest financial contributor to the General Budget of the European Space Agency, contributing 17.4%, to its Science Programme and to its robotic exploration initiative the Aurora programme.
The UK decided not to contribute funds for the International Space Station, on the basis that it did not represent value for money. The British government did not take part in any crewed space endeavours during this period.
The United Kingdom continued to contribute scientific elements to satellite launches and space projects. The British probe Beagle 2, sent as part of the ESA's Mars Express to study the planet Mars, was lost when it failed to respond but has recently been found by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and it has been concluded while it did land successfully, one of the solar arrays failed to deploy blocking communication antenna.
United Kingdom Space Agency (2010 – present)
On 1 April 2010, the government established the UK Space Agency, an agency responsible for the British space programme. It replaced the British National Space Centre and now has responsibility for government policy and key budgets for space, as well as representing the UK in all negotiations on space matters.
As of 2015, the UK Space Agency provides 9.9% of the European Space Agency budget.
Reaction Engines Skylon
The British government partnered with the ESA in 2010 to promote a single-stage to orbit spaceplane concept called Skylon. This design was developed by Reaction Engines Limited, a company founded by Alan Bond after HOTOL was cancelled. The Skylon spaceplane has been positively received by the British government, and the British Interplanetary Society. Successful tests of the engine precooler and "SABRE" engine design were carried out in 2012, although full funding for development of the spacecraft itself had not been confirmed.
2011 budget boost and reforms
The British government proposed reform to the 1986 Outer Space Act in several areas, including the liabilities that cover space operations, in order to enable British companies' space endeavours to better compete with international competitors. There was also a proposal of a £10 million boost in capital investment, to be matched by industry.
In July 2014, the government announced that it would build a British commercial spaceport. It planned to select a site, build the facilities, and have the spaceport in operation by 2018. Six sites were shortlisted, but the competition was ended in May 2016 with no selection made. However, in July 2018 UKSA announced that the British government would back the development of a spaceport at A' Mhòine, in Sutherland, Scotland. Launch operations at Sutherland spaceport will be developed by Lockheed Martin with financial support from the British government and Highlands and Islands Enterprise, originally with the aim of commencing operations in 2020, later delayed to 2022.
As of 2020, UKSA is supporting the development of three space launch sites in the UK. The proposed sites for spaceports, and the companies associated with them, are as follows:
Space Industry Act 2018
In June 2017, the government introduced a bill leading to the Space Industry Act 2018 which created a regulatory framework for the expansion of commercial space activities. This covered the development of British spaceports, for both orbital and sub-orbital activities, and launches and other activities overseas by UK entities.
Commercial and private space activities
The first Briton in space, cosmonaut-researcher Helen Sharman, was funded by a private consortium without British government assistance whilst the government of the Soviet Union made up for the shortfall in the private funding. Interest in space continues in the UK's private sector, including satellite design and manufacture, developing designs for space planes and catering to the new market in space tourism.
Project Juno was a privately funded campaign, which selected Helen Sharman to be the first Briton in space. A private consortium was formed to raise money to pay the USSR for a seat on a Soyuz mission to the Mir space station. The USSR had recently flown Toyohiro Akiyama, a Japanese journalist, by a similar arrangement.
A call for applicants was publicised in the UK resulting in the selection of four astronauts: Helen Sharman, Major Timothy Mace, Clive Smith and Surgeon Lieutenant Commander Gordon Brooks. Sharman was eventually chosen for the first of what was hoped to be a number of flights with Major Timothy Mace as her backup. The cost of the flight was to be funded by various innovative schemes, including sponsoring by private British companies and a lottery system. Corporate sponsors included British Aerospace, Memorex, and Interflora, and television rights were sold to ITV.
Ultimately the Juno consortium failed to raise the entire sum and the USSR considered canceling the mission. It is believed that Mikhail Gorbachev directed the mission to proceed at Soviet cost.
Surrey Satellite Technology
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) is a large spin-off company of the University of Surrey, now fully owned by Airbus Defence & Space, that builds and operates small satellites. SSTL works with the UK Space Agency and takes on a number of tasks for the UKSA that would be done in-house by a traditional large government space agency.
Virgin Galactic, a US company within the British-based Virgin Group owned by Sir Richard Branson, is taking reservations for suborbital space flights from the general public. Its operations will use SpaceShipTwo space planes designed by Scaled Composites, which has previously developed the Ansari X-Prize winning SpaceShipOne.
British contribution to other space programmes
Communication and tracking of rockets and satellites in orbit is achieved using stations such as Jodrell Bank. During the Space Race, Jodrell Bank and other stations were used to track several satellites and probes including Sputnik and Pioneer 5.
As well as providing tracking facilities for other nations, scientists from the United Kingdom have participated in other nation's space programmes, notably contributing to the development of NASA's early space programmes, and co-operation with Australian launches.
The Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, invented carbon fibre composite material. The Saunders-Roe SR.53 Rocket/jet plane in 1957 used the newly invented silver peroxide catalyst rocket engine.
Because the British government has never developed a manned spaceflight programme and initially did not contribute funding to the manned space flight part of ESA's activities, the first six British astronauts launched with either the American or Soviet/Russian space programmes. Despite this, on 9 October 2008, British Science and Innovation Minister Lord Drayson spoke favourably of the idea of a British astronaut. Army Air Corps test pilot Tim Peake became a member of the European Astronaut Corps in 2009, and then in 2015 the first astronaut funded by the British government when he reached the International Space Station aboard a Soyuz rocket launched from Baikonur in Kazakhstan.
|Name||Birthplace||Missions||First launch date||Nationality/ies|
|Helen Sharman||Grenoside, Sheffield, South Yorkshire||Soyuz TM-12/11||18 May 1991|
|First British astronaut (and in particular, the first British cosmonaut) as well as the first woman to visit the Mir space station. Funded partially by private British citizens as Project Juno and by the Soviet Union.|
|Michael Foale||Louth, Lincolnshire||STS-45 (Atlantis)
|24 March 1992||/|
|NASA astronaut. Born and grew up in the UK with dual UK/US citizenship, his mother being American. First British spacewalker. First Briton to both Mir and International Space Station.|
|Mark Shuttleworth||Welkom, Orange Free State, South Africa||Soyuz TM-34/33||27 April 2002||/|
|Self-funded space tourist to the International Space Station. Born a South African, he also holds British citizenship.|
|Piers Sellers||Crowborough, Sussex||STS-112 (Atlantis)
|7 October 2002||/|
|NASA astronaut. Born and grew up in the UK, US citizen after 1991.|
|Nicholas Patrick||Saltburn-by-the-Sea, North Yorkshire||STS-116 (Discovery)
|9 December 2006||/|
|NASA astronaut. Born and grew up in the UK, US citizen since 1994.|
|Richard Garriott||Cambridge, Cambridgeshire||Soyuz TMA-13/12||12 October 2008||/|
|Self-funded space tourist to the International Space Station. Born in the UK to American parents (son of Skylab astronaut Owen Garriott).|
|Timothy Peake||Chichester, West Sussex||Soyuz TMA-19M||15 December 2015|
|ESA astronaut. First British government-funded Briton in space and aboard the International Space Station.|
U.S. Air Force Colonel Gregory H. Johnson served as pilot on two Endeavour missions (STS-123 and STS-134). Although born in the UK while his father was stationed at a US Air Force base, he has never been a British citizen and is not otherwise associated with the UK. He is sometimes incorrectly listed as a British astronaut.[note 1]
Army Lieutenants-Colonel Anthony Boyle (born in Kidderminster) and Richard Farrimond (born in Birkenhead, Cheshire), MoD employee Christopher Holmes (born in London), Royal Navy Commander Peter Longhurst (born in Staines, Middlesex) and RAF Squadron Leader Nigel Wood (born in York) were selected in February 1984 as payload specialists for the Skynet 4 programme, intended for launch using the Space Shuttle. Boyle resigned from the programme in July 1984 due to Army commitments. Prior to the cancellation of the missions after the Challenger disaster, Wood was due to fly aboard Shuttle mission STS-61-H in 1986 (with Farrimond serving as his back-up) and Longhurst was due to fly aboard Shuttle mission STS-71-C in 1987 (with Holmes serving as back-up). All resigned in 1986, having not flown.
Army Air Corps Major Timothy Mace (born in Catterick, Yorkshire) served as back-up to Helen Sharman for the Soyuz TM-12 / Project Juno mission in 1991. He resigned in 1991, having not flown. Clive Smith and Royal Navy Surgeon Lieutenant Commander Gordon Brooks also served for a year as back-up astronauts for the Juno flight, learning Russian and preparing the scientific programme. Sharman, Mace and Brooks were subsequently put forward by the BNSC for the European Space Corps.
Singer/songwriter and actress Sarah Brightman announced on 10 October 2012 her intention to purchase a Soyuz seat to the International Space Station as a self-funded space tourist in partnership with Space Adventures. She underwent cosmonaut training with the aim of flying on Soyuz TMA-18M, but stated on 13 May 2015 that she was withdrawing "for family reasons". It is not known whether she intends to fly at a later date.
On 1 July 2021 Virgin Galactic announced that Richard Branson (its founder) and Colin Bennet (the Lead Operations Engineer) would fly as part of the crew to space on VSS Unity. Subject to the definition of space (as VSS Unity reaches above 80km, the US government definition of space, but does not typically reach the Karman line) this would make them the UK's 8th and 9th astronauts.
Notable fictional depictions of British spacecraft or Britons in space include:
- "How We Went to Mars" by Sir Arthur C. Clarke (Amateur Science Fiction Stories March 1938).
- Dan Dare, Pilot of the Future (comics, 1950–1967, 1980s).
- Journey into Space (radio, 1953–1955).
- The Quatermass Experiment (television, 1953).
- Blast Off at Woomera by Hugh Walters (1957).
- Doctor Who (television) – "The Ambassadors of Death" (1970), "The Christmas Invasion" (2005), "The Waters of Mars" (2009).
- The Goodies - "Invasion of the Moon Creatures" (television, 1973).
- Moonbase 3 (television, 1973).
- Come Back Mrs. Noah (television, 1977).
- Moonraker (1979).
- Lifeforce (1985).
- Star Cops (television, 1987).
- Red Dwarf (television, 1988–1999, 2009).
- A Grand Day Out with Wallace and Gromit (short stop-motion film, 1989)
- Ministry of Space (comics, 2001–2004).
- Space Cadets (TV series) (television, 2005).
- Hyperdrive (TV series) (television, 2006–2007).
- "Capsule" Sci Fi Movie (2015).
- "Peppa Pig"— "Grampy Rabbit in Space" Cartoon (2012).
- John Hodge (engineer) – British-born aerospace engineer who worked for NASA
- National Space Centre – visitor centre in Leicester
- United Kingdom Space Command – military space command established in 2021
- The BBC reference does not mention his father's US Air Force connection, and includes the astronaut under 'Britons' in space.
- "What we do". BIS. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "UK vision to stay at the forefront of space sector published". BNSC. Archived from the original on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Sample, Ian (14 February 2008). "UK carves out its place in space, but hopes for Britons on moon dashed". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Lunan, Duncan (November 2001). "Promoting UK involvement in the ISS: a space station lifeboat?". Space Policy. 17 (4): 249–255. Bibcode:2001SpPol..17..249L. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(01)00039-X.
- "Megaroc". The British Interplanetary Society. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Pounds, Ken (2010). "The Royral Society's Formative Role in UK Space Research". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 64: –65–S76. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2010.0039. ISSN 0035-9149. JSTOR 20753923.
- "Prospero May Be Last U.K. Satellite". Calgary Herald. Calgary, Alberta. The London Times. 3 November 1971. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com.
- Erwin, Sandra (6 November 2018). "UK MoD still undecided on how to procure satellite communications". SpaceNews. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Chuter, Andrew (22 May 2020). "UK nears final stage of Skynet competition". c4isrnet.com. Sightline Media. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
- "Minister quits over 'naive' Brexit deal". BBC News. 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Diver, Tony (25 September 2020). "Britain scraps satellite programme designed to replace Galileo after Brexit". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
- "U.K. takes £400m stake in satellite firm OneWeb". BBC News. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
- Henry, Caleb (19 July 2020). "British military finalizes Skynet-6A contract with Airbus". SpaceNews. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Hollinger, Peggy (2 July 2020). "UK gamble on OneWeb signals more interventionist space policy". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
"The real end game here is SkyNet," said one industry executive, referring to the military grade constellation that for 17 years has been operated by Airbus, and whose contract is soon coming to an end.
- Hanneke, Weitering (27 February 2019). "Soyuz Rocket Will Launch the 1st OneWeb Satellites Today". Space.com. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "OneWeb emerges from Chapter 11 with new CEO". BBC News. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
- UK Registry of Outer Space Objects (PDF) (Report). UK Space Agency. October 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- "Intelsat's Satellite Communication Highlights from the 60's | Intelsat S.A." web.archive.org. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
- "BNSC:How we work". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "BNSC and ESA". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Space station 'not worth' joining". BBC News. BBC. 18 February 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "ESA budget 2015". ESA. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- Messier, Doug (22 September 2010). "UKSA Reviews Skylon and SABRE". Parabolic Arc.
- "Reaction Engines Limited FAQ". Archived from the original on 2 June 2015.
- "Skylon System Requirements Review". Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Robert Parkinson (22 February 2011). "SSTO spaceplane is coming to Great Britain". The Global Herald. Space:The Development of Single Stage Flight. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
Amos, Jonathan (23 March 2011). "UK space given boost from Budget". BBC. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
reforms are designed to lower the sector's insurance costs and to make it easier for future space tourism companies to operate out of the UK. The government says it has recognised the success the British space sector has achieved in recent years and wants to offer it further support to maintain and grow its global market position.
- McKie, Robin (13 July 2014). "Britain plans to build commercial spaceport". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- McArdle, Helen (20 May 2016). "UK spaceport competition axed in favour of licensing model". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- "UK spaceport proposed for Sutherland site". BBC News. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Lift-off for Shetland spaceport". gov.uk. 22 October 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Foust, Jeff (7 February 2021). "Lockheed Martin selects ABL Space Systems for UK launch". SpaceNews. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Pultarova, Tereza. "Space Hub Sutherland". Space.com.
- Whitehouse, Richard; Matthews, Chris (18 September 2019). "Cornwall Spaceport latest – Council cabinet agrees £12million funding". Cornwall Live. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- Hutton, Georgina (2 February 2018). "The Space Industry Bill 2017-2019". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Puschman, Nicholas; et al. (August 2020). "One giant (regulatory) leap for UK spaceflight: the launch of the UK Government's consultation on the supporting regulations to the Space Industry Act 2018". Bird & Bird. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- Eugene Kranz, Failure is not an Option
- Minister wants astronaut 'icon'
- "Europe unveils British astronaut". BBC News. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Tim Peake begins stay on international space station". BBC. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "UK astronaut Tim Peake returns to Earth". BBC. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- Seedhouse, Erik (11 September 2017). TIM PEAKE and BRITAIN'S ROAD TO SPACE. Springer. pp. vi. ISBN 978-3-319-57907-8.
- "Tim Peake launch: The seven Britons to go to space". BBC. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "For the next generation of astronauts to shoot for the moon, a STEM education is vital". City A.M. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Seedhouse, Erik (11 September 2017). Tim Peake and Britain's Road to Space. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-57907-8.
- Burgess, Colin (2019). Shattered Dreams: The Lost and Canceled Space Missions. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-1-4962-1420-1.
- "Johnson, Gregory H". www.astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Burgess, Colin (1 May 2019). Shattered Dreams: The Lost and Canceled Space Missions. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-1-4962-1420-1.
- "Virgin Galactic Announces First Fully Crewed Spaceflight". Virgin Galactic. Virgin Galactic. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- UK Space Agency
- History of British rocketry[Usurped!]
- Rocketeers.co.uk – UK space news blog
- Information on Blue Streak[Usurped!]
- History of HOTOL
- Virgin Galactic
- UK made 'fundamental space mistake'
- BBC Report on SST
- BBC, 24 March 2011, article on recent UK government announcement contrasted with recent French government funding increases.
- Other resources
- Hill, C.N., A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950–1971
- Millard, Douglas, An Overview of United Kingdom Space Activity 1957–1987, ESA Publications.
- Erik Seedhouse: Tim Peake and Britains's road to space. Springer, Cham 2017, ISBN 978-3-319-57906-1.